Summits of the Americas

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The Summits of the Americas (SOA) is a series of international summit meetings bringing together the leaders of countries in the Americas. All countries sent representatives to all meetings except for Cuba, who joined to the Summit on its seventh edition.[1] The meetings provide an opportunity for discussions about a variety of issues and topics.

The summits have been organized by a number of multilateral bodies led by the Organization of American States.

In the early 1990s, what were formerly ad hoc summits came to be institutionalized into a regular "Summit of the Americas" based on the principles of democracy and free trade.[2]

Year # Dates Country City Host leader
1994 [3] 1st December 9–11 United States United States[4] Miami Bill Clinton
1998 2nd April 18–19 Chile Chile[5] Santiago Eduardo Frei Ruiz-Tagle
2001 3rd April 20–22 Canada Canada[6] Quebec City Jean Chrétien
2004 Special Summit January 12–13 Mexico Mexico[7] Monterrey Vicente Fox
2005 4th November 4–5 Argentina Argentina[8] Mar del Plata Néstor Kirchner
2009 5th April 17–19 Trinidad and Tobago Trinidad and Tobago[9] Port-of-Spain Patrick Manning
2012 6th April 14–15 Colombia Colombia[10] Cartagena Juan Manuel Santos Calderón
2015 7th April 10–11 Panama Panama[11] Panama City Juan Carlos Varela
2018 8th March 23–25 Peru Peru[12] Lima TBD

The summits that garnered most general public and media attention were the Quebec City and Mar del Plata events, both of which provoked very large anti-globalization and anti–Free Trade Area of the Americas protests and attendant police response.

Membership and adhesions[edit]

All 35 independent nations of the Americas are members of the OAS:

Flag Country Capital HDI Language
Antigua and Barbuda Antigua and Barbuda St. John's Decrease 0.774 English
Argentina Argentina Buenos Aires Steady 0.808 Spanish
The Bahamas Bahamas Nassau Steady 0.789 English
Barbados Barbados Bridgetown Decrease 0.776 English
Belize Belize Belmopan Steady 0.732 English
Bolivia Bolivia Sucre Steady 0.667 Spanish
Brazil Brazil Brasilia Increase 0.744 Portuguese
Canada Canada Ottawa Steady 0.902 English and French
Chile Chile Santiago Increase 0.822 Spanish
Colombia Colombia Bogotá Steady 0.711 Spanish
Costa Rica Costa Rica San José Decrease 0.763 Spanish
Cuba Cuba Havana Steady 0.815 Spanish
Dominica Dominica Roseau Decrease 0.717 English
Dominican Republic Dominican Republic Santo Domingo Steady 0.700 Spanish
Ecuador Ecuador Quito Steady 0.711 Spanish
El Salvador El Salvador San Salvador Steady 0.662 Spanish
Grenada Grenada St. George's Decrease 0.744 English
Guatemala Guatemala Guatemala City Steady 0.628 Spanish
Guyana Guyana Georgetown Steady 0.638 English
Haiti Haiti Port-au-Prince Steady 0.471 French
Honduras Honduras Tegucigalpa Steady 0.617 Spanish
Jamaica Jamaica Kingston Decrease 0.715 English
Mexico Mexico Mexico City Decrease 0.756 Spanish
Nicaragua Nicaragua Managua Steady 0.614 Spanish
Panama Panama Panama City Increase 0.765 Spanish
Paraguay Paraguay Asunción Steady 0.676 Spanish
Peru Peru Lima Steady 0.737 Spanish
Saint Kitts and Nevis Saint Kitts and Nevis Basseterre Steady 0.750 English
Saint Lucia Saint Lucia Castries Decrease 0.714 English
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Kingstown Steady 0.719 English
Suriname Suriname Paramaribo Increase 0.705 Dutch
Trinidad and Tobago Trinidad and Tobago Port of Spain Steady 0.776 English
United States United States Washington, D.C. Steady 0.914 English
Uruguay Uruguay Montevideo Increase 0.790 Spanish
Venezuela Venezuela Caracas Decrease 0.764 Spanish


The following is a list non-members of the OAS as they are dependencies of other nations. They are grouped under the states that control them.



 United Kingdom


 United States


  1. ^ Prieto, Alfredo. "Everybody But Cuba," Havana Times. April 15, 2009.
  2. ^ Twaddle, Andrew C. (2002). Health Care Reform Around the World, p. 382.
  3. ^ Florida International University, Summit of the Americas Center (SOAC): Summits list
  4. ^ Summit Americas: I summit (1st)
  5. ^ Summit Americas: II summit (2nd)
  6. ^ Summit Americas: III summit (3rd)
  7. ^ Special Summit of the Americas: Special Summit
  8. ^ Summit Americas: IV summit (4th)
  9. ^ Summit Americas: V summit (5th)
  10. ^ Summit Americas: VI summit (6th)
  11. ^ Summit Americas: VII summit (7th)
  12. ^ Summit Americas: VIII summit (8th)


External links[edit]