Sun Yang

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Sun Yang
Incheon AsianGames Swimming 34.jpg
Sun at the 2014 Asian Games
Personal information
Full name Sun Yang (孙杨)
National team  China
Born (1991-12-01) 1 December 1991 (age 24)
Hangzhou, Zhejiang, China
Height 1.98 m (6 ft 6 in)
Weight 89 kg (196 lb)
Sport
Sport Swimming
Strokes Freestyle
Club Zhejiang Swimming Team
This is a Chinese name; the family name is Sun.
Sun Yang
Traditional Chinese 孫楊
Simplified Chinese 孙杨

Sun Yang (simplified Chinese: 孙杨; traditional Chinese: 孫楊; born 1 December 1991)[1] is a Chinese Olympic and world-record-holding competitive swimmer. He is the first Chinese male swimmer to win an Olympic gold medal, winning three such medals in freestyle events.

Sun swam for China at the 2008 Summer Olympics.[2] At the 2010 Asian Games, he won the 1500 metre freestyle, setting an Asian record; this swim and his three other medals at the Asian Games were cited in his being named the Rookie of the Year at the 2010 CCTV Sports Awards.[3] At the 2011 World Championships, Sun broke the world record in the 1500 metre freestyle, breaking the record set by Grant Hackett in 2001, which was the longest-held world record in swimming at the time it was broken[4] and the only men's swimming record to not have been beaten during the techsuit era. At the 2012 Summer Olympics, Sun won gold medals in the 400 metre and 1500 metre freestyle, becoming the first Chinese man ever to win an Olympic gold medal in swimming.[5] During those Games, Sun and Michael Phelps were the only male swimmers to win two individual gold medals. At the 2016 Summer Olympics, Sun won a gold medal in the 200 metre freestyle and a silver medal in the 400 metre freestyle.

In May 2014, Sun was banned for three months by the Chinese Swimming Association after testing positive for the stimulant trimetazidine, which had been added to the World Anti-Doping Agency's banned list four months earlier.[6] Sun stated that he was prescribed the stimulant by a doctor to treat heart palpitations he has suffered since 2008, and was unaware that it had been newly added to the banned substances list.[6][7] In January 2015, the World Anti-Doping Agency reclassified and downgraded trimetazidine from "stimulant" to "modulator of cardiac metabolism".[8] The drug, however, remains a banned substance as of 2016.[9]

Swimming career[edit]

Sun's international breakthrough occurred at the 2008 Summer Olympics in Beijing. At the age of 16, Sun placed 28th in the 400 metre freestyle, unable to reach the final. He later placed 7th in the qualifying heats of the 1500 metre freestyle, reaching the final but ultimately placing last in it. Sun rebounded from this the following year, at the 2009 World Championships, where he would go on to win his first international medal, a bronze, in the 1500 metre freestyle with a time of 14:46.84. He also placed 18th in the 400 metre freestyle with a time of 3:47.51.[10]

2010 Asian Games[edit]

2010 Asian Games
Gold medal – first place 1500 m freestyle 14:35.43 (AR)
Gold medal – first place 4×200 m freestyle 7:07.68 (GR)
Silver medal – second place 200 m freestyle 1:46.25
Silver medal – second place 400 m freestyle 3:42.47

Sun reached further success during the 2010 Asian Games. There, Sun won gold medals in the 1500 metre freestyle and the 4 × 200 metre freestyle relay, and silver medals in the 200 metre and 400 metre freestyle. His 1500 metre freestyle time of 14:35.43 was a new Asian record and the second fastest time in history, second only to Grant Hackett, whose record Sun would later surpass the following year.[11][12][13]

2011 World Aquatics Championships[edit]

2011 World Championships
Gold medal – first place 800 m freestyle 7:38.57
Gold medal – first place 1500 m freestyle 14:34.14 (WR)
Silver medal – second place 400 m freestyle 3:43.24
Bronze medal – third place 4×200 m freestyle 7:04.74

On the first day of competition, Sun placed second in the 400 metre freestyle, losing to South Korean Park Tae-hwan with a time of 3:43.24. Three days later, Sun would go on to win his first World Championship title in the 800 metre freestyle with a time of 7:38.57. After a day of rest, he would go on to anchor the Chinese team to a bronze medal in the 4 × 200 metre freestyle relay. On the final day of competition, Sun competed in the 1500 metre freestyle. He won the race with a time of 14:34.14, ten seconds ahead of the rest of the competition. At the age of 19, Sun broke the world record previously set by Hackett, 14:34.56, which stood for ten years before Sun's feat.[12][13]

2012 Summer Olympics[edit]

Olympic medal record
2012 London – Men's Swimming
Representing  China
Gold medal – first place 400 m freestyle 3.40.14 (OR)
Gold medal – first place 1500 m freestyle 14.31.02 (WR)
Silver medal – second place 200 m freestyle 1.44.93
Bronze medal – third place 4×200 m freestyle 7.06.30

Coming into the Games, Sun was considered a favorite in the 400 metre and 1500 metre freestyle, as well as a medal contender in the 200 metre freestyle. In his first event, the 400 metre freestyle, Sun won the gold medal with a time of 3:40.14, becoming the first Chinese male swimmer to win a gold medal at the Olympics. His time was also the third fastest in history, 0.07 seconds away from the world record, and a new Asian record. After a day of rest, Sun competed in the 200 metre freestyle. In the final, he won a silver medal, tying with Park Tae-hwan with a time of 1:44.93, a new national record. The following day, Sun would anchor the Chinese team to a bronze in the 4 × 200 metre freestyle relay, their first ever in the event.

After the relay, Sun would not be back in the pool until the final day of competition, where he would compete in his best event, the 1500 metre freestyle. After easily breezing into the final as the fastest qualifier, it seemed as though he would win by a longshot. At the initial line-up on the starting blocks, a step-down command was issued due to noises from the crowd, but instead of stepping back, Sun reacted by diving in. The officials ruled that the early dive was due to fan noise and did not constitute a false start, and Sun was allowed to continue in the competition.[14] He went on to win the race in a time of 14:31.02, a new world record by over 3 seconds and over 8 seconds ahead of second-place finisher, Canadian Ryan Cochrane. These results made Sun the most successful Chinese male swimmer in Olympic history, and the first swimmer to win the 400/1500 double since Vladimir Salnikov at the 1980 Olympics in Moscow. Sun completed the final 50 metres of the race in 25.68 seconds, nearly two seconds faster than second-place finisher Cochrane.[15]

2013 World Aquatics Championships[edit]

2013 World Championships
Gold medal – first place 400 m freestyle 3:41.59
Gold medal – first place 800 m freestyle 7:41.36
Gold medal – first place 1500 m freestyle 14:41.15
Bronze medal – third place 4×200 m freestyle 7:04.74

Sun was back in action at the 2013 World Championships. On the first day of competition, Sun improved on his silver showing at the last World Championships by winning gold in the 400 metre freestyle with a time of 3:41.59. While it was nearly a second and a half off his Olympic winning time from the previous year, he was still over three seconds ahead of the second-place finisher, Kosuke Hagino of Japan.[16] Two days later, Sun was able to retain his title in the 800 metre freestyle with a time of 7:41.36. It was his second gold medal in the Championship and the 100th gold medal won by China in World Aquatics Championships history.[17]

On day six of the competition, Sun was given the task of anchoring the team for the 4 × 200 metre freestyle relay. China barely slid into the final at eighth place, but many thought Sun would be a huge benefit to the team, as China were the previous bronze medalists in this event at the last World Championships. Going into the final leg, China was in fifth, over two seconds behind France and Japan. This difference in time meant it would take a huge leg to pass these teams for the bronze medal, but Sun was able to overtake both teams in the end with a time of 1:43.16; this time was the second-fastest in history and 1.82 seconds better than the other 31 swimmers, including Ryan Lochte and Yannick Agnel.[18] Even taking the relay exchange out of this time, it was still over a second faster than his flat start time of 1:44.93.

On the final day of the competition, Sun maintained his title as Olympic and World Champion in the 1500 metre freestyle by beating Ryan Cochrane once again, in a time 10 seconds slower than his world record finish in 2012 Olympics. By doing so, Sun became the first swimmer since Australian Grant Hackett, and the second in history, to win all three long distance gold medals in freestyle (400, 800, and 1500 metre) in a single World Championships.[19]

Post-2013 Season[edit]

A month after the World Championships, Sun competed in China's 12th National Games, which are held every four years. At this competition, Sun was vying to become the first man to win seven gold medals at a single championship. To do this, he added the 100 metre freestyle to his repertoire, typically an event reserved for sprinters. With the games holding the same schedule as the Olympics, he first competed in the 400 metre freestyle, winning in 3:43.68, over a second ahead of Hao Yun. The following day, he won the 4 × 100 metre freestyle relay event, swimming the anchor leg in 48.14 seconds. He followed his performances the next day by setting a new Asian record in the 200 metre freestyle with a time of 1:44.47, about half a second faster than his time in London. This time was a follow up to the 1:43.16 anchor leg he had swum on the 4 × 200 metre freestyle relay the 2013 World Championships. He showed his versatility the next day when he won bronze in the 100 metre freestyle, getting under 49 seconds for the first time with a time of 48.94 seconds.[20]

Sun had lost a month of his stipend and was barred from competitive events beginning in early November for an indefinite time, after it was discovered that he was driving without a license following a fender-bender in which a bus rear-ended a relative's Porsche Cayenne that he was illegally operating.[21] He later made a public apology, stating that he "should have been a role model as an athlete and public figure ... but failed in my responsibility".[22]

2014[edit]

2014 World Cup, Beijing
Gold medal – first place 400 m freestyle 3:37.10
2014 Asian Games
Gold medal – first place 400 m freestyle 3:43.23
Gold medal – first place 1500 m freestyle 14:49.75
Gold medal – first place 4×100 m freestyle 3:13.47 (AR)
Silver medal – second place 200 m freestyle 1:45.28

Doping ban[edit]

In May 2014, Sun was banned for three months by the Chinese Swimming Association after testing positive for the stimulant trimetazidine, which had been added to the World Anti-Doping Agency's banned list four months earlier.[6] The substance is prohibited in-competition only; the ingestion of trimetazidine by an athlete out-of-competition "is inconsequential", and constitutes illicit behavior only if the same athlete later participates in competition before the substance clears their system.[23]

Sun stated that he was prescribed the stimulant by a doctor to treat heart palpitations he has suffered since 2008, and that he was unaware that it had been newly added to the banned substances list.[6][7] In January 2015, the World Anti-Doping Agency reclassified and downgraded trimetazidine from "stimulant" to "modulator of cardiac metabolism".[8] The drug, however, remains a banned substance as of 2016.[9]

There was some controversy as CHINADA (Chinese Anti-Doping Authority) did not report the failed test or the subsequent ban until after it had been served which contravened World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) rules.[citation needed] One Australian writer opined that the punishment was lenient, but also admitted that "Yang [was not] found to have doped intentionally".[23] In the ensuing fallout, Sun was stripped of his win in the 1500 metre freestyle at the Chinese nationals.[citation needed] Swimming Australia ordered coach Denis Cotterell to stop working with Sun, and Sun was also no longer allowed to practice at Swimming Australia's official training centers, although Sun still trains in Australia.[24][25][26]

2014 China Spring Nationals[edit]

Sun made a comeback in his first post-suspension event in the 2014 China Spring Nationals, where he won a gold medal in the men's 200 metre freestyle.[27]

2015[edit]

2015 World Championships
Gold medal – first place 400 m freestyle 3:42.58
Gold medal – first place 800 m freestyle 7:39.96
Silver medal – second place 200 m freestyle 1:45.20

At the 2015 World Championships, Sun won gold medals in the 400 metre and 800 metre freestyle, as well as a silver medal in the 200 metre freestyle. In the 1500 metre freestyle, in which he was the two-time defending champion, Sun withdrew from the competition, later citing heart problems during warm-up.[28][29] "I feel very sorry that I couldn’t be present for the 1500m," Sun told reporters. "I didn’t feel good in my heart. Today I felt really uncomfortable at the pool during my warm-up and I had to give up the idea of competing. I feel really sorry about that."[30]

At the World Championships, Sun was accused by Brazilian coaches of assaulting one of their female swimmers, Larissa Oliveira.[7] Brazil team spokeswoman Eliana Alves told the Associated Press that there was "contact" between Sun and Oliveira, "but it was not a fight".[31] Swimming's world governing body, FINA, later cleared Sun of any wrongdoing.[32] FINA executive director Cornel Marculescu explained that the altercation that led to a complaint against Sun was the result of overcongestion in the warmup pool, and did not warrant further action.[32] According to Marculescu, there were over 1,000 swimmers present, so the preparation pool became very crowded.[32]

2016 Summer Olympics[edit]

Olympic medal record
2016 Rio de Janeiro – Men's Swimming
Representing  China
Gold medal – first place 200 m freestyle 1:44.65
Silver medal – second place 400 m freestyle 3:41.68

At the 2016 Summer Olympics, Sun won a gold medal in the 200 metre freestyle, his first major international title in this event. He also won a silver medal in the 400 metre freestyle, finishing 0.13 seconds behind Mack Horton of Australia. Sun finished 16th in the qualifying heats of the 1500 metre freestyle.[19]

The lead-up to the 400 metre freestyle was marred by controversy. Sun was accused of splashing water into rival Horton's face during practice. Horton accused Sun of attempting to distract him, while Sun and Xu Qi, the Chinese swim team manager, denied the allegations and stated that it must have been a misunderstanding.[33][34] Horton responded to this incident by twice accusing Sun of being a "drug cheat", in reference to his 2014 suspension. Horton's social media pages received negative criticism from Chinese fans, with many deriding the Australian as a racist, a "snake", and a "disrespectful person".[34][35] The head of China's Olympic organization requested an apology for the allegation, stating that Horton's claims "have greatly damaged sporting ties between China and Australia, and damaged the image of Australian athletes"; the request was turned down.[36][37][38] Further controversy arose when the Global Times, a Chinese newspaper, offered scathing editorials attacking the country of Australia.[39][40][41] Conversely, an op-ed piece from another Chinese newspaper, Changjiang Daily, called for calm and indicated that the dispute was only between the two athletes and should not become a conflict between the two countries.[42]

Major achievements[edit]

Personal bests (long course)[edit]

Event Time Venue Date Note(s)
100 m freestyle 48.94 Shenyang 8 September 2013
200 m freestyle 1:44.47 Shenyang 7 September 2013 NR, AS
400 m freestyle 3:40.14 London 28 July 2012 OR, AS, NR
800 m freestyle 7:38.57 Shanghai 27 July 2011
1500 m freestyle 14:31.02 London 4 August 2012 WR, OR, AS, NR

Key: AS = Asian Record, NR = National Record, WR = World Record, OR = Olympic Record

Personal life[edit]

Sun was born in Hangzhou, Zhejiang, China. His father, Sun Quanhong (孙全洪), was an outstanding volleyball player. Because his mother's surname is Yang, he was named Sun Yang. He wanted to be a singer in his childhood and his favorite singer is Avril Lavigne.[43]

Sun made multiple appearances in sponsored events, and his relationship with his girlfriend resulted in missed training sessions as well as Sun's fallout with his coach, Zhu Zhigen.[44] In a press conference held by the Zhejiang Institute of Sports on 4 February 2013, Sun Yang was formally criticized for his behaviors.[citation needed] The Institute also enforced disciplinary actions on Sun, temporarily banning him from any business-related activities.[citation needed]

On 3 November 2013, Sun Yang was caught driving without licence following an accident in Hangzhou. He was ordered to be detained for 7 days by the police and fined 5000 yuan.[45][46] On 6 November, State General Administration of Sports published the statement, said Sun temporarily banning him from any business-related activities, National team's camp and from joining any games.[47] On 24 April 2014, Sun had his endorsement and business-related ban lifted as a result of "good behavior". The lifting of the ban came at the same time that long-time coach Zhu Zhigen resigned from his coaching duties due to health concerns.[48]

Sun and Park Tae-hwan in 2014 Asian Games

In July 2014, Sun Yang graduated from Zhejiang University with a bachelor's degree in physical training.

Sun is a good friend of South Korean swimmer Park Tae-hwan.[49][50]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Sun's bio page from China's 2008 Olympic team website; retried 2011-01-19.
  2. ^ Sun's entry from www.sports-reference.com; retrieved 2011-01-19.
  3. ^ Lin Dan, Wang Meng win China's CCTV Sports Personality of the Year, published 2011-01-17 by People's Daily Online. Retrieved 2011-01-19.
  4. ^ "Lane 9 News Archive: Flash! FINA World Championships, Swimming: Sun Yang Downs Grant Hackett's 1500 Free World Record". Swimmingworldmagazine.com. Retrieved 2013-08-10. 
  5. ^ "Olympic swimming: China's Sun Chang beats rival Park to gold". Retrieved 2012-07-28. 
  6. ^ a b c d "China's Olympic swimming champion Sun Yang served doping ban". Reuters. 24 November 2014. Retrieved 2 August 2016. 
  7. ^ a b c "Chinese Olympic champion Sun Yang accused of attacking Brazilian swimmer Larissa Oliveira". The Sydney Morning Herald. 10 August 2015. Retrieved 11 August 2015. 
  8. ^ a b https://www.swimmingworldmagazine.com/news/sun-yang-doping-case/
  9. ^ a b "2016 List of Prohibited Substances and Methods". WADA. Retrieved 7 August 2016. 
  10. ^ http://www.usaswimming.org/_Rainbow/Documents/13d748c6-dc3c-46a5-aef0-907f9db08b48/WorldsBook_All_Results.html
  11. ^ "Sun Yang of China wins men's 1500m freestyle gold at Asian Games". People. 19 November 2010. Retrieved 28 August 2016. 
  12. ^ a b Keith, Braden (31 July 2011). "SUN YANG BREAKS GRANT HACKETT'S WORLD RECORD IN 1500 FREESTYLE". SwimSwam. Retrieved 28 August 2016. 
  13. ^ a b Halloran, Jessica (31 July 2011). "Sun Yang breaks Grant Hackett's 10-year 1500m record". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 28 August 2016. 
  14. ^ "2012 London Olympics: Sun Yang Averts Potential False Start Disaster for Relentless World Record in 1500 Free; Ryan Cochrane Second, Ous Mellouli Third; USA's Connor Jaeger Takes Sixth". Swimming World. 4 August 2012. Retrieved 29 August 2016. 
  15. ^ "A TALE OF TWO MILERS: SUN YANG & RYAN COCHRANE'S LCM 1500 FREESTYLE". eScout. 31 January 2016. Retrieved 28 August 2016. 
  16. ^ 2013年07月29日00:32 来源:新华社 (2010-09-09). "孙杨400米自由泳夺冠 什么意思". Sports.sohu.com. Retrieved 2013-08-10. 
  17. ^ "孙杨:用两枚金牌回报自己 把800米荣誉留在中国". News.xinhuanet.com. Retrieved 2013-08-10. 
  18. ^ Zaccardi, Nick (13 May 2014). "Sun Yang's return sets up potential legendary race". NBC Sports. Retrieved 28 August 2016. 
  19. ^ a b "Sun Yang Bio". SwimSwam. Retrieved 28 August 2016. 
  20. ^ "Jiao Liuyang Posts World Best; Several Chinese Records Fall As Well at National Games". Swimming World. 8 September 2013. Retrieved 28 August 2016. 
  21. ^ "Chinese swimmer Sun Yang apologizes for driving without license after Porsche SUV accident - CTV News". CTVNews. Retrieved 6 November 2015. 
  22. ^ "Olympic champ Sun Yang in car accident, caught driving without license". xinhuanet.com. Retrieved 6 November 2015. 
  23. ^ a b Calling Sun Yang a drug cheat exposes double standards at Rio Olympics
  24. ^ http://www.news.com.au/sport/olympics/swimming/is-chinese-swimmer-sun-yang-a-drug-cheat-or-just-a-jerk/news-story/ab0c64a41984dd513274b3fd0ec2e75b
  25. ^ https://swimswam.com/is-australia-becoming-a-drug-cheat-haven
  26. ^ http://www.espn.com/olympics/swimming/story/_/id/17292475/how-china-sun-yang-vs-australia-mack-horton-got-blown-proportion-rio-olympics-2016
  27. ^ "Sun Yang Returns To Competition; Xu Jiayu Swims Worlds Fastest 100m Backstroke at Chinese Spring Nationals". SwimSwam. Retrieved 6 November 2015. 
  28. ^ "China's Sun fails to rise for 1,500m at Kazan world championships". The National (Abu Dhabi). August 10, 2015. Retrieved August 9, 2016. 
  29. ^ Is It Really Fair to Call Chinese Swimmer Sun Yang a Drug Cheat?
  30. ^ China's Sun in shock withdrawal from 1,500m final
  31. ^ "Sun Yang is no-show for 1,500 free final at worlds". 
  32. ^ a b c Linden, Julian (26 August 2015). "FINA clears China's Sun over 'altercation' at worlds". Reuters. Retrieved 29 August 2016. 
  33. ^ http://edition.cnn.com/2016/08/06/sport/horton-yang-swimming-rio-olympics-day-one/
  34. ^ a b Lin, Sarah (8 August 2016). "Chinese fans attack Australian swimmer Mack Horton online after he calls Sun Yang a 'drug cheat'". Shanghaiist. Retrieved 29 August 2016. 
  35. ^ Tiezzi, Shannon (9 August 2016). "Why Do So Many People Assume China's Athletes Are Cheaters?". The Diplomat. Retrieved 29 August 2016. 
  36. ^ http://english.cctv.com/2016/08/08/VIDEaeWyBjejMCeGFJZjBXdL160808.shtml
  37. ^ https://www.theguardian.com/sport/2016/aug/09/australia-refuses-to-apologise-for-mack-hortons-sun-yang-drug-comment
  38. ^ http://www.smh.com.au/sport/olympics/rio-2016/black-line-diplomacy-fails-at-the-rio-olympic-games-pool-theyre-all-in-deep-now-20160809-gqocn4.html
  39. ^ "China's anti-Australian vitriol over Mack Horton reflects an increasingly strained relationship". ABC News. Retrieved 11 August 2016. 
  40. ^ "Chinese State Media Cannot Stop Sooking About The Mack Horton/Sun Yang Biff". Pedestrian.TV. Retrieved 11 August 2016. 
  41. ^ "Chinese media turns microscope on Australia's history after Mack Horton comments". News.com.au. Retrieved 11 August 2016. 
  42. ^ "对霍顿言论 不必反应过度". 长江日报. 2016-08-09. . This op-ed was also published in the prominent state media outlet Guangming Daily (China). see http://news.gmw.cn/newspaper/2016-08/09/content_115045141.htm
  43. ^ "孙杨盼被刘德华签下当歌手 自曝偶像是艾薇儿". 网易娱乐. 2012-08-21. 
  44. ^ "孙杨被通报批评、扣发津贴、禁止参加一切商业活动". 新华网. 2013-02-05. 
  45. ^ "公安人士曝孙杨曾出示假驾照". 新浪网. 2013-11-03. (simplified Chinese)
  46. ^ "孙杨无证驾驶被杭州警方罚款并处行政拘留7天". 新浪网. 2013-11-04. (simplified Chinese)
  47. ^ "孙杨被国家队开除:停训停赛停商业活动(图)". 网易. 2013-11-06. (simplified Chinese)
  48. ^ "Olympic champion Sun Yang has ban lifted, splits with long-time coach". Xinhua. 24 April 2014. Retrieved 12 June 2016. 
  49. ^ 孙杨和朴泰桓在里约玩了把自拍,这两个大男孩的友谊外人不懂 Retrieved 2016-08-19
  50. ^ 孙杨朴泰桓里约相会 八年走过沧海桑田 Retrieved 2016-08-27

External links[edit]

Records
Preceded by
Grant Hackett
Men's 1500 metre freestyle
world record holder (long course)

31 July 2011 – present
Succeeded by
Incumbent
Awards
Preceded by
Kosuke Kitajima
Pacific Rim Swimmer of the Year
2011 – 2013
Succeeded by
Kosuke Hagino
Preceded by
Wang Hao
Best new people of CCTV Sports Personality of the Year
2010
Succeeded by
Fan Kexin
Preceded by
Lin Dan
Best male player of CCTV Sports Personality of the Year
2011, 2012
Succeeded by
Lin Dan
Preceded by
Michael Phelps
World Swimmer of the Year
2013
Succeeded by
Kosuke Hagino