Sultanate of Harar

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The Sultanate of Harar was an ancient kingdom centered in Harar, Ethiopia. It succeeded the Adal Sultanate. The Harar Sultanate was founded by Amīr Nūr to carry on the struggle of the Adal leader Imām Aḥmed Gurēy against the Abyssinian Empire. It was plagued with dynastic infighting between the relatives of Imām Aḥmed Gurēy and the family of ʿIsmān AlḤabashi, Amīr Nūr's chosen successor. Due to the encroaching Oromo people invading from the south, the Sultanate of Harar was ultimately a short lived state, lasting only 18 years (though if you start from the reign of Imām Aḥmed Gurēy, a more respectable 51 years). The capital was moved east to the oasis of Awsa by Imām Maḥamed "Jāsa" Ibrahim who founded the Imamate of Awsa.

Rulers of the Sultanate of Harar[edit]

Name Reign Note
Imām Aḥmed "Gurēy" Ibrahīm 1526 - 1543 Also known as Ahmed Gurey or Ahmed Gran. The conqueror, cousin of Garād Abūn ʿAdādshe of Hubat both of the Karanle Hawiye. He ruled Adal in all but name and launched a conquest of the Ethiopian highlands. While not technically a Sultan of Harar, no list is complete without him.
Bāti Dēlōmbira Maḥfūẓ 1543 - 1559 Occasionally rendered as Del-Wambara, she was the daughter of Imām Maḥfūẓ of Zeila and Imām Aḥmed Gurēy's widow. She was the de facto ruler following his death, and married Amīr Nūr.
1 Amīr Nūr "Dhuhi-Suha" ʿAli 1559 - 1567 The Amir of Harar, he is the true founder of the Sultanate of Harar. He built the walls that surround Harar and convinced the people of Harar to abandon their clan and tribal identities and become one people, the Harari nation.
2 Amīr ʿIsmān "AlḤabashi" 1567 - 1569 A former Abyssinian slave of Amīr Nūr, he was murdered shortly after becoming Sultan, sparking a struggle between his sons and the descendants of Garād Abūn ʿAdādshe over who would rule Harar.
3 Sulṭān Ṭalḥa ʿAbbās 1569 - 1571 Son of Wazir ʿAbbās Abūn and grandson of Garād Abūn ʿAdādshe
4 Sulṭān Nāssir ʿIsmān 1571 - 1572 Son of Amīr ʿIsmān AlḤabashi
5 Sulṭān Maḥamed Nāssir 1572 - 1573 Son of Sulṭān Nāssir ʿIsmān
6 Sulṭān Mansūr Maḥamed 1573 - 1577 Son of Sulṭān Maḥamed Nāssir

See also[edit]