Selangor Sultanate

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Sultan of Selangor
سلطان سلاڠور
Provincial/State
Royal Standard of the Sultan of Selangor.svg
Incumbent
Sultan Sharafuddin Idris Shah al-Haj
since 22 November 2001
coronation 8 March 2003
Details
StyleHis Royal Highness
Heir apparentTengku Amir Shah
First monarchSultan Sallehuddin Shah
Formation1745 (273 years ago)
ResidenceIstana Alam Shah, Klang
AppointerHereditary

Sultan of Selangor is the title of the constitutional ruler of Selangor, Malaysia. They are the head of state and head of the Islamic religion in Selangor.[1] The current monarch, Sultan Sharafuddin Idris Shah ascended the throne on the death of his father, on 22 November 2001.

History[edit]

1766–1875: Beginnings of the Selangor Sultanate[edit]

The Sultans of Selangor are descended from a Bugis dynasty that claim descent from the rulers of Luwu in the southern part of Celebes (today known as Sulawesi). Nobles from this bloodline were involved in the dispute over the Johor-Riau Sultanate in the early 18th century, eventually placing their full support in the cause of Sultan Abdul Jalil of the Bendahara dynasty against the claimant to the Malaccan lineage, Raja Kechil. For this reason, the Bendahara rulers of Johor-Riau established close relations with the Bugis nobles, providing them with titles and control over many areas within the empire, including Selangor. Daeng Chelak's prince, Raja Lumu arrived in Selangor and founded a new government at Kuala Selangor in 1766.[2] He was installed by the Sultan of Perak as Sultan Salehuddin Shah and became the first Sultan of Selangor.[3][4][5]

After the death of Sultan Salehuddin Shah on 1778, he was succeeded by his son, Raja Ibrahim Marhum Saleh, who then uses the title Sultan Ibrahim Shah.[6] In 1784, he was defeated in the attack on Kuala Selangor by the Dutch, forcing him to leave Kota Malawati. He subsequently managed to occupied it back in less than a year with the help of Pahang Sultanate.[7] Sultan Ibrahim Shah allies himself with Perak Sultanate afterwards but the alliance fall apart in a debt dispute.[6]

Following his death on 18 October 1826, he was succeeded by his son, Raja Muhammad who takes the title Sultan Muhammad Shah.[8] He was unable to control his chiefs during his reign which resulted in the separation of Selangor into five individual territories; Bernam, Kuala Selangor, Kelang, Langat and Lukut.[9] His reign also saw the opening of tin mines in Ampang District, which brought business to the people and the state.[6]

After 31 years of reign, Sultan Muhammad passes away in the late 1857 without appointing an heir. In result, there is a huge dispute regarding who will succeed him as the Sultan of Selangor. His nephew, Raja Abdul Samad Raja Abdullah was finally chosen to be the next Sultan by taking the title Sultan Abdul Samad. He gives the power of authority of Klang to Raja Abdullah and Langat to Tengku Kudin, both of whom are his son-in-law, in 1866 and 1868 respectively.[6]

1875–1957: Colonial Era[edit]

During his reign, the Klang War breaks out between Raja Abdullah and the previous ruler of Klang, Raja Mahdi. The involvement of British Empire in the war marks as their first involvement in Selangor's politics. The first British resident in Selangor, James Guthrie Davidson was also appointed during his reign.[10] Sultan Abdul Samad passes away at the age of 93 on February 1898 and was buried at Makam Sultan Abdul Samad in Jugra.[11]

Mahkota Puri Palace

Raja Muda Sulaiman ibni Almarhum Raja Muda Musa, the grandson of Sultan Abdul Samad rose to the throne, taking the title Sultan Alaeddin Sulaiman Shah on 1898 as the fifth Sultan of Selangor. His reign saw the increase in construction of houses, shops, roads and railways especially in Kuala Lumpur and Klang.[6] He sees over the construction of Mahkota Puri Palace on 1905 and proceeds to live there for 35 years until his death.[12] His first son, Tengku Musa Eddin was named the heir apparent in 1920 but he was dismissed in 1934 following the allegation from the then British resident, Theodore Samuel Adams as a gambler.[13] Sultan Sulaiman pleaded the case to Secretary of State for the British Colonies but to no avail. Tengku Alam Shah, his third son was named the heir apparent in 1936.[14]

Sultan Sulaiman was succeeded by Tengku Alam Shah in 1938, using the title Sultan Hisamuddin Alam Shah.[6] In January 1942, following the Japanese occupation of Malaya, he was told to surrender his throne to his elder half-brother, Tengku Musa Eddin. The Japanese removed him and proclaimed Tengku Musa Eddin as the new Sultan of Selangor, taking the title Sultan Musa Ghiatuddin Riayat Shah. Sultan Hisamuddin refused Japanese order for him to work with them and stop receiving the allowance awarded to him. Sultan Musa Ghiatuddin Riayat Shah was installed as the seventh Sultan of Selangor by the then Governor of Selangor, Lieutenant-General Shotaro Katayama on November 1943. He only ruled for three years, during the Japanese occupation. When the British returned after the war, he was dethroned and exiled to Cocos Keeling Islands.[13][15]

Sultan Hisamuddin took his reign again in September 1945. In the same year, he signed the Malayan Union treaty albeit under protest, along with the rest of the rulers of Malaya at that time.[16] He later rejected the establishment of Malayan Union and openly support the Malay nationalist who opposed to the plan.[14] In 1950, he demolishes Mahkota Puri Palace and build Istana Alam Shah, which is still used as the official resident of the Sultan of Selangor to this day.[12]

1957–present: After Independence[edit]

Sultan Salahuddin Abdul Aziz Shah Mosque, also known as the blue mosque, the second largest mosque in South East Asia

Sultan Hisamuddin continues to rule Selangor following the independence of Federation of Malaya. He was appointed as the Deputy of Yang di-Pertuan Agong on 3 August 1957.[17] He became the second Yang di-Pertuan Agong of Malaya after the death of Tuanku Abdul Rahman in 1960.[13]

Tengku Abdul Aziz, the eldest son of Sultan Hisamuddin takes the throne following his father's death. He uses the title Sultan Salahuddin Abdul Aziz Shah.[18] On 1974, he signed the 1974 Federal Territory of Kuala Lumpur Agreement which then establishes the Federal Territory in Malaysia.[19] Later, he commissioned the building of Kota Darul Ehsan arch to commemorate this event and as a border mark between Kuala Lumpur and Selangor.[20] After Kuala Lumpur was made Federal Territory, he proclaimed Shah Alam as the new capital of Selangor. The placed is named after his father, Sultan Hisamuddin Alam Shah.[21] His most notable legacy is the Sultan Salahuddin Abdul Aziz Mosque, the largest mosque in Malaysia.[22] Sultan Salahuddin was installed as the eleventh Yang di-Pertuan Agong on 1999 for two years until his death on 2001.[23]

His son, Tengku Idris Shah ascended the throne in 2001, proclaiming the title Sultan Sharafuddin Idris Shah.[24]

Constitutional role[edit]

Stamps depicting the face of the Sultan of Selangor throughout the years

In the Laws of the Constitution of Selangor 1959, the Sultan (otherwise referred to as His Highness) is the Head of state and Head of Islam Religion of the state of Selangor.[25] Oath of allegiance are made to the Sultan. Duli Yang Maha Mulia is the state anthem, and the Sultan appears on postage stamps. He has the power of executive authority of the state.[26] His Highness has the responsibility to safeguard the special position of the Malays and the legitimate interest of other communities.[27]

Whenever necessary, the Sultan is responsible for appointing the State Executive Council, of which he has to appoint a Menteri Besar, whom acts as the head of government, and 4 to 10 members of the Legislative Assembly.[28] The Menteri Besar takes office by citing an oath in front of the Sultan in a ceremony.[29] The Sultan also holds a weekly audience with the Menteri Besar before State Council meetings for him to inform the agenda that will be discussed in the meetings.[30]

Royal prerogative[edit]

Some of the government's executive authority is theoretically and nominally vested in the Sovereign and is known as the royal prerogative. His Highness shall act in accordance with the advice of state executive council but he may act in his discretion in the performance of the following: appointment of Menteri Besar, the withholding of consent to request the dissolution of the Legislative Assembly, making a request for a meeting of the Conference of Rulers (concern solely about the privileges, position, honours and dignities of Their Highnesses or religious acts, observance or ceremonies), any function as the head of the Islam religion or relating to the custom of the Malays, appointment of an heir (or heirs), consort, regent or the Council of Regency, the appointment of persons to Malay customary ranks, titles, honours, dignities, and the designations of the functions appertaining thereto, and the regulation of royal courts and palaces.[31] The Sultan also can grant a pardon to any offense committed in the state.[32]

Only the Sultan has the power to confer titles and dignities, and institute the Orders and Badges of Honour and Dignity to whom he sees fit after consulting the Selangor Council of Royal Court. He also has the power to degrade any person of any title and order that has been conferred by him or his precedence.[33][34]

Conference of Rulers[edit]

The Sultan of Selangor has a permanent seat in the conference of rulers as he is one of the nine Malay sultans. During the meeting, none of the Malay Rulers take precedence above another and all are considered equal. The member of the conference has the power to elect one of the Malay Rulers as the Yang di-Pertuan Agong (the head of state of Malaysia) and Deputy of Yang di-Pertuan Agong every five years. Sultan of Selangor is eligible to stand as a candidate for such occasions.[35] Sultan Hisamuddin Alam Shah and Sultan Salahuddin Abdul Aziz Shah were Malaysia's second and eleventh Yang di-Pertuan Agong respectively.[36][37]

Succession[edit]

The succession order of Selangor sultanate is determined by agnatic primogeniture. No female may become ruler, and female line descendants are generally excluded from succession. According to Laws of the Constitution of Selangor 1959 (in Malay language: Undang-undang Tubuh Negeri Selangor 1959), the Sultan of Selangor must be Malay, royal in blood, descendant of the Selangor sultanate, male and a Muslim. The crown prince is also subjected to the same rule. The constitution states that the Sultan must come from the line of Sultan Hisamuddin Alam Shah, only if there are no longer eligible descendant of him, then the Sultan should be chosen from the descendant of Sultan Alauddin Sulaiman Shah and so on.[34]

The order of the descendants, in descending order of degree of kinship : Sultan Hisamuddin Alam Shah, Sultan Alauddin Sulaiman Shah, Sultan Abdul Samad, Sultan Ibrahim Shah, Sultan Salehuddin.

Current order of succession[edit]

The current order of succession is as follow:

  • Simple silver crown.svg Sultan Salahuddin Abdul Aziz Shah (1926–2001)
    • Simple gold crown.svg Sultan Sharafuddin Idris Shah (born 1945)
    • (2) Tengku Sulaiman Shah, Tengku Laksamana (born 1950)
      • (3) Tengku Shakirin Shah (born 1980)
        • (4) Tengku Mahmud al-Amin Ismail Mahmud Shakirin Ahmad Shah (born 2015)
        • (5) Tengku Limmarl Ismail Shakirin al-Amin Mahmud Ahmad Shah (born 2016)
      • (6) Tengku Salehuddin Shah, Tengku Indera Bijaya Diraja (born 1982)
      • (7) Tengku Shahrain Shah (born 1985)
      • (8) Tengku Sharifuddin Shah (born 1987)
    • (9) Tengku Abdul Samad Shah, Tengku Panglima Besar (born 1953)
      • (10) Tengku Musahiddin Shah, Tengku Seri Perkasa Diraja (born 1984)
    • (11) Tengku Ahmad Shah, Tengku Indira Setia (born 1955)
      • (12) Tengku Alam Shah Ammiruddin (born 1982)

Simple silver crown.svg - previous Sultan Simple gold crown.svg - current Sultan

List of Sultans of Selangor[edit]

Portrait Regnal name Reign over
Selangor
Full name (at birth) Consort[39]
Sultan Salehuddin Shah
(c. 1705 – 1778)
1745 1778 Raja Lumu bin Daeng Chelak
  • Engku Puan binti Sultan Alauddin Riayat Shah
Sultan Ibrahim Shah
(c. 1736 – 27 October 1826)
1778 1826 Raja Ibrahim Marhum Saleh bin Raja Lumu
  • Tengku Chik (Chu Che or Ku Chik)
  • Raja Andak binti Daeng Kamboja
  • Cik Puan Besar Cik Long Halijah binti Dato' Husain
  • Encik Salama
  • Encik Shaima
  • Tun Salama binti Tun Abdul Majid
  • Tengku Ampuan Raja Tengah binti Raja Haji
Sultan Muhammad Shah
(1772 – 6 January 1857)
27 October 1826 6 January 1857 Raja Muhammad bin Sultan Ibrahim Shah
  • Tengku Ampuan Raja Basik binti Arung Temujung
  • Raja Asiah binti Sultan Ali Alauddin Shah
KITLV - 7248 - Lambert & Co., G.R. - Singapore - Sir Abdul Samad, Sultan of Selangor - circa 1890.tif Sultan Sir Abdul Samad
(1804 – 6 February 1898)
6 January 1857 6 February 1898 Raja Abdul Samad bin Raja Abdullah
  • Che Puan Selangor
  • Tengku Ampuan Raja Atfah Binti Al-Marhum Sultan Muhammad Shah
  • Che Fatimah binti Haji Abdul Ghani
Sultan Sir Alaeddin Sulaiman Shah
(11 September 1863 - 31 March 1938)
17 February 1898 31 March 1938 Raja Sulaiman bin Raja Muda Musa
  • Tengku Ampuan Paduka Sri Negara Tengku Maharam binti Al-Marhum Tunku Ziauddin
  • Cik Puan Hasnah binti Pilong (née Cik Amina binti Pilong)
  • Hajjah Sofia binti Haji Abdul Ghani
  • Cik Rogayah binti Muhammad Amin
  • Cik Chik binti Abdullah
  • Tengku Ampuan Raja Zubaida binti al-Marhum Sultan Abdul Jalil Karamatullah Nasiruddin Mukhataram Shah
  • Cik Anjung Negara Cik Maimunah binti Abdullah
  • Cik Puri Negara Cik Bidayah binti Ahmad
  • Tengku Ampuan Paduka Sri Negara Raja Fatima binti al-Marhum Sultan Sir Idris Murshidul Azzam Shah
  • Raja Bulat binti Raja Ahmad
  • Cik Johari binti Abdullah
Almarhum Sultan Hisamuddin Alam Shah.jpg Sultan Sir Hisamuddin Alam Shah al-Haj
(13 May 1898 – 1 September 1960)
  • 4 April 1939
  • 14 September 1945
  • 15 January 1942
  • 1 September 1960
Tengku Alam Shah ibni Sultan Sulaiman Shah
Sultan Musa Ghiatuddin.jpg Sultan Musa Ghiatuddin Riayat Shah
(9 December 1893 – 8 November 1955)
15 January 1942 14 September 1945 Tengku Musa Eddin ibni Sultan Sulaiman Shah
Sultan Salahuddin Abdul Aziz Shah al-Haj
(8 March 1926 – 21 November 2001)
3 September 1960 21 November 2001 Tengku Abdul Aziz Shah ibni Tengku Alam Shah
Sultan Sharafuddin Idris Shah al-Haj
(11 December 1945 – present)
22 November 2001 Present Tengku Idris Shah ibni Tengku Abdul Aziz Shah

Official residences[edit]

The palace of the Sultan of Selangor in Klang

The sovereign's official residence in Klang is Istana Alam Shah. It is the palace where the Sultan carried out his official duties and the site that held formal events involving him such as the coronation ceremony.[40] Another official residence is Istana Darul Ehsan, located in Putrajaya. It was built as a sign of appreciation to Sultan of Selangor from the Federal government for ceding Putrajaya to become a federal territory and become the federal administrative centre of Malaysia.[41] The sovereign's official residence in Shah Alam is Istana Bukit Kayangan. Istana Mestika is the official residence of the Raja Muda of Selangor.

Historically, Kota Melawati in Kuala Selangor had been the residence of the three earliest Sultan since Selangor Sultanate started there.[42] Today, the fort had become a tourist attraction besides housing one of the royal mausoleums and the location of the new moon sighting.[43] Sultan Abdul Samad lived at Istana Jugra in Jugra, Kuala Langat since his administration center was located there.[44] It was built in 1876 and was where Sultan Alauddin Sulaiman Shah's coronation took place.[45] Mahkota Puri Palace (now the site of Istana Alam Shah) was built by the British in 1889 for Sultan Alauddin Sulaiman Shah so his administration center is closed to the British colonial administration center in Kuala Lumpur, thus become his official residence.[46]

Styles and titles[edit]

The title used by the ruling prince is Duli Yang Maha Mulia Sultan dan Yang di-Pertuan Selangor Darul Ehsan Serta Segala Daerah Takluknya or Sultan and Ruler of the State of Selangor Darul Ehsan and all its dependencies, with the style of His Royal Highness.

For example, the present sovereign full style and title is "Duli Yang Maha Mulia Sultan Sharafuddin Idris Shah Alhaj ibni Almarhum Sultan Salahuddin Abdul Aziz Shah Alhaj, Sultan dan Yang di-Pertuan Selangor Darul Ehsan Serta Segala Daerah Takluknya" or in English; "His Royal Highness Sultan Sharafuddin Idris Shah Al-Haj ibni Almarhum Sultan Salahuddin Abdul Aziz Shah Al-Haj, The Sultan and Sovereign Ruler of Selangor Abode of Sincerity and its Sovereign Dependencies".[47]

The heir apparent will use the title Duli Yang Teramat Mulia Raja Muda Selangor Darul Ehsan with the styled of His Highness.[48]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "The monarchy system". thestar.com.my. 26 April 2007. Retrieved 23 April 2018.
  2. ^ Ooi Keat Gin (2015). Warisan Wilayah Utara Semenanjung Malaysia. Penerbit USM. ISBN 983-861-695-8.
  3. ^ Gullick, J.M. (1998). A history of Selangor : (1766-1939) (Rev. ed.). [Singapore]: MBRAS. ISBN 9679948102.
  4. ^ Suratman, Zakiah Hanum ; diedit oleh Norman (2004). Asal-usul negeri-negeri di Malaysia (2nd. ed.). Singapore: Times Editions-Marshall Cavendish. ISBN 9812326081.
  5. ^ Chee, Alice (2011). The encyclopedia of Malaysia. Singapore [etc.]: Archipelago Press. ISBN 9789813018549.
  6. ^ a b c d e f "Sejarah Kesultanan Selangor". selangor.gov.my. Retrieved 10 April 2018.
  7. ^ "Kota Kuala Selangor". sabrizain.org. Retrieved 10 April 2018.
  8. ^ Megat Zaharuddin, M.I. (2002). "Database of Malay Nobility - Genealogy Data". Geocities. Archived from the original on 24 October 2009. Retrieved 25 June 2009.
  9. ^ "The Selangor Civil War". sabrizain.org. Retrieved 10 April 2018.
  10. ^ Andaya, B.W. (1984). A History of Malaysia. Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 978-0-312-38121-9.
  11. ^ "Makam Sultan Abdul Samad". VisitSelangor.com. Retrieved 5 May 2017.
  12. ^ a b "Istana Alam Shah". my-rummy.com. Retrieved 10 April 2018.
  13. ^ a b c Adil, Haji Buyong Bin (1971). Sejarah Selangor (in Malay). Kuala Lumpur: Dewan Bahasa Dan Pustaka.
  14. ^ a b "Paduka Sri Sultan Sir Hisamuddin Alam Shah". wangsamahkota.wordpress.com. Retrieved 10 April 2018.
  15. ^ "Paduka Sri Sultan Musa Ghiatuddin Riayat Shah". wangsamahkota.wordpress.com. Retrieved 10 April 2018.
  16. ^ "The Formation of Malayan Union". sejarahmalaysia.pnm.my. National Library of Malaysia. Archived from the original on 16 May 2008. Retrieved 10 April 2018.
  17. ^ Harry Miller (4 August 1957). "Eight votes to one in ballot: Sultan of Selangor deputy". The Straits Times. Singapore. p. 1. Retrieved 10 April 2018.
  18. ^ The Making Of Galeri Diraja Sultan Abdul Aziz, Klang Archived 25 March 2009 at the Wayback Machine., Pertubuhan Arkitek Malaysia CPD Committee 2007, Laurent Lim Aun Giap
  19. ^ "The Birth Of A Metropolis ..A Moment Of History For All". New Straits Times. 29 January 1974. Retrieved 25 October 2010.
  20. ^ "Sultan Selangor rasmi pintu gerbang Kota Darul Ehsan". Utusan Malaysia. 19 November 2017. Retrieved 10 April 2018.
  21. ^ "Official Portal of Shah Alam City Council – History". mbsa.gov.my. 24 June 2011. Retrieved 24 July 2011.
  22. ^ "Blue Mosque (Sultan Salahuddin Abdul Aziz Shah Mosque)". Malaysian Ministry of Tourism-VirtualMalaysia.com. 2011. Archived from the original on 5 June 2011. Retrieved 26 January 2011.
  23. ^ Malaysian King Aziz Shah dead, Kuala Lumpur, 21 November 2001, The Tribune
  24. ^ Kee, Hua Chee (8 March 2003). "Fulfilling a Ruler's destiny". The Star (Malaysia). Archived from the original on 18 October 2012. Retrieved 3 June 2011.
  25. ^ See Article 48(1) of the Constitution
  26. ^ See Article 50 of the Constitution
  27. ^ See Article 91(1) of the Constitution
  28. ^ See Article 51(1) and 53 of the Constitution
  29. ^ See Article 54 of the Constitution
  30. ^ "Saya Menghadap Sultan Selangor Setiap Minggu - Azmin". malaysiandigest.com (in Malay). Malaysian Digest. 23 June 2015. Retrieved 26 April 2018.
  31. ^ See Article 55(2) of the Constitution
  32. ^ See Article 60 of the Constitution
  33. ^ See Article 38 and 39 of the Constitution
  34. ^ a b "Undang-undang Tubuh Negeri Selangor". dewan.selangor.gov.my. Dewan Negeri Selangor. Retrieved 16 April 2018.
  35. ^ "Election of His Majesty Yang di-Pertuan Agong". majlisraja-raja.gov.my. Keeper of the Ruler's Seal Office. Retrieved 26 April 2018.
  36. ^ "Tuanku Hisamuddin Alam Shah Al-Haj Appointed as The Second King". hids.arkib.gov.my. Malaysia National Archive. Archived from the original on 26 April 2018. Retrieved 26 April 2018.
  37. ^ "Istiadat Pertabalan Yang Dipertuan Agong Ke 11". hids.arkib.gov.my (in Malay). Malaysia National Archive. Retrieved 26 April 2018.
  38. ^ Harits Asyraf Hasnan (15 October 2016). "Tengku Amir Shah sempurnakan istiadat pemasyhuran Raja Muda Selangor". astroawani.com (in Malay). Retrieved 25 January 2018.
  39. ^ "Genealogy". royalark.net. Retrieved 11 April 2018.
  40. ^ "State to reach greater heights". The Star (Malaysia). 9 March 2003. Archived from the original on 18 October 2012. Retrieved 3 June 2011.
  41. ^ "Istana Darul Ehsan". imagegallery.tourism.gov.my. Retrieved 11 April 2018.
  42. ^ "Sejarah Daerah Kuala Selangor". selangor.gov.my/kualaselangor (in Malay). Pejabat Daerah dan Tanah Kuala Selangor. Retrieved 12 April 2018.
  43. ^ "Bukit Melawati (Melawati Hill) in Kuala Selangor". kuala-selangor.com. Retrieved 12 April 2018.
  44. ^ "Bukit Jugra Pusat Pemerintahan Sultan Abd Samad". wangsamahkotaselangor.wordpress.com (in Malay). Retrieved 12 April 2018.
  45. ^ "Istana Jugra". mdkl.gov.my (in Malay). Majlis Daerah Kuala Langat. Retrieved 12 April 2018.
  46. ^ "Astana Mahkota Puri Negara Mercu Keindahan Negeri Selangor". wangsamahkotaselangor.wordpress.com (in Malay). Retrieved 12 April 2018.
  47. ^ "May Allah The Almighty Bless Our Sultan". New Straits Times. 22 December 2001. p. 3. Retrieved 3 June 2011.
  48. ^ "Styles and titles". royalark.net. Retrieved 11 April 2018.