Summits of the Americas

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The Summits of the Americas (SOA) is a series of international summit meetings bringing together the leaders of countries in the Americas. All countries sent representatives to all meetings except for Cuba, who joined to the Summit on its seventh edition.[1] In the early 1990s, what were formerly ad hoc summits came to be institutionalized into a regular "Summit of the Americas" based on the principles of democracy and free trade.[2] The meetings, organized by a number of multilateral bodies led by the Organization of American States, provide an opportunity for discussions about a variety of issues and topics.

List of summits[edit]

Summit Dates Host Country Host City Host leader
First December 9–11, 1994  United States[3] Miami Bill Clinton
Second April 18–19, 1998  Chile[4] Santiago Eduardo Frei Ruiz-Tagle
Third April 20–22, 2001  Canada[5] Quebec City Jean Chrétien
Special January 12–13, 2004  Mexico[6] Monterrey Vicente Fox
Fourth November 4–5, 2005  Argentina[7] Mar del Plata Néstor Kirchner
Fifth April 17–19, 2009  Trinidad and Tobago[8] Port-of-Spain Patrick Manning
Sixth April 14–15, 2012  Colombia[9] Cartagena Juan Manuel Santos Calderón
Seventh April 10–11, 2015  Panama[10] Panama City Juan Carlos Varela
Eighth March 23–25, 2018  Peru[11] Lima Pedro Pablo Kuczynski

The summits that garnered most general public and media attention were the Quebec City and Mar del Plata events, both of which provoked very large anti-globalization and anti–Free Trade Area of the Americas protests and attendant police response.

OAS member states[edit]

All 35 independent nations of the Americas are members of the OAS.

Nation Capital HDI
2015 est.
for 2014
[12]
Official
language
 Antigua and Barbuda St. John's 0.783 English
 Argentina Buenos Aires 0.836 Spanish
 Bahamas Nassau 0.790 English
 Barbados Bridgetown 0.785 English
 Belize Belmopan 0.715 English
 Bolivia Sucre 0.662 Spanish
 Brazil Brasilia 0.755 Portuguese
 Canada Ottawa 0.913 English, French
 Chile Santiago 0.832 Spanish
 Colombia Bogota 0.720 Spanish
 Costa Rica San José 0.766 Spanish
 Cuba Havana 0.769 Spanish
 Dominica Roseau 0.724 English
 Dominican Republic Santo Domingo 0.715 Spanish
 Ecuador Quito 0.732 Spanish
 El Salvador San Salvador 0.666 Spanish
 Grenada St. George's 0.750 English
 Guatemala Guatemala City 0.627 Spanish
 Guyana Georgetown 0.636 English
 Haiti Port-au-Prince 0.483 French, Haitian Creole
 Honduras Tegucigalpa 0.606 Spanish
 Jamaica Kingston 0.719 English
 Mexico Mexico City 0.756 none[a]
 Nicaragua Managua 0.631 Spanish
 Panama Panama City 0.780 Spanish
 Paraguay Asuncion 0.679 Spanish
 Peru Lima 0.734 Spanish
 Saint Kitts and Nevis Basseterre 0.752 English
 Saint Lucia Castries 0.729 English
 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Kingstown 0.720 English
 Suriname Paramaribo 0.714 Dutch
 Trinidad and Tobago Port of Spain 0.772 English
 United States Washington D.C. 0.915 none[b]
 Uruguay Montevideo 0.793 Spanish
 Venezuela Caracas 0.762 Spanish

Non-members[edit]

The following jurisdictions are not members of the OAS as they are dependencies of other nations. They are grouped under the nation that has sovereignty over them.

 Denmark

 France

 Netherlands

 United Kingdom

 United States

References[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ None at the federal level. Spanish is however, the de facto language of the Mexican government.
  2. ^ None at the federal level. English is however, the de facto language of the U.S. government.

Citations[edit]

  1. ^ Prieto, Alfredo. "Everybody But Cuba," Havana Times. April 15, 2009.
  2. ^ Twaddle, Andrew C. (2002). Health Care Reform Around the World, p. 382.
  3. ^ Summit Americas: I summit (1st)
  4. ^ Summit Americas: II summit (2nd)
  5. ^ Summit Americas: III summit (3rd)
  6. ^ Special Summit of the Americas: Special Summit
  7. ^ Summit Americas: IV summit (4th)
  8. ^ Summit Americas: V summit (5th)
  9. ^ Summit Americas: VI summit (6th)
  10. ^ Summit Americas: VII summit (7th)
  11. ^ Summit Americas: VIII summit (8th)
  12. ^ "Human Development Report 2015 – "Rethinking Work for Human Development"" (PDF). HDRO (Human Development Report Office) United Nations Development Programme. Retrieved 14 December 2015. 

External links[edit]