Sunni Islam (// or //) is the largest group of Islam. Its name comes from the word Sunnah, referring to the exemplary behavior of the Islamic prophet Muhammad. The differences between Sunni and Shia Muslims arose from a disagreement over the choice of Muhammad's successor and subsequently acquired broader political significance, as well as theological and juridical dimensions.
According to Sunni tradition, Muhammad did not clearly designate a successor and the Muslim community acted according to his sunnah in electing his father-in-law Abu Bakr as the first caliph. This contrasts with the Shi'a view, which holds that Muhammad intended his son-in-law and cousin Ali ibn Abi Talib to succeed him. Political tensions between Sunnis and Shias continued with varying intensity throughout Islamic history and they have been exacerbated in recent times by ethnic conflicts and the rise of Wahhabism.
As of 2009[update], Sunni Muslims constituted 87–90% of the world's Muslim population. Sunni Islam is the world's largest religious denomination, followed by Catholicism. Its adherents are referred to in Arabic as ahl as-sunnah wa l-jamāʻah ("the people of the sunnah and the community") or ahl as-sunnah for short. In English, its doctrines and practices are sometimes called Sunnism, while adherents are known as Sunni Muslims, Sunnis, Sunnites and Ahlus Sunnah. Sunni Islam is sometimes referred to as "orthodox Islam".
The Quran, together with hadith (especially those collected in Kutub al-Sittah) and binding juristic consensus form the basis of all traditional jurisprudence within Sunni Islam. Sharia rulings are derived from these basic sources, in conjunction with analogical reasoning, consideration of public welfare and juristic discretion, using the principles of jurisprudence developed by the traditional legal schools.
In matters of creed, the Sunni tradition upholds the six pillars of iman (faith) and comprises the Ash'ari and Maturidi schools of rationalistic theology as well as the textualist school known as traditionalist theology.
- 1 Terminology
- 2 History
- 3 Adherents
- 4 Organizational structure
- 5 Jurisprudence
- 6 Pillars of iman
- 7 Theological traditions
- 8 Sunni view of hadith
- 9 Notes
- 10 Further reading
- 11 External links
Sunnī (Classical Arabic: سُنِّي /ˈsunniː/), also commonly referred to as Sunnīism, is a term derived from sunnah (سُنَّة /ˈsunna/, plural سُنَن sunan /ˈsunan/) meaning "habit", "usual practice", "custom", "tradition". The Muslim use of this term refers to the sayings and living habits of the prophet Muhammad. In Arabic, this branch of Islam is referred to as ahl as-sunnah wa l-jamāʻah (Arabic: أهل السنة والجماعة), "the people of the sunnah and the community", which is commonly shortened to ahl as-sunnah (Arabic أهل السنة).
One common mistake is to assume that Sunni Islam represents a normative Islam that emerged during the period after Muhammad's death, and that Sufism and Shi'ism developed out of Sunni Islam. This perception is partly due to the reliance on highly ideological sources that have been accepted as reliable historical works, and also because the vast majority of the population is Sunni. Both Sunnism and Shiaism are the end products of several centuries of competition between ideologies. Both sects used each other to further cement their own identities and doctrines.
The first four caliphs are known among Sunnis as the Rashidun or "Rightly-Guided Ones". Sunni recognition includes the aforementioned Abu Bakr as the first, Umar who established the Islamic calendar as the second, Uthman as the third, and Ali as the fourth. The sequence of events of the 20th century has led to resentment in some quarters of the Sunni community due to the loss of pre-eminence in several previously Sunni-dominated regions such as the Levant, Mesopotamia, the Balkans and the Caucasus.
Sunnis believe that the companions of Muhammad were the best of Muslims. This belief is based upon prophetic traditions such as one narrated by Abdullah, son of Masud, in which Muhammad said: "The best of the people are my generation, then those who come after them, then those who come after them." Support for this view is also found in the Quran, according to Sunnis. Sunnis also believe that the companions were true believers since it was the companions who were given the task of compiling the Quran. Furthermore, narrations that were narrated by the companions (ahadith) are considered by Sunnis to be a second source of knowledge of the Muslim faith. A study conducted by the Pew Research Center in 2010 and released January 2011 found that there are 1.62 billion Muslims around the world, and it is estimated over 75–90% are Sunni.
Islam does not have a formal hierarchy or clergy. Leaders are informal, and gain influence through study to become a scholar of Islamic law, called sharia. According to the Islamic Center of Columbia, South Carolina, anyone with the intelligence and the will can become an Islamic scholar. During Midday Mosque services on Fridays, the congregation will choose a well-educated person to lead the service, known as a Khateeb (one who speaks).
Schools of law
There are several intellectual traditions within the field of Islamic law, often referred to as legal schools. These varied traditions reflect differing viewpoints on some laws and obligations within Islamic law. While one school may see a certain act as a religious obligation, another may see the same act as optional. These schools aren't regarded as sects; rather, they represent differing viewpoints on issues that are not considered the core of Islamic belief.
Historians have differed regarding the exact delineation of the schools based on the underlying principles they follow. Many traditional scholars saw Sunni Islam in two groups: Ahl al-Ra'i, or "people of reason," due to their emphasis on scholarly judgment and discourse; and Ahl al-Hadith, or "people of traditions," due to their emphasis on restricting juristic thought to only what is found in scripture. Ibn Khaldun defined the Sunni schools as three: the Hanafi school representing reason, the Ẓāhirīte school representing tradition, and a broader, middle school encompassing the Shafi'ite, Malikite and Hanbalite schools.
During the Middle Ages, the Mamluk Sultanate in Egypt delineated the acceptable Sunni schools as only Hanafi, Maliki, Shafi'i and Hanbali, excluding the Ẓāhirī school. The Ottoman Empire later reaffirmed the official status of four schools as a reaction to the Shiite character of their ideological and political archrival, the Persian Safavids, though former Prime Minister of Sudan Al-Sadiq al-Mahdi, as well as the Amman Message issued by King Abdullah II of Jordan, recognize the Ẓāhirī and keep the number of Sunni schools at five.
Differences in the schools
Interpreting Islamic law by deriving specific rulings – such as how to pray – is commonly known as Islamic jurisprudence. The schools of law all have their own particular tradition of interpreting this jurisprudence. As these schools represent clearly spelled out methodologies for interpreting Islamic law, there has been little change in the methodology with regard to each school. While conflict between the schools was often violent in the past, today the schools recognize one another as viable legal methods rather than sources of error or heresy in contrast to one another. Each school has its evidences, and differences of opinion are generally respected.
Pillars of iman
||This section possibly contains original research. (February 2017) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)|
All the branches of Sunni Islam testify to six principal articles of faith known as the six pillars of iman (Arabic for "faith"), which are believed to be essential for salvation. These are:
- Belief in the One God (see Tawhid)
- Belief in the existence of angels
- Belief in the existence of prophets
- Belief in God's revelations, including the Torah (revealed to Moses), the Psalms (revealed to David), the Gospel (revealed to Jesus), and the Quran (revealed to Muhammad)
- Belief in the Day of Judgment
- Belief in God's predestination
These six articles are what all present-day Sunnis agree on, from those who adhere to traditional Sunnism to those who adhere to latter-day movements. Additionally, classical Sunni Islam also outlined numerous other cardinal doctrines from the eighth-century onwards in the form of organized creeds such as the Creed of Tahawi, in order to codify what constituted "Sunni orthodoxy." While none of these creeds gained the importance attributed to the Nicene Creed in Christianity, primarily because ecumenical councils never happened in Islam, the beliefs outlined in these creeds became the "orthodox" doctrine by ijma, or binding consensus. But while most of the tenets outlined in the classical creeds are accepted by all Sunnis, some of these doctrines have been rejected by the aforementioned movements as lacking strictly scriptural precedent. Traditionally, these other important Sunni articles of faith have included the following (those that are controversial today because of their rejection by such groups shall be denoted by an asterisk):
- Belief in the six principal articles of faith being essential for salvation for Muslims
- Belief in God having created creation with His wisdom
- Belief in Muhammad having been the Seal of the Prophets or the last prophet sent to mankind
- Belief in the Quran being the eternal, uncreated Word of God
- Belief in the beatific vision being a reality in the afterlife, even if it will not be all-encompassing and the "manner" of it remains unknown
- Belief in the Night Journey of Muhammad having happened in a bodily form, while he was "awake"
- Belief in the intercession of Muhammad being a reality on the Last Day
- Belief in God's covenant with Adam and his offspring having been "true"
- Belief in Abraham having been God's "intimate friend"
- Belief in Moses having conversed directly with God without a mediator
- Belief in the idea that wrong works in themselves does not make a Muslim an "unbeliever" and that it is forbidden to declare takfir on those who know that what they are doing is wrong
- Belief in it being wrong to "make a distinction" between the various prophets of God
- Belief in believing in that which "all the prophets" brought from God
- Belief in avoiding "deviations, divisions, and differences" in the fold of Islam
- Belief in venerating all the Companions of Muhammad
- Belief in the existence of saints, and in venerating them and accepting the traditional narratives of their lives and miracles (*)
- Belief that saints, while exalted in their own right, occupy an infinitely lesser rank than the prophets and that "one of the prophets is greater than all the saints put together" (*)
- Belief in the Signs of the Apocalypse
- Belief that Jesus is the Promised Messiah of God and that all Muslims await his Second Coming
|Part of a series on Islam
|Including: 1 Ahmadiyya, Qutbism & Wahhabism
2 Alawites, Assassins, Druzes & Qizilbash
3 Azariqa, Ajardi, Haruriyyah, Najdat & Sufriyyah
4 Alevism, Bektashi Order & Qalandariyya
|Part of a series on|
Some Islamic scholars faced questions that they felt were not explicitly answered in the Quran and the Sunnah, especially questions with regard to philosophical conundra such as the nature of God, the existence of human free will, or the eternal existence of the Quran. Various schools of theology and philosophy developed to answer these questions, each claiming to be true to the Quran and the Muslim tradition (sunnah). Among Sunni Muslims, various schools of thought in theology began to be born out of the sciences of kalam in opposition to the textualists who stood by affirming texts without delving into philosophical speculation as they saw it as an innovation in Islam. The following were the three dominant schools of theology that grew. All three of these are accepted by Muslims around the globe, and are considered within "Islamic orthodoxy". The key beliefs of classical Sunni Islam are all agreed upon (being the six pillars of Iman) and codified in the treatise on Aqeedah by Imam Ahmad ibn Muhammad al-Tahawi in his Aqeedat Tahawiyyah.
Founded by Abu al-Hasan al-Ash'ari (873–935). This theological school of Aqeedah was embraced by many Muslim scholars and developed in parts of the Islamic world throughout history; the Imam al-Ghazali wrote on the creed discussing it and agreeing upon some of its principles.
Ash'ari theology stresses divine revelation over human reason. Contrary to the Mu'tazilites, they say that ethics cannot be derived from human reason, but that God's commands, as revealed in the Quran and the Sunnah (the practices of Muhammad and his companions as recorded in the traditions, or hadith), are the sole source of all morality and ethics.
Regarding the nature of God and the divine attributes, the Ash'ari rejected the Mu'tazili position that all Quranic references to God as having real attributes were metaphorical. The Ash'aris insisted that these attributes were as they "best befit His Majesty". The Arabic language is a wide language in which one word can have 15 different meanings, so the Ash'aris endeavor to find the meaning that best befits God and is not contradicted by the Quran. Therefore, when God states in the Quran, "He who does not resemble any of His creation," this clearly means that God cannot be attributed with body parts because He created body parts. Ash'aris tend to stress divine omnipotence over human free will and they believe that the Quran is eternal and uncreated.
Founded by Abu Mansur al-Maturidi (died 944). Maturidiyyah was a minority tradition until it was accepted by the Turkish tribes of Central Asia (previously they had been Ash'ari and followers of the Shafi'i school, it was only later on migration into Anatolia that they became Hanafi and followers of the Maturidi creed.) One of the tribes, the Seljuk Turks, migrated to Turkey, where later the Ottoman Empire was established. Their preferred school of law achieved a new prominence throughout their whole empire although it continued to be followed almost exclusively by followers of the Hanafi school while followers of the Shafi and Maliki schools within the empire followed the Ash'ari and Athari schools of thought. Thus, wherever can be found Hanafi followers, there can be found the Maturidi creed.[discuss]
Traditionalist theology is a movement of Islamic scholars who reject rationalistic Islamic theology (kalam) in favor of strict textualism in interpreting the Quran and sunnah. The name derives from "tradition" in its technical sense as translation of the Arabic word hadith. It is also sometimes referred to by several other names.
Adherents of traditionalist theology believe that the zahir (literal, apparent) meaning of the Qur'an and the hadith have sole authority in matters of belief and law; and that the use of rational disputation is forbidden even if it verifies the truth. They engage in a literal reading of the Qur'an, as opposed to one engaged in ta'wil (metaphorical interpretation). They do not attempt to conceptualize the meanings of the Qur'an rationally, and believe that their realities should be consigned to God alone (tafwid). In essence, the text of the Qur'an and Hadith is accepted without asking "how" or "Bi-la kaifa".
Traditionalist theology emerged among scholars of hadith who eventually coalesced into a movement called ahl al-hadith under the leadership of Ahmad ibn Hanbal. In matters of faith, they were pitted against Mu'tazilites and other theological currents, condemning many points of their doctrine as well as the rationalistic methods they used in defending them. In the tenth century al-Ash'ari and al-Maturidi found a middle ground between Mu'tazilite rationalism and Hanbalite literalism, using the rationalistic methods championed by Mu'tazilites to defend most tenets of the traditionalist doctrine. Although the mainly Hanbali scholars who rejected this synthesis were in the minority, their emotive, narrative-based approach to faith remained influential among the urban masses in some areas, particularly in Abbasid Baghdad.
While Ash'arism and Maturidism are often called the Sunni "orthodoxy", traditionalist theology has thrived alongside it, laying rival claims to be the orthodox Sunni faith. In the modern era it has had a disproportionate impact on Islamic theology, having been appropriated by Wahhabi and other traditionalist Salafi currents and spread well beyond the confines of the Hanbali school of law.
Sunni view of hadith
The Quran as it exists today in book form was compiled by Muhammad's companions (Sahabah) within a handful of months of his death, and is accepted by all sects of Islam. However, there were many matters of belief and daily life that were not directly prescribed in the Quran, but were actions that were observed by Muhammad and the early Muslim community. Later generations sought out oral traditions regarding the early history of Islam, and the practices of Muhammad and his first followers, and wrote them down so that they might be preserved. These recorded oral traditions are called hadith. Muslim scholars have through the ages sifted through the hadith and evaluated the chain of narrations of each tradition, scrutinizing the trustworthiness of the narrators and judging the strength of each hadith accordingly.
Kutub al-Sittah are six books containing collections of hadiths. Sunni Muslims accept the hadith collections of Bukhari and Muslim as the most authentic (sahih, or correct), and while accepting all hadiths verified as authentic, grant a slightly lesser status to the collections of other recorders. There are, however, four other collections of hadith that are also held in particular reverence by Sunni Muslims, making a total of six:
- Sahih al-Bukhari of Muhammad al-Bukhari
- Sahih Muslim of Muslim ibn al-Hajjaj
- Sunan al-Sughra of Al-Nasa'i
- Sunan Abu Dawud of Abu Dawood
- Jami' at-Tirmidhi of Al-Tirmidhi
- Sunan Ibn Majah of Ibn Majah
There are also other collections of hadith which also contain many authentic hadith and are frequently used by scholars and specialists. Examples of these collections include:
- Musannaf of Abd al-Razzaq of ‘Abd ar-Razzaq as-San‘ani
- Musnad of Ahmad ibn Hanbal
- Mustadrak of Al Haakim
- Muwatta of Imam Malik
- Sahih Ibn Hibbaan
- Sahih Ibn Khuzaymah of Ibn Khuzaymah
- Sunan al-Darimi of Al-Darimi
- John L. Esposito, ed. (2014). "Sunni Islam". The Oxford Dictionary of Islam. Oxford: Oxford University Press. (subscription required (. ))
- Tayeb El-Hibri, Maysam J. al Faruqi (2004). "Sunni Islam". In Philip Mattar. The Encyclopedia of the Modern Middle East and North Africa (Second ed.). MacMillan Reference USA.
- Harney, John (January 3, 2016). "How Do Sunni and Shia Islam Differ?". New York Times. Retrieved January 4, 2016.
- Almukhtar, Sarah; Peçanha, Sergio; Wallace, Tim (January 5, 2016). "Behind Stark Political Divisions, a More Complex Map of Sunnis and Shiites". New York Times. Retrieved January 6, 2016.
- "Mapping the Global Muslim Population". Retrieved 10 December 2014.
- Connie R. Green, Sandra Brenneman Oldendorf, Religious Diversity and Children's Literature: Strategies and Resources, Information Age Publishing, 2011, p. 156. Quote: "Catholicism is the second largest religious body after Sunni Muslims"
- "Sunnism". -Ologies & -Isms. The Gale Group. Retrieved Oct 5, 2016.
- John Richard Thackrah (5 Sep 2013). Dictionary of Terrorism (2, revised ed.). Routledge. p. 252. ISBN 978-1-135-16595-6.
- Nasir, Jamal J., ed. (2009). The Status of Women Under Islamic Law and Modern Islamic Legislation (revised ed.). BRILL. p. 11. ISBN 9789004172739.
- George W. Braswell (2000). What You Need to Know about Islam & Muslims (illustrated ed.). B&H Publishing Group. p. 62. ISBN 978-0-8054-1829-3.
- Sunnah, Center for Muslim-Jewish Engagement
- Hughes, Aaron. Muslim Identities: An Introduction to Islam. p. 115.
It is a mistake to assume, as is frequently done, that Sunni Islam emerged as normative from the chaotic period following Muhammad's death and that the other two movements simply developed out of it. This assumption is based in... the taking of later and often highly ideological sources as accurate historical portrayals - and in part on the fact that the overwhelming majority of Muslims throughout the world follows now what emerged as Sunni Islam in the early period.
- Hughes, Aaron. Muslim Identities: An Introduction to Islam. p. 116.
Each of these sectarian movements... used the other to define itself more clearly and in the process to articulate its doctrinal contents and rituals.
- Tore Kjeilen. "Lexic Orient.com". Lexic Orient.com. Retrieved 2011-06-05.
- Minahan, James (2002). Encyclopedia of the Stateless Nations. p. 547.
- Source for distribution is the CIA World Factbook, Shiite/Sunnite distribution collected from other sources. Shiites may be underrepresented in some countries where they do not appear in official statistics.
- Quran, 9:100
- "Region: Middle East-North Africa". The Future of the Global Muslim Population – Executive Summary. Pew Research Center. Retrieved 3 April 2013.
- Eastern Europe Russia and Central Asia "some 80% of the worlds Muslims are Sunni"
- "Religions". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency (CIA). Retrieved 8 December 2011.
Sunni Islam accounts for over 75% of the world's Muslim population
- Sue Hellett;U.S. should focus on sanctions against Iran "Sunnis make up over 75 percent of the world's Muslim population"
- Iran, Israel and the United States "Sunni, accounts for over 75% of the Islamic population"
- A dictionary of modern politics "probably 80% of the worlds Muslims are Sunni"
- "Mapping the Global Muslim Population: A Report on the Size and Distribution of the World's Muslim Population". Pew Research Center. October 7, 2009. Retrieved 2010-08-24.
Of the total Muslim population, 10-13% are Shia Muslims and 87-90% are Sunni Muslims.
- "Quick guide: Sunnis and Shias". BBC News. 2011-12-06. Retrieved December 18, 2011.
The great majority of Muslims are Sunnis – estimates suggest the figure is somewhere between 85% and 90%.
- "Tension between Sunnis, Shiites emerging in USA". USA Today. 2007-09-24. Retrieved December 18, 2011.
Among the world's estimated 1.4 billion Muslims, about 85% are Sunni and about 15% are Shiite.
- Sunni Islam: Oxford Bibliographies Online Research Guide "Sunni Islam is the dominant division of the global Muslim community, and throughout history it has made up a substantial majority (85 to 90 percent) of that community."
- Masjid al-Muslimiin. "Organizational Structure Of Islam," The Islamic Center of Columbia (South Carolina). Accessed 07 December 2013.
- Murtada Mutahhari, The Role of Ijtihad in Legislation, Al-Tawhid volume IV, No.2, Publisher: Islamic Thought Foundation
- Meinhaj Hussain, A New Medina, The Legal System, Grande Strategy, January 5th, 2012
- Ignác Goldziher, The Zahiris, pg. 5. Trns. Wolfgang Behn, intro. Camilla Adang.Volume three of Brill Classics in Islam. Leiden: Brill Publishers, 2008. ISBN 9789004162419
- "Law, Islamic". Encyclopedia.com. Retrieved 13 March 2012.
- Chibli Mallat, Introduction to Middle Eastern Law, pg. 116. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2007. ISBN 978-0-19-923049-5
- Hassan Ahmed Ibrahim, "An Overview of al-Sadiq al-Madhi's Islamic Discourse." Taken from The Blackwell Companion to Contemporary Islamic Thought, pg. 172. Ed. Ibrahim Abu-Rabi'. Hoboken: Wiley-Blackwell, 2008. ISBN 978-1-4051-7848-8
- "AmmanMessage.com – The Official Site".
- Wilfrid Scawen Blunt and Riad Nourallah, The future of Islam, Routledge, 2002, page 199
- "Sunni Islam Afterlife and Salvation".
- Al-Ṭaḥāwī, Al-ʿAqīdah aṭ-Ṭaḥāwiyya LXVI
- Al-Ṭaḥāwī, Al-ʿAqīdah aṭ-Ṭaḥāwiyya XVIII
- Al-Ṭaḥāwī, Al-ʿAqīdah aṭ-Ṭaḥāwiyya XXIX
- Al-Ṭaḥāwī, Al-ʿAqīdah aṭ-Ṭaḥāwiyya XXXIII
- Al-Ṭaḥāwī, Al-ʿAqīdah aṭ-Ṭaḥāwiyya XXXV
- Al-Ṭaḥāwī, Al-ʿAqīdah aṭ-Ṭaḥāwiyya XXXIX
- Al-Ṭaḥāwī, Al-ʿAqīdah aṭ-Ṭaḥāwiyya XLI
- Al-Ṭaḥāwī, Al-ʿAqīdah aṭ-Ṭaḥāwiyya XLII
- Al-Ṭaḥāwī, Al-ʿAqīdah aṭ-Ṭaḥāwiyya LII
- Al-Ṭaḥāwī, Al-ʿAqīdah aṭ-Ṭaḥāwiyya LVII
- Al-Ṭaḥāwī, Al-ʿAqīdah aṭ-Ṭaḥāwiyya LXVII
- Al-Ṭaḥāwī, Al-ʿAqīdah aṭ-Ṭaḥāwiyya LXXIII
- Al-Ṭaḥāwī, Al-ʿAqīdah aṭ-Ṭaḥāwiyya XCIII
- Al-Ṭaḥāwī, Al-ʿAqīdah aṭ-Ṭaḥāwiyya XCVIII-IX
- Al-Ṭaḥāwī, Al-ʿAqīdah aṭ-Ṭaḥāwiyya C
- J. B. Schlubach. "Fethullah Gülen and Al-Ghazzali on Tolerance". Retrieved 2010-01-07.
- "Maturidiyyah". Philtar. Retrieved 2006-04-01.
- Halverson, Jeffry R. (2010). Theology and Creed in Sunni Islam: The Muslim Brotherhood, Ash'arism, and Political Sunnism. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 36. ISBN 9781137473578.
The Atharis can thus be described as a school or movement led by a contingent of scholars (ulama), typically Hanbalite or even Shafi'ite, which retained influence, or at the very least a shared sentiment and conception of piety, well beyond the limited range of Hanbalite communities. This body of scholars continued to reject theology in favor of strict textualism well after Ash'arism had infiltrated the Sunni schools of law. It is for these reasons that we must delineate the existence of a distinctly traditionalist, anti-theological movement, which defies strict identtification with any particular madhhab, and therefore cannot be described as Hanbalite.
- Halverson, Jeffry R. (2010). Theology and Creed in Sunni Islam: The Muslim Brotherhood, Ash'arism, and Political Sunnism. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 36. ISBN 9781137473578.
- Halverson, Jeffry R. (2010). Theology and Creed in Sunni Islam: The Muslim Brotherhood, Ash'arism, and Political Sunnism. Palgrave Macmillan. pp. 36–37. ISBN 9781137473578.
- Lapidus, Ira M. (2014). A History of Islamic Societies. Cambridge University Press (Kindle edition). p. 130. ISBN 978-0-521-51430-9.
- Lapidus, Ira M. (2014). A History of Islamic Societies. Cambridge University Press (Kindle edition). pp. 123–124. ISBN 978-0-521-51430-9.
- Blankinship, Khalid (2008). Tim Winter, ed. The early creed. The Cambridge Companion to Classical Islamic Theology. Cambridge University Press (Kindle edition). p. 53.
- Halverson, Jeffry R. (2010). Theology and Creed in Sunni Islam: The Muslim Brotherhood, Ash'arism, and Political Sunnism. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 35. ISBN 9781137473578.
- Brown, Jonathan A.C. (2009). Hadith: Muhammad's Legacy in the Medieval and Modern World. Oneworld Publications (Kindle edition). p. 180.
The Ash‘ari school of theology is often called the Sunni 'orthodoxy.' But the original ahl al-hadith, early Sunni creed from which Ash‘arism evolved has continued to thrive alongside it as a rival Sunni 'orthodoxy' as well.
- Hoover, Jon (2014). "Ḥanbalī Theology". In Sabine Schmidtke. The Oxford Handbook of Islamic Theology. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 625. (subscription required (. ))
- Branon Wheeler, Applying the Canon in Islam: The Authorization and Maintenance of Interpretive Reasoning in Ḥanafī Scholarship, SUNY Press, 1996.
- Patler, Nicholas (2017). "From Mecca to Selma: Malcolm X, Islam, and the Journey Into the American Civil Rights Movement. http://theislamicmonthly.com/mecca-to-selma/: The Islamic Monthly.
|Wikisource has the text of the 1905 New International Encyclopedia article Sunnites.|