Sum of two squares theorem

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In number theory, the sum of two squares theorem relates the prime decomposition of any integer n > 1 to whether it can be written as a sum of two squares, such that n = a2 + b2 for some integers a, b.

An integer greater than one can be written as a sum of two squares if and only if its prime decomposition contains no prime congruent to modulo raised to an odd power.[1]

This theorem supplements Fermat's theorem on sums of two squares which says when a prime number can be written as a sum of two squares, in that it also covers the case for composite numbers.

Examples[edit]

The prime decomposition of the number 2450 is given by 2450 = 2 · 52 · 72. Of the primes occurring in this decomposition, 2, 5, and 7, only 7 is congruent to 3 modulo 4. Its exponent in the decomposition, 2, is even. Therefore, the theorem states that it is expressible as the sum of two squares. Indeed, 2450 = 72 + 492.

The prime decomposition of the number 3430 is 2 ·· 73. This time, the exponent of 7 in the decomposition is 3, an odd number. So 3430 cannot be written as the sum of two squares.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Dudley, Underwood (1969). "Sums of Two Squares". Elementary Number Theory. W.H. Freeman and Company. pp. 135–139.