Summer school

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Summer school (or summer university) is a school, or a program generally sponsored by a school or a school district, or provided by a private company, that provides lessons and activities during the summer vacation. Participation in summer schools has been shown to have substantial beneficial effects on education.[1]

Summer schools in North America[edit]

In elementary and middle school, these programs are often used for remedial instruction, though some non-academic day camp programs call themselves Summer school.

In high school, college or university, students can enroll in classes for credit to be taken into account in their grade point average or their transcript.[2] In high school, it is usually used for remediation purposes, but in colleges, it is most often used as advancement in credit hours. Many universities offer shorter and more intensive summer courses to attract both local and international students, and these programs are often surrounded by social activities.

In academia, the term can also refer to a type of conference. Typically, established academics will give presentations on advanced topics in a field to postgraduate students. This type of summer school is often organized at a national or international level, and no credits are awarded. Also, a college or university sometimes offers a summer program for teachers or other professional workers wishing to round out their professional or general education. Some summer schools are for the general public involving no examinations and are not for degree purposes.[3]

Summer schools internationally[edit]

Outside North America, the term has a broader definition and refers to all ages and includes leisure and other non-academic subjects, so, for example, a course on hedge-laying is probably targeting older adults. In these regions, Music Summer Schools, on the other hand, may be designed for school age students, college students, or adult professionals or amateurs at various levels of attainment.

Summer schools can also provide students with educational experiences[4] that would not be available to them within their normal schooling. This may encompass subjects that are not conventionally offered in schools (such as law, which is not usually offered in UK schools but may be taught in summer schools), or the experience of studying in an ancient university[5] or a university or college that has a strong reputation on the global stage, such as the University of Oxford.[6] Summer schools may also incorporate a wider variety of excursions and fields trips than would be possible in day-to-day education, so that some summer schools[7] straddle the line between education and holiday.[8]

English as a foreign language[edit]

Summer schools are a popular choice for students of English as a Foreign Language, particularly children. EnglishUK, the language teaching organisation for EFL in the UK, has more than 470 members, many of which operate summer schools.[9] Summer schools often offer foreign language immersion, which has known benefits for language learning.[10] Summer schools of this kind also hold appeal for students wishing to pursue higher education in English-speaking countries, which consistently top university league tables[11] and get a high percentage of their students from overseas,[12] as summer schools in these countries provide insight not only into the English language, but also into the cultures that use it. They may even provide guidance for such students in their university applications.[13]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Cooper, H.; Charlton, K.; Valentine, J. C.; Muhlenbruck, L. (2000). "Making the most of summer school: a meta-analytic and narrative review". Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development. 65 (1): i–v, 1–118, discussion 119–27. doi:10.1111/1540-5834.00059. PMID 12467098.
  2. ^ Summer program for high school student - summer school. College Board: College Planning Made Easy|Inside Source for College Admissions Requirements.
  3. ^ "University of Cape Town Summer School". University of Cape Town, Extra-mural studies. Retrieved 2014-04-30.
  4. ^ "Immerse Education". Immerse Education. Retrieved 5 August 2019.
  5. ^ "Oxford Summer Courses". Oxford Summer Courses. Retrieved 2018-12-10.
  6. ^ "Oxford Summer School 2021". Oxford Royale Academy. Retrieved 2020-08-04.
  7. ^ "SAGE Summer School (E-Learning)". SAGE Summer School (E-Learning). Retrieved 2020-06-27.
  8. ^ "Oxford Summer Courses". Oxford Summer Courses. Retrieved 2018-12-10.
  9. ^ "EnglishUK homepage". EnglishUK. Retrieved 2014-04-30.
  10. ^ "What research tells us about immersion". Education Week. Retrieved 2014-04-30.
  11. ^ "The Times World University Rankings". Times Higher Education. Retrieved 2014-04-30.
  12. ^ "The 100 most international universities in the world". Times Higher Education. Retrieved 2014-04-30.
  13. ^ "University Preparation Summer Courses at Earlscliffe". Summer Boarding Courses. Retrieved 2022-01-13.

Further reading[edit]

  • Cooper, Harris; Charlton, Kelly; Valentine, Jeff C.; Muhlenbruck, Laura: Making the Most of Summer School: A Meta-Analytic and Narrative Review. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, v65 n1 p1-118 2000. ISBN 0631221522. Blackwell Publishing, 2000.
  • Guide to Summer Camps and Summer Schools. 31st edition, 2008/09. Porter Sargent Handbooks, a Division of Alloy Education.
  • Guide to Summer Camps and Summer Schools. 32nd edition, 2010/11. Porter Sargent Handbooks, a Division of Alloy Education.

External links[edit]