Sumo languages

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Native to Nicaragua, Honduras
Region Huaspuc River and its tributaries
Ethnicity Sumo people
Native speakers
9,000 (1997–2009)[1]
Language codes
ISO 639-3 suminclusive code
Individual codes:
yan – Mayangna
ulw – Ulwa
Glottolog sumu1234[2]

Sumo (also known as Sumu) is the collective name for a group of Misumalpan languages spoken in Nicaragua and Honduras. Hale & Salamanca (2001) classify the Sumu languages into a northern Mayangna, composed of the Tawahka and Panamahka dialects, and southern Ulwa. Sumu specialist Ken Hale considers the differences between Ulwa and Mayangna in both vocabulary and morphology to be so considerable that he prefers to speak of Ulwa as a language distinct from the northern Sumu varieties.


  • Hale, Ken, and Danilo Salamanca (2001) "Theoretical and Universal Implications of Certain Verbal Entries in Dictionaries of the Misumalpan Languages", in Frawley, Hill & Munro eds. Making Dictionaries: Preserving indigenous Languages of the Americas. University of California Press.


  1. ^ Sumo at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
    Mayangna at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
    Ulwa at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  2. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Sumuic". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.