Summits of the Americas
The Summits of the Americas (SOA) are a series of international summit meetings bringing together the leaders of countries in the Organization of American States (OAS). All countries have sent representatives to all meetings except for Cuba, who was expelled from the OAS under US pressure after the Cuban Revolution of 1959. Cuba participated in the 7th Summit held in Panama in 2015 and sent its foreign minister to the subsequent 2018 summit. In the early 1990s, what were formerly ad hoc summits came to be institutionalized into a regular "Summit of the Americas" based on the principles of democracy and free trade. The meetings, organized by a number of multilateral bodies led by the Organization of American States, provide an opportunity for discussions about a variety of issues and topics.
List of summits
|Summit||Dates||Host Country||Host City||Host leader|
|1st||December 9–11, 1994||United States||Miami||Bill Clinton|
|2nd||April 18–19, 1998||Chile||Santiago||Eduardo Frei Ruiz-Tagle|
|3rd||April 20–22, 2001||Canada||Quebec City||Jean Chrétien|
|4th||November 4–5, 2005||Argentina||Mar del Plata||Néstor Kirchner|
|5th||April 17–19, 2009||Trinidad and Tobago||Port-of-Spain||Patrick Manning|
|6th||April 14–15, 2012||Colombia||Cartagena||Juan Manuel Santos Calderón|
|7th||April 10–11, 2015||Panama||Panama City||Juan Carlos Varela|
|8th||April 13–14, 2018||Peru||Lima||Martín Vizcarra|
The summits that garnered most general public and media attention were the Quebec City and Mar del Plata events, both of which provoked very large anti-globalization and anti–Free Trade Area of the Americas protests and attendant police response.
OAS member states
- French Guiana
- Saint Barthélemy
- Saint Martin
- Saint Pierre and Miquelon
- Sint Maarten
- Sint Eustatius
- Cayman Islands
- Falkland Islands
Disputed with Argentina
- South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands
Disputed with Argentina
- Turks and Caicos Islands
- British Virgin Islands
- Prieto, Alfredo. "Everybody But Cuba," Havana Times. April 15, 2009.
- Twaddle, Andrew C. (2002). Health Care Reform Around the World, p. 382.
- Summit Americas: I summit (1st)
- Summit Americas: II summit (2nd)
- Summit Americas: III summit (3rd)
- Summit Americas: IV summit (4th)
- Summit Americas: V summit (5th)
- Summit Americas: VI summit (6th)
- Summit Americas: VII summit (7th)
- Summit Americas: VIII summit (8th)
- "Human Development Report 2016 – "Rethinking Work for Human Development"" (PDF). HDRO (Human Development Report Office) United Nations Development Programme. Retrieved 15 January 2017.
- Twaddle, Andrew C. (2002). Health Care Reform Around the World. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Publishing. ISBN 978-0-86569-288-6; OCLC 48132063