Delhi Sultanate

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Delhi Sultanate
پادشاهی دهلی



Flag of Delhi Sultanate according to the Catalan Atlas

Delhi Sultanate under various dynasties.
Capital Delhi (1206–1327)
Badayun (1210–1214)
Daulatabad (1327–1334)
Delhi (1334–1506)
Agra (1506–1526)
Languages Persian (official),[1] Hindavi (since 1451)[2]
Religion Sunni Islam
Government Sultanate
 •  1206–1210 Qutb-ud-din Aibak (first)
 •  1517–1526 Ibrahim Lodi (last)
Historical era Middle Ages
 •  Independence[3] 12 June 1206
 •  Battle of Amroha 20 December 1305
 •  Battle of Panipat 21 April 1526
Today part of  Afghanistan
Part of a series on the
History of India
History of India
History of the Turkic peoples
History of the Turkic peoples
Pre-14th century
Turkic Khaganate 552–744
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Karluk Yabgu State 756–940
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Oghuz Yabgu State
Ghaznavid Empire 963–1186
Seljuk Empire 1037–1194
  Seljuk Sultanate of Rum
Khwarazmian Empire 1077–1231
Delhi Sultanate 1206–1526
  Mamluk dynasty
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  Tughlaq dynasty
Golden Horde | [5][6][7] 1240s–1502
Mamluk Sultanate (Cairo) 1250–1517
  Bahri dynasty
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The Delhi Sultanate was a Muslim kingdom based mostly in Delhi and the Punjab region[8] that stretched over large parts of the Indian subcontinent for 320 years (1206–1526).[9][10] Five dynasties ruled over Delhi Sultanate sequentially, the first four of which were of Turkic origin: the Mamluk dynasty (1206–90); the Khilji dynasty (1290–1320); the Tughlaq dynasty (1320–1414);[11] the Sayyid dynasty (1414–51); and the Afghan Lodi dynasty (1451–1526).

Qutb-ud-din Aibak, a former slave of Muhammad Ghori, was the first sultan of Delhi and his dynasty conquered large areas of northern India. Afterwards the Khilji dynasty was also able to conquer most of central India, but both failed to unite the Indian subcontinent. This sultanate also is noted for being one of the few states to repel an attack from the Mongol Empire,[12] and enthroned one of the few female rulers in Islamic history, Razia Sultana from 1236 to 1240.[13]

The Delhi Sultanate reached its peak in terms of geographical reach, during the Tughlaq dynasty, covering most of Indian subcontinent.[14] The sultanate declined thereafter, with continuing Hindu-Muslim wars, and kingdoms such as Vijayanagara Empire re-asserting their independence as well as new Muslim sultanates such as Bengal Sultanate breaking off.[15][16]

The Delhi Sultanate caused destruction and desecration of ancient temples of South Asia,[17] as well as led to the emergence of Indo-Islamic architecture.[18][19] In 1526, it fell and was replaced by the Mughal Empire.


By 962 AD, Hindu and Buddhist kingdoms in South Asia were under a wave of raids from Muslim armies from Central Asia and Persia.[20] Among them was Mahmud of Ghazni, who raided and plundered kingdoms in north India from east of the Indus river to west of Yamuna river seventeen times between 997 and 1030.[21] Mahmud of Ghazni raided the treasuries but retracted each time, only extending Islamic rule into western Punjab.[22][23]

The wave of raids on north Indian and western Indian kingdoms by Muslim warlords continued after Mahmud of Ghazni, plundering and looting these kingdoms.[24] The raids did not establish or extend permanent boundaries of their Islamic kingdoms. The Ghurid Sultan Mu'izz al-Din Muhammad began a systematic war of expansion into north India in 1173.[25] He sought to carve out a principality for himself by expanding the Islamic world, a tradition common among the warring orthodox (Sunni) and heterodox (Shia) warlords in West and Central Asia since the 9th century onwards.[21][26] Mu’izz sought a Sunni Islamic kingdom of his own extending east of the Indus river, and he thus laid the foundation for the Muslim kingdom called the Delhi Sultanate.[21] Some historians chronicle the Delhi Sultanate from 1192 due to the presence and geographical claims of Mu'izz al-Din in South Asia by that time.[27]

Mu'izz al-Din was assassinated in 1206, by Ismāʿīlī Shia Muslims in some accounts or by Hindu Khokhars in others.[28] After the assassination, one of Mu’izz slaves (or Mamluk, Arabic: مملوك), the Turkic Qutbu l-Din Aibak, assumed power, becoming the first Sultan of Delhi.[21]



Qutb-ud-din Aibak was a slave of Mu'izz al-Din, whose reign began the Delhi Sultanate. Aibak was of Cuman-Kipchak origin,[29] and due to his lineage, his dynasty is known as the Mamluk (slave) Dynasty (not to be confused with Mamluk dynasty of Iraq or Mamluk dynasty of Egypt).[30] Aibak reigned as the Sultan of Delhi for four years.

After Aibak died, Aram Shah assumed power in 1210, but he was assassinated in 1211 by Iltutmish, his nephew.[31] Iltutmish's power was precarious, and a number of Muslim amirs (nobles) challenged his authority. Some supported Qutbuddin aibak. After a series of conquests and brutal executions of opposition, he consolidated his power.[32] His rule was challenged a number of times, such as by Qubacha, and this led to a series of wars.[33] Iltumish conquered Multan and Bengal from contesting Muslim rulers, as well as Ranathambhore and Siwalik from the Hindu rulers. He also attacked, defeated, and executed Taj al-Din Yildiz, who asserted his rights as heir to Mu'izz al-Din Muhammad.[34] Iltutmish's rule lasted till 1236. Following his death, the Delhi Sultanate saw a succession of weak rulers, disputing Muslim nobility, assassinations, and short-lived tenures. Power shifted from Rukn ud din Firuz to Razia Sultana and others, until Ghiyas ud din Balban came to power and ruled from 1266 to 1287.[33][34] He was succeeded by 17-year-old Muiz ud din Qaiqabad, who ordered the poisoning of Nizam-ud-Din and appointed Jalal-ud-din Firoz Shah Khilji as the commander of the army. Khilji assassinated Muiz ud din Qaiqabad and assumed power, thus ending the Mamluk dynasty.

Qutb-ud-din Aibak initiated the construction of Qutub Minar[35] and the Quwwat-ul-Islam (literally, Might of Islam) Mosque, now a UNESCO world heritage site.[36] It was built from the remains of twenty seven demolished Hindu and Jain temples, and completed by Muhammad-bin-Sam. The Qutub Minar Complex or Qutb Complex was expanded by Iltutmish, and later by Alauld-Din Khalji in early 14th century.[36][37] During the Mamluk dynasty, many amirs (nobles) of Afghan and Persia migrated and settled in India, as West Asia came under Mongol siege.[38]


Main article: Khilji dynasty
Alai Gate and Qutub Minar were built during Mamluk and Khalji dynasty periods of Delhi Sultanate.[36]

The first ruler of Khilji dynasty was Jalal-ud-din Firoz Shah Khilji. He came to power in 1290 after killing the last ruler of the Mamluk dynasty, Muiz ud din Qaiqabad, at the behest of Turkic, Afghan, and Persian amirs. Jalal-ud-din Firoz Shah Khilji was of Turko-Afghan origin, and ruled for 6 years before he was murdered in 1296 by his nephew Juna Khan, who was also his son-in-law.[39] Juna Khan later came to be known as Ala al-din Khilji.

Ala al-din began his military career as governor of Kara province, from where he led two raids on Malwa (1292) and Devagiri (1294) for plunder and loot. His military campaigning returned to these lands as well other South Indian kingdoms after he assumed power. He conquered Gujarat, Ranthambor, Chitor, and Malwa.[40] However, these victories were cut short because of Mongol attacks and plunder raids from northwest. The Mongols withdrew after plundering and stopped raiding northwest parts of the Delhi Sultanate.[41]

After the Mongols withdrew, Ala al-din Khilji continued expanding Delhi Sultanate into South India, with the help of generals such as Malik Kafur and Khusraw Khan, collecting large war booty (Anwatan) from those they defeated.[42] His commanders collected war spoils and paid Ghanima (الْغَنيمَة, a tax on spoils of war), which helped strengthen the Khilji rule. Among the spoils was the Warangal loot that included one of the largest known diamonds in human history, the Koh-i-noor.[43]

Ala al-din Khilji changed tax policies, raising agriculture taxes from 20% to 50% (payable in grain and agricultural produce), eliminating payments and commissions on taxes collected by local chiefs, banned socialization among his officials as well as inter-marriage between noble families to help prevent any opposition forming against him, and he cut salaries of officials, poets, and scholars.[39] These tax policies and spending controls strengthened his treasury to pay the keep of his growing army; he also introduced price controls on all agriculture produce and goods in the kingdom, as well as controls on where, how, and by whom these goods could be sold. Markets called shahana-i-mandi were created.[44] Muslim merchants were granted exclusive permits and monopoly in these mandi to buy and resell at official prices. No one other than these merchants could buy from farmers or sell in cities. Those found violating these mandi rules were severely punished, such as by mutilation. Taxes collected in the form of grain were stored in kingdom's storage. During famines that followed, these granaries ensured sufficient food for the army.[39]

Ala al-din is also known for his cruelty against attacked kingdoms after wars. Historians note him as a tyrant and that anyone Ala al-din Khilji suspected of being a threat to this power was killed along with the women and children of that family. In 1298, between 15,000 to 30,000 people near Delhi, who had recently converted to Islam, were slaughtered in a single day, due to fears of an uprising.[45]

After Ala-ud-din's death in 1316, his army general Malik Kafur, who was born in a Hindu family in India and had converted to Islam, tried to assume power. He lacked the support of Persian and Afghan nobility. Malik Kafur was killed.[39] The last Khilji ruler was Ala-ud-din's 18-year-old son Qutb-ud-din Mubarak Shah Khilji, who ruled for four years before he was killed by Khusro Khan. Khusro Khan's reign lasted only a few months, when Ghazi Malik, later to be called Ghiyas-ud-din Tughlaq, killed him and assumed power, in 1320, thus beginning the Tughluq dynasty of Delhi Sultanate.[38][45]


Main article: Tughlaq dynasty
Delhi Sultanate from 1321-1330 AD under Tughluq dynasty. After 1330, various regions rebelled against the Sultanate and the kingdom shrunk.

The Tughlaq dynasty lasted from 1320 to nearly the end of 14th century. The first ruler Ghazi Malik rechristened himself as Ghiyas-ud-din Tughlaq and is also referred to in scholarly works as Tughlak Shah. He was of Turko-Indian origins, with a Turkic father and a Hindu mother. Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq ruled for 5 years and launched a town near Delhi named Tughlaqabad.[46] According to some historians such as Vincent Smith,[47] he was killed by his son Juna Khan, who then assumed power in 1325 AD. Juna Khan rechristened himself as Muhammad bin Tughlaq, and ruled for 26 years.[48] During his rule, Delhi Sultanate reached its peak in terms of geographical reach, covering most of the Indian subcontinent.[14]

Muhammad bin Tughlaq was an intellectual, with extensive knowledge of Quran, Fiqh, poetry and other fields. He was also deeply suspicious of his kinsmen and wazirs (ministers), extremely severe with his opponents, and took decisions that caused economic upheaval. For example, he ordered minting of coins from base metals with face value of silver coins - a decision that failed because ordinary people minted counterfeit coins from base metal they had in their houses, and used them to pay taxes and jizya.[14][47]

Muhammad bin Tughlaq moved his capital to the Deccan Plateau, ordered Delhi people to move and build a new capital named Daulatabad (shown), then reversed his decision because Daulatabad lacked the river and drinking water supply Delhi had.[47]

On another occasion, after becoming upset by some accounts, or to run the Sultanate from the center of India by other accounts, Muhammad bin Tughlaq ordered the transfer of his capital from Delhi to Deogir in Maharashtra (renaming it to Daulatabad), by forcing mass migration of Delhi's population. Those who refused were killed. One blind person who failed to move to Deogir, was dragged for the entire journey of 40 days - the man died, his body fell apart, and only his tied leg reached Daulatabad.[47] The capital move failed because Daulatabad was arid and did not have enough drinking water to support the new capital. The capital then returned to Delhi. Nevertheless, Muhammad bin Tughlaq's orders affected history as a large number of Delhi Muslims who came to Deccan area, did not return to Delhi to live near Muhammad bin Tughlaq. This influx of the then Delhi residents into Deccan region led to a growth of Muslim population in central and southern India.[14] Muhammad bin Tughlaq's adventures in the Deccan region also marked campaigns of destruction and desecration of Hindu and Jain temples; for example of the Svayambhu Shiva Temple and the Thousand Pillar Temple.[49]

A base metal coin of Muhammad bin Tughlaq that led to an economic collapse.

Revolts against Muhammad bin Tughlaq began in 1327, continued over his reign, and over time the geographical reach of the Sultanate shrunk. The Vijayanagara Empire originated in southern India as a direct response to attacks from the Delhi Sultanate.[50] The Vijayanagara Empire liberated south India from the Delhi Sultanate rule.[51] In 1337, Muhammad bin Tughlaq ordered an attack on China,[46] by sending part of his forces over the Himalayas. Few survived that journey. The few who returned were executed for failing.[47] During his reign, state revenues collapsed from his policies such as the base metal coins from 1329-1332 AD. To cover state expenses, he sharply raised taxes. Those who failed to pay taxes were hunted and executed. Famines, widespread poverty and rebellion grew across the kingdom. In 1338 his own nephew rebelled in Malwa, whom he attacked, caught and flayed alive.[46] By 1339, the eastern regions under local Muslim governors and southern parts led by Hindu kings had revolted and declared independence from Delhi Sultanate. Muhammad bin Tughlaq did not have the resources or support to respond to the shrinking kingdom.[52] The historian Walford chronicled Delhi and most of India faced severe famines during Muhammad bin Tughlaq's rule, in the years after the base metal coin experiment.[53][54] By 1347, Bahmanid Sultanate had become an independent and competing Muslim kingdom in Deccan region of South Asia.[20]

Tughlaq dynasty is remembered for its architectural patronage, particularly for ancient lats (pillars, left image).[55] Dated to be from 3rd century BC, and of Buddhist and Hindu origins, the Sultanate initially wanted to use the pillars to make Mosque minarets. Firoz Shah decided otherwise, and had them installed near Mosques. The meaning of Brahmi script on the pillar (right) was unknown in Firoz Shah's time.[56] The inscription was deciphered by James Prinsep about 480 years later, in 1837; the pillar script of Emperor Ashoka asked people of his and future generations to seek a dharmic (virtuous) life, use persuasion in religion, grant freedom from religious persecution, stop all killing, and be compassionate to all living beings.[57]

Muhammad bin Tughlaq died in 1351 while trying to chase and punish people in Gujarat rebelling against Delhi Sultanate.[52] He was succeeded by Firoz Shah Tughlaq (1351–1388), who tried to regain the old kingdom boundary by waging a war with Bengal for 11 months in 1359. However, Bengal did not fall, and remained outside of Delhi Sultanate. Firoz Shah Tughlaq ruled for 37 years. His reign attempted to stabilize food supply and reduce famines by commissioning an irrigation canal from river Yamuna. An educated sultan, Firoz Shah left a memoir.[58] In it he wrote that he banned torture in practice in Delhi Sultanate by his predecessors, tortures such as amputations, tearing out of eyes, sawing people alive, crushing people's bones as punishment, pouring molten lead into throats, putting people on fire, driving nails into hands and feet, among others.[59] The Sunni Sultan also wrote that he did not tolerate attempts by Rafawiz Shia Muslim and Mahdi sects from proselytizing people into their faith, nor did he tolerate Hindus who tried to rebuild their temples after his armies had destroyed those temples.[60] As punishment, wrote the Sultan, he put many Shias, Mahdi and Hindus to death (siyasat). In his memoirs, Firoz Shah Tughlaq lists his accomplishments to include converting Hindus to Sunni Islam by announcing an exemption from taxes and jizya for those who convert, and by lavishing new converts with presents and honours. Simultaneously, he raised taxes and jizya, assessing it at three levels, and stopping the practice of his predecessors who had historically exempted all Hindu Brahmins from jizya tax.[59][61] He also vastly expanded the number of slaves in his service and those of amirs (Muslim nobles). Firoz Shah Tughlaq reign was marked by reduction in extreme forms of torture, eliminating favours to select parts of society, but an increased intolerance and persecution of targeted groups.[59]

Firoz Shah Tughlaq's death created anarchy and disintegration of kingdom. The last rulers of this dynasty were two, both calling themselves Sultans from 1394 to 1397 - Mahmud Tughlaq, the grandson of Firoz Shah Tughlaq who ruled from Delhi, and Nusrat Shah, another relative of Firoz Shah Tughlaq who ruled from Firozabad which was few miles from Delhi.[62] The battle between the two relatives continued till the invasion by Timur in 1398. Timur, also known as Tamburlaine in Western scholarly literature, was the Turkic Islamic king of Samarkhand. He became aware of the weak and quarreling Sultans in Delhi. So he marched his way with his army to Delhi, plundering and killing all the way.[63][64] Estimates for the massacre by Timur range from 100,000 to 200,000 infidels and Hindus during his campaign.[65][66] Timur had no intention of staying in or ruling India. He looted the lands he crossed all the way to Delhi, then plundered and burnt Delhi. Over five days, Timur and his Mongol army raged a massacre.[46] Then he collected and carried the wealth, captured women and slaves (particularly skilled artisans) back to Samarkhand. The people and lands within Delhi Sultanate were left in a state of anarchy, chaos and pestilence.[62] Sultan Mahmud Tughlak, who had fled to Gujarat during Timur’s invasion, returned and nominally ruled as the last ruler of Tughlak dynasty, as a puppet of various factions at the court.[46][67]


Main article: Sayyid dynasty

The Sayyid dynasty was a Turkic dynasty.[68] It ruled Delhi Sultanate from 1415 to 1451.[20] The Timur invasion and plunder had left Delhi Sultanate in shambles, and little is known about the rule by Sayyid dynasty. According to historian William Hunter,[46] the Delhi Sultanate had an effective control of only a few miles around Delhi. Schimmel notes Sayyid Khizr Khan as the first ruler of Sayyid dynasty, who assumed power by claiming to be representing Timur. His authority was questioned even by those near Delhi. His successor was Mubarak Khan, who rechristened himself as Mubarak Shah, and tried to regain lost territories in Punjab. He was unsuccessful.[67]

With Sayyid dynasty’s failing powers, Islam’s history in Indian subcontinent underwent a profound change, according to Schimmel.[67] The previously dominant Sunni sect of Islam became diluted, alternate Muslim sects such as Shia rose, and new competing centers of Islamic culture took roots beyond Delhi.

The Sayyid dynasty was displaced by the Lodi dynasty in 1451.


Main article: Lodi dynasty
Delhi Sultanate during Babur's invasion.

The Lodi dynasty had its origins in the Afghan Lodi tribe.[68] Bahlol Lodi (or Bahlul Lodi) was the first Afghan, Pathan, to rule Delhi Sultanate and the one who started the dynasty.[69] Bahlol Lodi began his reign by attacking the Muslim controlled Kingdom of Jaunpur to expand the influence of Delhi Sultanate, and was partially successful through a treaty. Thereafter, the region from Delhi to Benares (then at the border of Bengal province), was back under influence of Delhi Sultanate.

After Bahlol Lodi died, his son Nizam Khan assumed power, rechristened himself as Sikandar Shah Ghazi Lodi and ruled from 1489-1517.[70] One of the better known rulers of this dynasty, Sikandar Lodi expelled his brother Barbak Shah from Jaunpur, installed his son Jalal Khan as the ruler, then proceeded east to make claims on Bihar. The Muslim amir (noble) governors of Bihar agreed to pay tribute and taxes, but operated independent of Delhi Sultanate. Sikandar Lodi led a campaign of destruction of temples, particularly around Mathura. He also moved his capital and court from Delhi to Agra[46][71] - an ancient Hindu city that had been destroyed during plunder and attacks of early Delhi Sultanate period. Sikandar thus launched buildings with Indo-Islamic architecture in Agra during his rule, and this growth of Agra continued during Mughal Empire, after the end of Delhi Sultanate.[69][72]

Sikandar Lodi died a natural death in 1517, when his second son Ibrahim Lodi assumed power. Ibrahim did not enjoy support of Afghan and Persian amirs, or regional chiefs.[73] Ibrahim attacked and killed his elder brother Jalal Khan, who was installed as the governor of Jaunpur by his father and had support of the amirs and chiefs.[69] Ibrahim Lodi was unable to consolidate his power. After Jalal Khan's death, the governor of Punjab - Dawlat Khan Lodī - reached out to the Mughal Babur and invited him to attack Delhi Sultanate.[71] Babur came, defeated and killed Ibrahim Lodi, during Battle of Panipat in 1526. Ibrahim Lodi's death ended the Delhi Sultanate, and Mughal Empire replaced it.

Destruction and desecration[edit]

The Somnath Temple in Gujarat was repeatedly destroyed by Islamic armies and rebuilt by Hindus. It was destroyed by Delhi Sultanate's army in 1299 AD.[74]

Delhi Sultanate marked an era of temple destruction and desecration.[75][76] Richard Eaton[17] has tabulated a campaign of destruction of idols and temples by Sultans, intermixed with instances of years where the temples were protected from desecration.[77][78] In many cases, the demolished remains, rocks and broken statue pieces were reused to build mosques and other buildings. For example, the Qutb complex in Delhi was built from stones of 27 demolished Hindu and Jain temples by some accounts,[79] and additionally included parts from Buddhist temples by other accounts.[80] Similarly, the Muslim mosque in Khanapur, Maharashtra was built from the looted parts and demolished remains of Hindu temples.[81] Mohammad Bakhtiyar Khilji destroyed Buddhist and Hindu libraries and their manuscripts at Nalanda and Odantapuri Universities at the beginning of Delhi Sultanate.[49][82]

The first historical record of a campaign of temples destruction, and defacement of faces or heads of Hindu idols, are from 1193 through early 13th century in Rajasthan, Punjab, Haryana and Uttar Pradesh under the command of Ghuri. Under Khalaji, the campaign of temple desecration expanded to Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat and Maharashtra, and continued through late 13th century.[17] The campaign extended to Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka and Tamil Nadu under Malik Kafur and Ulugh Khan in 14th century, and by Bahmani in 15th century.[49] Orissa temples were destroyed in 14th century under Tughlaq.

Beyond destruction and desecration, the Sultans of Delhi Sultanate in some cases had forbidden reconstruction of damaged Hindu, Jain and Buddhist temples, as well as prohibited repairs of old temples or construction of any new temples.[83][84] In certain cases, the Sultanate would grant a permit for repairs and construction of temples if the patron or religious community paid jizya (fee, tax). For example, a proposal by the Chinese to repair Himalayan Buddhist temples destroyed by Sultanate's army was refused, on the grounds that such temple repairs were only allowed if the Chinese agreed to pay jizya tax to Sultanate's treasury.[85][86] In his memoirs, Firoz Shah Tughlaq describes how he destroyed temples and built mosques instead, and killed those who dared build new temples.[87] Other historical records from wazirs, amirs and the court historians of various Sultans of Delhi Sultanate describe the grandeur of idols and temples they witnessed in their campaigns and how these were destroyed and desecrated.[88]

Temple desecration during Delhi Sultanate period[17][89]
Sultan / Agent Dynasty Years Temple Sites Destroyed States
Mohammad Ghuri, Aibek Mamluk 1193-1290 Ajmer, Samana, Kuhram, Delhi, Kol, Benaras Rajasthan, Punjab, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh
Bakhtiyar, Iltumish, Jalal al-Din, Ala al-Din, Malik Kafur Khilji 1290-1320 Nalanda, Odantapuri, Vikramashila, Bhilsa, Ujjain, Jhain, Vijapur, Devagiri, Somnath, Chidambaram, Madurai Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Gujarat, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu
Ulugh Khan, Firoz Tughluq, Nahar, Muzaffar Khan Tughluq 1320-1395[90] Somnath, Warangal, Bodhan, Pillalamarri, Puri, Sainthali, Idar, Somnath[91] Gujarat, Andhra Pradesh, Orissa, Haryana
Sikandar, Muzaffar Shah, Ahmad Shah, Mahmud Sayyid 1400-1442 Paraspur, Bijbehara, Tripuresvara, Idar, Diu, Manvi, Sidhpur, Delwara, Kumbhalmir Gujarat, Rajasthan
Suhrab, Begdha, Bahmani, Khalil Shah, Khawwas Khan, Sikandar Lodi, Ibrahim Lodi Lodi 1457-1518 Mandalgarh, Malan, Dwarka, Kondapalle, Kanchi, Amod, Nagarkot, Utgir, Narwar, Gwalior Rajasthan, Gujarat, Himachal Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh

The list of Sultans in the Delhi Sultanate[edit]

Mamluk/Slave dynasty[edit]

The mausoleum of Qutub ud Din Aibak in Anarkali, Lahore, Pakistan.

Khilji dynasty[edit]

Tughluq dynasty[edit]

Sayyid dynasty[edit]

  • Khizr Khan (1414–1421)
  • Mubarak Shah (1421–1434)
  • Muhammad Shah (1434–1445)
  • Alam Shah (1445–1451)

Lodi dynasty[edit]

See also[edit]


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  3. ^ Jackson, Peter (16 October 2003). The Delhi Sultanate: A Political and Military History. Cambridge University Press. p. 28. ISBN 978-0-521-54329-3. 
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  17. ^ a b c d Richard Eaton(2000), Temple Desecration and Indo-Muslim States, Journal of Islamic Studies, 11(3), pp 283-319
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  20. ^ a b c See:
    • M. Reza Pirbha, Reconsidering Islam in a South Asian Context, ISBN 978-9004177581, Brill
    • Richards J. F. (1974), The Islamic frontier in the east: Expansion into South Asia, Journal of South Asian Studies, 4(1), pp. 91-109
    • Sookoohy M., Bhadreswar - Oldest Islamic Monuments in India, ISBN 978-9004083417, Brill Academic; see discussion of earliest raids in Gujarat
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  25. ^ MUHAMMAD B. SAM Mu'izz AL-DIN, T.W. Haig, Encyclopaedia of Islam, Vol. VII, ed. C.E.Bosworth, E.van Donzel, W.P. Heinrichs and C. Pellat, (Brill, 1993)
  26. ^ C.E. Bosworth, The Cambridge History of Iran, Vol. 5, ed. J. A. Boyle, John Andrew Boyle, (Cambridge University Press, 1968), pp 161-170
  27. ^ History of South Asia: A Chronological Outline Columbia University (2010)
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  37. ^ Welch and Crane note that the Quwwat-ul-Islam Mosque was built with the remains of demolished Hindu and Jain temples; See: Anthony Welch and Howard Crane, The Tughluqs: Master Builders of the Delhi Sultanate, Muqarnas, Vol. 1, (1983), pp. 123-166
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  44. ^ AL Srivastava, Delhi Sultanate 5th Edition, ASIN B007Q862WO, pp 156-158
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  48. ^ Elliot and Dowson, Táríkh-i Fíroz Sháhí of Ziauddin Barani, The History of India as Told by Its Own Historians. The Muhammadan Period (Vol 3), London, Trübner & Co
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  51. ^ Advanced Study in the History of Medieval India by Jl Mehta p.97
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  53. ^ Cornelius Walford (1878), The Famines of the World: Past and Present, p. 3, at Google Books, pp 9-10
  54. ^ Judith Walsh, A Brief History of India, ISBN 978-0816083626, pp 70-72; Quote: "In 1335-42, during a severe famine and death in the Delhi region, the Sultanate offered no help to the starving residents."
  55. ^ William Jeffrey McKibben, The Monumental Pillars of Fīrūz Shāh Tughluq, Ars Orientalis, Vol. 24, (1994), pp. 105-118
  56. ^ HM Elliot & John Dawson (1871), Tarikh I Firozi Shahi - Records of Court Historian Sams-i-Siraj The History of India as told by its own historians, Volume 3, Cornell University Archives, pp 352-353
  57. ^ Prinsep, J (1837). "Interpretation of the most ancient of inscriptions on the pillar called lat of Feroz Shah, near Delhi, and of the Allahabad, Radhia and Mattiah pillar, or lat inscriptions which agree therewith". Journal of the Asiatic Society 6 (2): 600–609. 
  58. ^ Firoz Shah Tughlak, Futuhat-i Firoz Shahi - Memoirs of Firoz Shah Tughlak, Translated in 1871 by Elliot and Dawson, Volume 3 - The History of India, Cornell University Archives
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  60. ^ Firoz Shah Tughlak, Futuhat-i Firoz Shahi - Autobiographical memoirs, Translated in 1871 by Elliot and Dawson, Volume 3 - The History of India, Cornell University Archives, pp 377-381
  61. ^ Annemarie Schimmel, Islam in the Indian Subcontinent, ISBN 978-9004061170, Brill Academic, pp 20-23
  62. ^ a b Vincent A Smith, The Oxford History of India: From the Earliest Times to the End of 1911, p. 217, at Google Books, Chapter 2, pp 248-254, Oxford University Press
  63. ^ Peter Jackson (1999), The Delhi Sultanate: A Political and Military History, Cambridge University Press, pp 312–317
  64. ^ Beatrice F. Manz (2000). "Tīmūr Lang". In P. J. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C. E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel and W. P. Heinrichs. Encyclopaedia of Islam 10 (2 ed.). Brill. 
  65. ^ Lionel Trotter (1906), History of India: From the Earliest Times to the Present Day, Gorham Publishers London/New York, pp 74
  66. ^ Annemarie Schimmel (1997), Islam in the Indian Subcontinent, Brill Academic, ISBN 978-9004061170, pp 36-37; Also see: Elliot, Studies in Indian History, 2nd Edition, pp 98-101
  67. ^ a b c Annemarie Schimmel, Islam in the Indian Subcontinent, ISBN 978-9004061170, Brill Academic, Chapter 2
  68. ^ a b Judith Walsh, A Brief History of India, ISBN 978-0816083626
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  73. ^ Richards, John (1965), The Economic History of the Lodi Period: 1451-1526, Journal de l'histoire economique et sociale de l'Orient, Vol. 8, No. 1, pp 47-67
  74. ^ Eaton (2000), Temple desecration in pre-modern India Frontline, p. 73, item 16 of the Table, Archived by Columbia University
  75. ^ Annemarie Schimmel, Islam in the Indian Subcontinent, ISBN 978-9004061170, Brill Academic, pp 7-10
  76. ^ James Brown (1949), The History of Islam in India, The Muslim World, 39(1), 11-25
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  80. ^ Maany Peyvan, Religion in India, SAIS Review of International Affairs, Volume 29, Number 2, Summer-Fall 2009, pp. 159-167
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  82. ^ Gul and Khan (2008), Growth and Development of Oriental Libraries in India, Library Philosophy and Practice, University of Nebrasaka-Lincoln
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  84. ^ R Islam (1997), A Note on the Position of the non-Muslim Subjects in the Sultanate of Delhi under the Khaljis and the Tughluqs, Journal of the Pakistan Historical Society, 45, pp. 215–229; R Islam (2002), Theory and Practice of Jizyah in the Delhi Sultanate (14th Century), Journal of the Pakistan Historical Society, 50, pp. 7–18
  85. ^ A.L. Srivastava (1966), Delhi Sultanate, 5th Edition, Agra College
  86. ^ Peter Jackson (2003), The Delhi Sultanate: A Political and Military History, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0521543293, pp 287-295
  87. ^ Firoz Shah Tughlak, Futuhat-i Firoz Shahi - Memoirs of Firoz Shah Tughlaq, Translated in 1871 by Elliot and Dawson, Volume 3 - The History of India, Cornell University Archives, pp 377-381
  88. ^ Hasan Nizami et al, Taju-l Ma-asir & Appendix, Translated in 1871 by Elliot and Dawson, Volume 2 - The History of India, Cornell University Archives, pp 22, 219, 398, 471
  89. ^ Richard Eaton, Temple desecration and Indo-Muslim states, Frontline (January 5, 2001), pp 72-73
  90. ^ Ulugh Khan also known as Almas Beg was brother of Ala-al Din Khilji; his destruction campaign overlapped the two dynasties
  91. ^ Somnath temple went through cycles of destruction by Sultans and rebuilding by Hindus
  92. ^ Tughlaq Shahi Kings of Delhi: Chart The Imperial Gazetteer of India, 1909, v. 2, p. 369..

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