Sun Ke started his football career with second tier side Jiangsu Sainty in 2006. By the 2008 season, he would play in 22 league games and score two goals as he was part of the team that won the second tier league title and promotion to the top flight. Within the top tier, Sun found it hard to gain significant playing time until the 2011 season when he started to establish himself as a regular for the first team which soon culminated in his first goal in over two years when he scored on 14 September 2011 in a 2-0 win against Hangzhou Greentown.
On 18 June 2015, Sun transferred to fellow Chinese Super League side Tianjin Teda for a record-breaking domestic transfer fee of an estimated ¥66 million. However, due to complications with the club's sponsor Quanjian, the transfer was suddenly put on hold and Sun returned to Jiangsu.
On 24 December 2014, Sun was named in China's squad for the 2015 AFC Asian Cup in Australia. In the team's second group match, he scored the winning goal as China won 2-1 against Uzbekistan to qualify for the knockout stage.