Summit (meeting)

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A summit meeting (or just summit) is an international meeting of heads of state or government, usually with considerable media exposure, tight security, and a prearranged agenda. Notable summit meetings include those of Franklin D. Roosevelt, Winston Churchill, and Joseph Stalin during World War II. However, the term summit was not commonly used for such meetings until the Geneva Summit (1955).[1] During the Cold War, when American presidents joined with Soviet or Chinese counterparts for one-on-one meetings, the media labelled the event as a "summit". The post–Cold War era has produced an increase in the number of "summit" events. Nowadays, international summits are the most common expression for global governance.[2]

Notable summits[edit]

World War II conferences[edit]

Arab League summits[edit]

Earth Summits[edit]

G–summits[edit]

Group of Six (G6), heads of government
Group of Seven (G7), heads of government
Group of Eight (G8), heads of government
Group of Seven (G7), heads of government
Group of Twenty, heads of government

European summits[edit]

Inter-Korean summits[edit]

Millennium Development Goals[edit]

South American Summits[edit]

Summits of the Americas[edit]

UN International conferences on Afghanistan[edit]

Soviet Union–United States summits[edit]

  • Geneva Summit, July 18–23, 1955
  • Washington and Camp David Summit, September 15, 26–27, 1959
  • Paris Summit, May 16–17, 1960
  • Vienna Summit, June 3–4, 1961
  • Glassboro Summit Conference, June 23 and 25, 1967
  • Moscow summit (SALT I), May 22–30, 1972
  • Washington D.C., June 18–25, 1973
  • Moscow summit, June 28–July 3, 1974
  • Vladivostok Summit Meeting on Arms Control, November 23–24, 1974
  • Helsinki summit, July 30 and August 2, 1975
  • Vienna summit (SALT II), June 15–18, 1979
  • Geneva Summit, November 19–21, 1985
  • Reykjavík Summit, October 10–12, 1986
  • Washington Summit, December 7–10, 1987
  • Moscow Summit, May 29–June 1, 1988
  • New York Summit, December 7, 1988
  • Malta Summit, December 2–3, 1989
  • Washington D.C., May 30–June 3, 1990
  • Helsinki, September 9, 1990
  • Paris Summit, November 19, 1990
  • London Summit, July 17, 1991
  • Moscow Summit (START I), July 30–31, 1991
  • Madrid Summit, October 29–30, 1991

Russia–United States summits[edit]

Miscellaneous[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]