Sonni Ali

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Sunni Ali
1st king of the Songhai Empire, 15th ruler of the Sonni dynasty
King of Songhai
Reign 1464 – 1492
Successor Sunni Baru
Sunni Dynasty
Reign 1464 – 1492
Predecessor Sunni Suleiman
Successor Sunni Baru
Born Ali Kolon
Died 1492
Religion Traditional African
Islam
Extent of the Songhai Empire, circa 1500.

Sunni Ali, also known as Sunni Ali Ber, was born Ali Kolon.[1][2] He reigned from about 1464 to 1492. Sunni Ali was the first king of the Songhai Empire, located in Africa and the 15th ruler of the Sonni dynasty. Under Sunni Ali's infantry and cavalry many cities were captured and then fortified, such as Timbuktu (captured in 1468) and Djenné (captured in 1475). Sonni conducted a repressive policy against the scholars of Timbuktu, especially those of the Sankore region who were associated with the Tuareg whom Ali expelled to gain control of the town.

Sunni Ali organized a fleet to patrol the Niger river. During his reign, Songhai surpassed the height of the Mali Empire, engulfing areas under the Mali Empire (and the Ghana Empire before it). His death, in late 1492, is a matter of conjecture. According to the Tarikh al-Sudan, Ali drowned while crossing the Niger River.[3] Oral tradition believes he was killed by his sister's son, Askia Muhammad Ture.[4][5] He was succeeded by his son, Sonni Baru, who was challenged by Askia because Baru was not seen as a faithful Muslim.[6] Askia succeeded to the throne. According to the Tarikh al-Sudan it is believed that this action caused Sonni Ali's sister to shout out "Askia!"(forceful one), at the news of this take over.[7]

Sonni Ali ruled over both urban Muslims and rural non-Muslims at a time when the traditional co-existence of different beliefs was being challenged. His adherence to African animism while also professing Islam leads some writers to describe him as outwardly or nominally Muslim.[8]

Preceded by
Silman Dandi
King of Songhai
1464–1492
Succeeded by
Sonni Baru

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Adeleke 1996, p. 16
  2. ^ "Chapter 2: The Origin of the Sonni" (PDF). siiasi.org. Sankore Institute of Islamic African Studies International. Retrieved 14 October 2015. 
  3. ^ Hunwick 1999, p. 100
  4. ^ Hunwick 1999, p. 100n55
  5. ^ Dictionary of African historical biography, Editors Mark R. Lipschutz and R. Kent Rasmussen, (University of California Press, 1986), 229.
  6. ^ Towards an Understanding of the African Experience from Historical By Festus Ugboaja Ohaegbulam
  7. ^ "African Legends". Africanlegends.info. Retrieved 2015-10-14. 
  8. ^ Hunwick 1999, p. xxxix

References[edit]

  • Adeleke, Tunde (1996). Songhay. New York: Rosen Publishing Group. ISBN 0-8239-1986-2. 
  • Hunwick, John O. (1999). Timbuktu and the Songhay Empire: Al-Sadi's Tarikh al-Sudan down to 1613 and other contemporary documents. Leiden: Brill. ISBN 90-04-11207-3. 

External links[edit]