Sunn-hemp mosaic virus

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Sunn-hemp mosaic virus[1]
Virus classification e
(unranked): Virus
Realm: Riboviria
Phylum: incertae sedis
Family: Virgaviridae
Genus: Tobamovirus
Species:
Sunn-hemp mosaic virus[1]
Synonyms
  • bean strain of tobacco mosaic virus
  • cowpea strain of tobacco mosaic virus
  • cowpea chlorotic spot virus
  • cowpea mosaic virus[citation needed]
  • cowpea yellow mosaic virus
  • Crotalaria mucronata mosaic virus
  • dolichos enation mosaic virus
  • Hemp mosaic virus
  • Sunn-hemp rosette virus
  • Sunnhemp mosaic virus[2]

Sunn-hemp mosaic virus (SHMV) is a pathogenic plant virus. It is known by many names, including bean strain of tobacco mosaic virus and Sunn-hemp rosette virus. SHMV is an intracellular parasite that infects plants. It can be seen only through an electron microscope. It is a positive-sense single-stranded RNA virus that causes physical characteristics of spotting and/or discoloration.

Transmission[edit]

Infected crops transmit the virus in a number of ways, but in most cases transmittal requires physical contact. This mean that touching an infected plant, then touching a healthy plant could cause the healthy plant to contract the virus. Using tools to trim an infected plant, then using them on a healthy plant without sterilizing them between uses can result in the transmission of the virus. The virus should be treated like it is airborne since an insect can transmit the virus, from plant to plant, just by flying around and making contact between plants. Hemp mosaic virus is particularly resilient and can infect the soil through the winter and into the following growing seasons for years.

Effects[edit]

The hemp mosaic virus infects plants of the Cannabis genus. The virus causes cellular mutations, stunted growth, damages plants photosynthesis ability, and more. Cellular mutations usually manifest as discoloration and misshapen leaves. Discoloration usually manifests as yellow or grey mottling that can form a spotted, mosaic, or streak pattern. Misshapen leaves can be the result of damage to the plants at a cellular level, making them appear contorted and/or twisted. The stunted growth can cause a tremendous amount of crop loss due to lower than normal yields. Losses of 25% of flower production or more have been widely observed and reported.

Treatment[edit]

There is no known cure for the hemp mosaic virus or other tobamoviruses. Once a plant has become infected with the virus the host will never be free from infection. The virus is destroyed through incineration of the infected tissues. Plants do have a natural defense in the form of a protein coating that protects the plants RNA. Different strains have varying resiliencies to hemp mosaic virus due to varying levels of the hormone responsible for the production of the protective protein coatings.

Environment[edit]

Hemp mosaic virus is known as one of the most stable viruses. It has a very wide survival range. As long as the surrounding temperature remains below approximately 40 degrees Celsius, hemp mosaic virus can sustain its stable form. All it needs is a host to infect. Greenhouses and botanical gardens would provide the most favorable condition for the virus to spread, due to the high population density of possible hosts and the constant temperature throughout the year.

External links[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Tobamovirus". International Committee on the Taxonomy of Viruses. Retrieved 1 July 2019.
  2. ^ ICTV 5th Report Francki, R. I. B., Fauquet, C. M., Knudson, D. L. & Brown, F. (eds)(1991). Classification and nomenclature of viruses. Fifthreport of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses. Archives of Virology Supplementum 2, p358 https://talk.ictvonline.org/ictv/proposals/ICTV%205th%20Report.pdf