Sunset Limited

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Sunset Limited
The Sunset Limited at Palm Springs, California in 2011
Overview
Service typeInter-city rail
LocaleSouthwestern United States
First service1894 (1894)
Current operator(s)Amtrak
Former operator(s)Southern Pacific (1894–1971)
Annual ridership77,288 (FY23) Increase 4.6%[a][1]
Route
TerminiLos Angeles, California
New Orleans, Louisiana
Stops20
Distance travelled1,995 mi (3,211 km)
Average journey time
  • 45 hours, 40 minutes (eastbound)
  • 46 hours, 35 minutes (westbound)[2]
Service frequencyThree round trips per week
Train number(s)1 (westbound)
2 (eastbound)
On-board services
Class(es)Coach Class
Sleeper Service
Disabled accessTrain lower level, all stations
Sleeping arrangements
  • Roomette (2 beds)
  • Bedroom (2 beds)
  • Bedroom Suite (4 beds)
  • Accessible Bedroom (2 beds)
  • Family Bedroom (4 beds)
Catering facilitiesDining car, Café
Observation facilitiesSightseer lounge car
Baggage facilitiesOverhead racks, checked baggage available at selected stations
Technical
Rolling stockGE Genesis
Superliner
Track gauge4 ft 8+12 in (1,435 mm) standard gauge
Operating speed44 mph (71 km/h) (avg.)
79 mph (127 km/h) (top)
Track owner(s)UP, BNSF

The Sunset Limited is a long-distance passenger train operated by Amtrak on a 1,995-mile (3,211 km) route between New Orleans, Louisiana, and Los Angeles, California, with major stops in Houston, San Antonio, El Paso, and Tucson. Introduced in 1894 by the Southern Pacific Railroad, it is the oldest continuously operating named train in the United States.

With three round trips per week, the Sunset Limited is tied with the Cardinal for the lowest frequency of any regularly-scheduled Amtrak route. Each end-to-end journey takes about two days. West of San Antonio, the train runs combined with the Texas Eagle.

The Sunset Limited was extended to Florida in 1993, creating Amtrak's longest route and its only coast-to-coast train service. This ended in 2005 when service east of New Orleans was indefinitely suspended due to Hurricane Katrina.

History[edit]

The Sunset Limited circa 1910.
Early depiction of the train at Yuma, Arizona.
The train crossing Ciénega Creek near Vail, Arizona, in 1921.

Southern Pacific[edit]

Before the start of Amtrak on May 1, 1971, the Sunset Limited was operated by the Southern Pacific Railroad. The Sunset Limited is the oldest named train in the United States, operating since November 1894 along the Sunset Route (though originally named the Sunset Express). The Sunset Route (originating in New Orleans) is the southernmost of the three gateways to the West Coast envisioned through the Pacific Railroad Acts. The other two embarked from Chicago and St. Louis. However, the Sunset Route had two major advantages over the other two routes. It was an all-weather, year-round route that did not face the crippling snows of the Wasatch or Sierra mountain ranges to reach the Pacific Coast. Additionally, the other two routes had to assault the front range of the Rockies.

In addition, opened 20 years before the Panama Canal, the Sunset Route vastly shortened the time to reach the West Coast from the Atlantic Ocean and Caribbean Sea, as New Orleans was already an established seaport for Atlantic shipping lines’ passengers, seeking to reach the US interior. The Sunset Limited allowed passengers to reach the West Coast in a few days, not weeks.

The Sunset Limited was Southern Pacific's premier train.[3] Initially, the Sunset Limited was an all-Pullman train, with sleeping cars and no coaches, running from New Orleans to San Francisco via Los Angeles.[4] From its beginning in 1894, until streamlining in 1950, all the train's cars had 6-wheel trucks and dark olive green paint, with black roofs and trucks. In the summer of 1926, it was scheduled at 71 hr 40 min New Orleans to San Francisco; it then carried a coast-to-coast sleeper from Jacksonville to Los Angeles.

In contrast to its earliest Amtrak years,[5] the Sunset Limited, up to its later years, made stops not only at Phoenix, but also at Mesa and Chandler, Arizona.[6]

Amtrak[edit]

Amtrak assumed operation of most intercity passenger train routes in the United States on May 1, 1971, including those of the Southern Pacific. Amtrak retained the Sunset Limited and initially left its route unchanged.

On October 2, 1981, Amtrak began operating the Chicago-bound Eagle (known as the Texas Eagle since 1988) in conjunction with the Sunset Limited. The routes operate as one train between Los Angeles and San Antonio, Texas.

Extension to Florida[edit]

The Louisville and Nashville Railroad had operated the Gulf Wind between New Orleans and Jacksonville, Florida, from 1949 to 1971, when Amtrak dropped the route. This corridor saw limited service over the next two decades: in 1984–1985 the Gulf Coast Limited ran between New Orleans and Mobile, Alabama, and from 1989 to 1995 the Gulf Breeze served the segment from Mobile to Atmore, Alabama.[citation needed]

On April 4, 1993, Amtrak extended the Sunset Limited eastward to Miami. The train followed the former route of the Gulf Wind between New Orleans and Jacksonville, restoring service on that corridor, and used the route of Amtrak's Silver Meteor south of Jacksonville.[7] It was serviced at Amtrak's Hialeah yards for the return trip. It was only the second direct rail link between Orlando and Miami, following local trains by the Atlantic Coast Line and Seaboard Coast Line in the mid-1960s.

Schedule unreliability caused the Sunset Limited's eastern terminus to be truncated to Sanford on November 10, 1996. Service was re-extended to Orlando on October 26, 1997, and the train deadheaded (operated empty) between Orlando and Sanford for servicing. Sanford was, and still is, the servicing point for Amtrak's Auto Train.[citation needed]

1990s accidents[edit]

On September 22, 1993, the Sunset Limited fell into water from a swing bridge that had been knocked out of alignment and had its rails deformed by a row of barges colliding with it. 47 people were killed in the accident.

On September 22, 1993, the three locomotives and four of the eight cars of the eastbound Sunset Limited derailed and fell off a damaged bridge into water near Mobile, Alabama, in Amtrak's worst train wreck, the Big Bayou Canot rail accident. 47 people died.[8]

On October 9, 1995, saboteurs derailed the Sunset Limited near Harqua, Arizona, by removing 29 spikes from a section of track, and short-circuited the signal system to conceal the sabotage. The attack killed one person and injured dozens of others. The crime still remains unsolved.[9]

Bypassing of Phoenix[edit]

On June 2, 1996, the Sunset Limited was rerouted to a more southerly route between Tucson, and Yuma, Arizona, bypassing Phoenix. Union Pacific, which had acquired Southern Pacific earlier in the year, wanted to abandon a decaying portion of its Phoenix–Yuma "West Line" that had previously been used to serve Phoenix.[citation needed] This made Phoenix one of the nation's largest cities without direct passenger service; although the designated Phoenix-area stop is in Maricopa, a suburban community about 40 miles (64 km) south of downtown Phoenix. Amtrak Thruway service, run by Stagecoach Express, connects the two cities.[10]

Hurricane Katrina[edit]

On August 29, 2005, the Sunset Limited route was truncated east of San Antonio, Texas, as a result of damage to trackage in the Gulf Coast area caused by Hurricane Katrina. In late October 2005, service was restored between San Antonio and New Orleans, as the line through Louisiana had been repaired. Service east of New Orleans has remained indefinitely suspended despite CSX Transportation completing repair of the track in January 2006.[11]

Recent years[edit]

The Sunset Limited received a modified schedule on May 7, 2012, moving its westbound movements from New Orleans to a Monday, Wednesday, Saturday circuit. The times allow several 7- to 12-hour rides between major-city pairs; for example, overnight between Tucson or Maricopa (for Phoenix) and Los Angeles in both directions.[12]

While most Amtrak trains saw service reductions in 2020–2022 due to the COVID-19 pandemic, the Sunset Limited and its existing sub-daily schedule were not affected.[13][14] The Texas Eagle was reduced to tri-weekly from October 2020 and May 2021, temporarily matching the Sunset Limited.

On July 11, 2023, the Surface Transportation Board announced that it was opening an investigation into the poor on-time performance of the Sunset Limited.[15]

Proposed expansion[edit]

Re-extension to Florida[edit]

Amtrak's Return to Service Special arrives in Chipley, Florida, on February 19, 2016.

As time has passed, particularly since the January 2006 completion of the rebuilding of damaged tracks east of New Orleans by their owner CSX Transportation, the obstacles to restoration of the Sunset Limited's full route have been more managerial and political than physical. Advocates for the train's restoration have pointed to revenue figures for Amtrak's fiscal year 2004, the last full year of coast-to-coast Sunset Limited service. During that period, the Orlando–New Orleans segment accounted for 41% of the Sunset's revenue.[16]

Section 226 of the Rail Safety Improvement Act of 2008, signed into law by President George W. Bush on October 16, 2008, gave Amtrak nine months to provide Congress with a plan for restoring service that "shall include a projected timeline for restoring such service, the costs associated with restoring such service, and any proposals for legislation necessary to support such restoration of service."[17]

In January 2016, Amtrak and the Southern Rail Commission announced jointly that a Gulf Coast passenger rail inspection trip was to be made from New Orleans to Jacksonville, with elected officials among those on board during the February 18–19 excursion. Stops were planned for all of the stations formerly part of the Sunset Limited's route between those two cities.[18] In June 2018, the commission missed the deadline for submitting a request for service restoration along the Gulf. It said that it could not apply for the Federal Railroad Administration's (FRA) fiscal-year 2017 Consolidated Rail Infrastructure Safety and Improvements (CRISI) funding because Alabama and Mississippi were unwilling to assist with funds. Alabama's share would have been $5.3 million. The Louisiana governor, on the other hand, was willing to provide the funds. The three states' cooperation was needed to secure the $35.5 million in federal CRISI funds.[19]

New Gulf Coast service[edit]

On February 23, 2021, following the conclusion of one year of negotiations with CSX and Norfolk Southern, Amtrak officials announced that a new Gulf Coast corridor service between New Orleans and Mobile would start as early as January 2022.[20] Amtrak plans to pay for repairs along the route.[21] In late 2022, with lengthy negotiations with Norfolk Southern and CSX, Amtrak expected, the Gulf Coast service was projected to begin sometime in 2023.[22][23] However, in early August 2023, it was reported that an agreement between Amtrak, CSX, and the city of Mobile on the design and construction of the station there had not yet been reached, and that the service was now not expected to start until the first quarter of 2024.[24] In late August the working name of the train was reported to be Mardi Gras Service.[25] As of February 2024, negotiations between Amtrak and the city of Mobile are ongoing and a new service start date has not been announced.[26][27]

Restoration of the Florida Panhandle Service[edit]

In terms of the rest of the route for the restoration of Florida Panhandle service, Amtrak stated that their "focus has been on restoring service from New Orleans to Mobile, Alabama," and they would be "willing to explore such service [on the Florida Panhandle] with the state’s financial support."[28] The mayors and city councils of Pensacola, Tallahassee, and Lake City have shown much interest in resuming the service. The corridor would eventually need to be upgraded for speeds greater than 45 miles per hour (72 km/h), and some of the stations require refurbishment or replacement.[29]

As of 2022, Amtrak's schedules and maps describe the route between Mobile and Orlando as suspended.[10]

Daily service[edit]

In 2009, Brian Rosenwald, a now-departed Amtrak executive, outlined ideas for a complete overhaul of the route, including daily service.[30] It was to have the Texas Eagle operate over the Sunset Limited's route west of San Antonio, with a stub train connecting San Antonio (with a cross-platform transfer) and New Orleans. The plans were halted when Union Pacific stated that to get a daily Sunset Limited, Amtrak would need to pay $750 million for infrastructure improvements.[31]

Passenger totals would double with daily service, according to the PRIIA study that looked at Texas Eagle/Sunset Limited service. It forecast an incremental improvement of more than 100,000 passengers from the daily service, which is already running in excess of 100,000 a year.[32] In the meantime, the Union Pacific has double-tracked much of the route with its own money. However, Amtrak still lacks the equipment and funds needed to move to daily service.

In June 2021, Senator Jon Tester of Montana added an amendment to the Surface Transportation Investment Act of 2021 which would require the Department of Transportation (not Amtrak itself) to evaluate daily service on all less frequent long-distance trains, meaning the Sunset Limited and Cardinal.[33] The bill passed the Senate Commerce Committee with bipartisan support,[34][35] and was later rolled into President Biden's Infrastructure Investment and Jobs Act (IIJA), which Congress passed on November 5, 2021.[36] The report must be delivered to Congress within two years.[37]

In June 2023, Amtrak submitted an application for a federal grant to increase Sunset Limited service to operate daily.[38]

Return to Phoenix[edit]

In February 2023, the FRA indicated that it was studying a re-route of the Sunset Limited from Maricopa back to Phoenix as part of the Long-Distance Service Study ordered by the IIJA. The move would revert a 1996 route change that cut direct service to Arizona's most populous metropolitan area, with stops at Phoenix, Tempe, and Coolidge.[39]

In June 2023, Amtrak submitted an application to the FRA seeking funding for a project to return Sunset Limited service to Phoenix, paired with increasing the route's frequency to once-daily service.[38]

Operation[edit]

Since 1981, the Texas Eagle has operated as a section of the Sunset Limited. A coach and sleeper from the Texas Eagle split from the eastbound Sunset Limited at San Antonio station and continue to Chicago, combining with the westbound Sunset Limited for the journey to Los Angeles. The Texas Eagle runs independently between Chicago and San Antonio for the rest of the week.[citation needed]

Equipment[edit]

A Sunset Limited Consist includes two GE P42DC Locomotives, a Viewliner II Baggage Car, a Superliner Sleeper ,a Superliner dining car, a Superliner sightseer lounge car, a Superliner coach-baggage car, two Superliner coaches and a Superliner Sleeper at the rear.[citation needed]

As is already happening on all its long-distance routes, Amtrak will replace the P42DCs with modern Siemens ALC-42 locomotives by 2027, and the Superliner cars with new long-distance cars by 2032.[40]

Route[edit]

Sunset Limited route map

For most of its existence, the Sunset Limited route was owned by the Southern Pacific Railroad. The name Sunset Limited traces its origins to the Galveston, Harrisburg and San Antonio Railway, a Southern Pacific subsidiary which was known as the Sunset Route as early as 1874.

Most of the current route from New Orleans westward is now owned by the Union Pacific Railroad, which acquired Southern Pacific in 1996. However, the route within Louisiana and some of Texas was partially sold to BNSF Railway[41] in 1995 in return for BNSF not objecting to the UP-SP merger.

On the portion of the route east of New Orleans, service was suspended after Hurricane Katrina. Those tracks, between New Orleans and Florida, include parts of the Atlantic Coast Line Railroad, the Seaboard Air Line Railroad, and the Louisville and Nashville Railroad—all now merged into CSX Transportation. Currently, the segment of the former Atlantic Coast Line Railroad between DeLand and Orlando is owned by Orlando's commuter service SunRail, and the segment of track from Pensacola to Baldwin is now owned by the Florida Gulf & Atlantic Railroad.

The train uses the following route segments, identified here by the names of their original owners:

Route Original owner Current owner
New Orleans–Lafayette, Louisiana Morgan's Louisiana and Texas Railroad and Steamship Company (SP) BNSF / UP[41]
Lafayette–Lake Charles, Louisiana Louisiana Western Railroad (SP)
Lake Charles–Orange, Texas UP
Orange–Houston, Texas Texas and New Orleans Railroad (SP)
Houston–El Paso, Texas Galveston, Harrisburg and San Antonio Railway (SP)
El Paso–Los Angeles, California Southern Pacific Railroad

Stations[edit]

Amtrak Sunset Limited stations
State/Province City Station
Louisiana New Orleans New Orleans
Schriever Schriever
New Iberia New Iberia
Lafayette Lafayette
Lake Charles Lake Charles
Texas Beaumont Beaumont
Houston Houston
San Antonio San Antonio
Del Rio Del Rio
Sanderson Sanderson
Alpine Alpine
El Paso El Paso
New Mexico Deming Deming
Lordsburg Lordsburg
Arizona Benson Benson
Tucson Tucson
Maricopa Maricopa
Yuma Yuma
California Palm Springs Palm Springs
Ontario Ontario
Pomona Pomona
Los Angeles Los Angeles Union


Ridership[edit]

Along with the Cardinal, this train is one of Amtrak's two long-distance services which operate thrice weekly.[42] Consequently, the Sunset Limited carried the third-fewest passengers of any Amtrak train in fiscal year 2019, 92,827, a 4.4% decrease over FY2018. It had a total revenue of $10,769,179 in 2016, marking a 7.5% decrease over FY2015.[43][44]

Traffic by Fiscal Year (October–September)
Ridership Change over previous year Ticket Revenue Change over previous year
2007[45] 63,336 - $6,955,881 -
2008[45] 71,719 Increase013.2% $8,052,515 Increase015.8%
2009[45] 78,775 Increase09.8% $8,272,084 Increase02.7%
2010[46] 91,684 Increase016.4% $9,962,415 Increase020.4%
2011[46] 99,714 Increase08.8% $11,138,286 Increase011.8%
2012[47] 101,217 Increase01.5% $11,584,844 Increase04.0%
2013[47] 102,924 Increase01.7% $12,275,400 Increase06.0%
2014[48] 105,041 Increase02.1% $12,597,724 Increase02.6%
2015[48] 100,713 Decrease04.1% $11,639,368 Decrease07.6%
2016[43] 98,079 Decrease02.6% $10,769,179 Decrease07.5%
2017[49] 99,000 Increase00.9% - -
2018[50] 97,078 Decrease01.9% - -
2019[50] 92,827 Decrease04.4% - -
2020[51] 55,118 Decrease038.9% - -
2021[52] 57,562 Increase04.4% - -
2022[52] 73,904 Increase028.4% - -

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Amtrak Fiscal Year 2023 Ridership" (PDF). Amtrak. November 27, 2023. Retrieved November 30, 2023.
  2. ^ "Amtrak Timetable Results". www.amtrak.com. Retrieved December 20, 2021.
  3. ^ Hofsummer, Don L. (2009). The Southern Pacific, 1901–1985. Texas A&M University Press. p. 170. ISBN 9781603441278.
  4. ^ "Local and Through Passenger Time Tables" (PDF). Southern Pacific. p. 10. Retrieved April 17, 2021 – via wx4's Dome of Foam.
  5. ^ Amtrak national timetable, May 1, 1971, Table 26 http://www.timetables.org/browse/?group=19710501&item=0027
  6. ^ "Southern Pacific Lines, Table 1". Official Guide of the Railways. National Railway Publication Company. 101 (1). June 1968.
  7. ^ Wagster, Emily (April 1, 1993). "All Aboard! Sunset Limited on a Roll". The Clarion-Ledger. pp. A1, A11. Retrieved November 21, 2020 – via Newspapers.com. Open access icon
  8. ^ "Derailment of Amtrak Train NO. 2 on the CSXT Big Bayou Canot Bridge Accident Report". National Transportation Safety Board. September 19, 1994. Archived from the original on March 18, 2021. Retrieved November 7, 2022.
  9. ^ "At least one dead, 100-plus injured in Amtrak derailment". CNN. October 9, 1995. Retrieved May 24, 2007.
  10. ^ a b "Sunset Limited Schedule; Effective November 3, 2019" (PDF). Amtrak. November 3, 2019. Retrieved January 29, 2020.
  11. ^ Holland, Gary (January 24, 2006). "Rail Safety Officials: Look, Listen, Live". Sun Herald. p. A5. Retrieved December 4, 2023 – via NewsBank.
  12. ^ "Amtrak changes the Sunset Limited schedule: Positives, Negatives, and they agreed to WHAT?". March 15, 2012. Retrieved May 7, 2018.
  13. ^ Lazo, Luz (June 16, 2022). "Amtrak is ending daily service to hundreds of stations. Blame the coronavirus pandemic, the railroad says". Washington Post. Retrieved March 25, 2023.
  14. ^ Alan, David Peter (October 12, 2022). "Amtrak Update: Most L-D Trains Back on Track". Railway Age. Retrieved March 25, 2023.
  15. ^ Luczak, Marybeth (July 12, 2023). "STB Initiates 'First of its Kind' Investigation Into Amtrak's Sunset Limited On-Time Performance". Railway Age. Retrieved September 17, 2023.
  16. ^ "Release 06-06: NARP Urges Resumption of New Orleans-Florida Rail Service". National Association of Railroad Passengers. May 3, 2006. Retrieved December 29, 2008.
  17. ^ Pub. L.Tooltip Public Law (United States) 110–432 (text) (PDF), H.R. 2095, 122 Stat. 4848, enacted October 16, 2008
  18. ^ "Amtrak and Southern Rail Commission to Host an Inspection Train Across Gulf Coast" (Press release). January 25, 2016. Retrieved February 13, 2016.
  19. ^ "Southern states miss funding deadline to restore Amtrak's Gulf Coast service". Progressive Railroading. June 22, 2018. Retrieved October 10, 2018.
  20. ^ "Amtrak official: Gulf Coast service starting in 2022". al. February 24, 2021. Retrieved March 9, 2021.
  21. ^ "Amtrak to pay for repairs along Gulf Coast route". al. March 5, 2021. Retrieved March 9, 2021.
  22. ^ Weinberg, Harrison (December 12, 2022). "Gulf Coast service to begin sometime in 2023, Amtrak says". trains.com. Retrieved December 12, 2022.
  23. ^ Weinberg, Harrison (November 23, 2022). "Agreement Reached in Amtrak Gulf Coast Dispute". railwayage.com. David Peter Alan. Retrieved December 12, 2022.
  24. ^ Kirby, Brendan (August 3, 2023). "Mississippi cities ready with Amtrak platforms, while key details remain unresolved in Mobile". Fox 10 News. WALA. Retrieved August 4, 2023.
  25. ^ Kirby, Brendan (August 29, 2023). "Planned Gulf Coast train to be named after Mardi Gras, tourism official says". fox10tv.com. Retrieved August 29, 2023.
  26. ^ Shigley, James (February 2, 2024). "Amtrak, railroads ask STB to cancel hearing on status of Gulf Coast agreement". Trains. Retrieved February 2, 2024.
  27. ^ Sharp, John (February 2, 2024). "Amtrak eyes possible dismissal of Gulf Coast rail case before May 1". al. Retrieved February 2, 2024.
  28. ^ "Amtrak Public Board Meeting Public QA, December 1, 2022" (PDF). amtrak.com. Amtrak. Retrieved January 30, 2023.
  29. ^ Perez, Mary (January 3, 2023). "Want to take a train from New Orleans to Miami? Amtrak has 'big time' plans for FL". Sun Herald. Retrieved March 8, 2023.
  30. ^ "Sunset Limited Marketing Meeting". RailPAC. June 11, 2009. Retrieved January 26, 2014.
  31. ^ "The Sunset Limited and the Future of the Passenger Train". Trains. December 2010. pp. 14–15.
  32. ^ "PRIIA Section 210 FY10 Sunset Limited/Texas Eagle Performance Improvement Plan" (PDF). September 2010.
  33. ^ "Manchin Secures Language To Evaluate Ways To Restore Cardinal Train Daily Service Through West Virginia". www.manchin.senate.gov. June 16, 2021. Retrieved July 27, 2021.
  34. ^ "Key Policy Victories in Senate Rail Title". www.railpassengers.org. Rail Passengers Association. June 16, 2021. Retrieved July 27, 2021.
  35. ^ Luczak, Marybeth (June 17, 2021). "Senate Commerce Committee's Bipartisan $78B Surface Transportation Bill Advances". Railway Age. Retrieved July 27, 2021.
  36. ^ "What's in the Investment in Infrastructure and Jobs Act (IIJA)?". www.railpassengers.org. Rail Passengers Association. November 8, 2021. Retrieved November 11, 2021.
  37. ^ "Infrastructure Investment and Jobs Act" (PDF). pp. 285–256. Retrieved November 11, 2021.
  38. ^ a b Anderson, Kyle (June 5, 2023). "Amtrak Applies for Federal Grants to Improve Long Distance Network". Amtrak Media. Retrieved June 5, 2023.
  39. ^ "FRA Long-Distance Service Study: Regional Working Group Meeting 1" (PDF). Federal Railroad Administration. February 2023. p. 113. Retrieved March 28, 2023.
  40. ^ "FY 2022-2027 Service and Asset Line Plans" (PDF). Amtrak. 2021. p. 133.
  41. ^ a b Bowen, Douglas John (December 2, 2014). "STB to weigh key trackage rights case". Railway Age. Retrieved August 9, 2021.
  42. ^ "With Increased Demand and Congressional Funding, Amtrak Restores 12 Long Distance Routes to Daily Service". March 10, 2021.
  43. ^ a b "Amtrak FY16 Ridership & Revenue Fact Sheet" (PDF). Amtrak. April 17, 2017. Retrieved February 6, 2018.
  44. ^ https://media.amtrak.com/wp-content/uploads/2019/11/FY19-Year-End-Ridership.pdf[bare URL PDF]
  45. ^ a b c "Amtrak Fiscal Year 2009, Oct. 2008–Sept. 2009" (PDF). Trains Magazine. Archived from the original (PDF) on October 30, 2013. Retrieved November 8, 2020.
  46. ^ a b "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on November 8, 2012. Retrieved July 30, 2012.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  47. ^ a b "Amtrak Sets Ridership Record and Move the Nation's Economy Forward" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on August 24, 2020.
  48. ^ a b "Amtrak FY15 Ridership & Revenue" (PDF).
  49. ^ "Amtrak FY17 Ridership" (PDF).
  50. ^ a b "Amtrak FY19 Ridership" (PDF).
  51. ^ Luczak, Marybeth (November 23, 2020). "Amtrak Releases FY 2020 Data". Railway Age. New York: Simmons-Boardman Publishing Inc. Retrieved February 18, 2020.
  52. ^ a b "Amtrak Route Ridership: FY22 vs. FY21" (PDF). November 29, 2022. Retrieved January 29, 2023.

Further reading[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Amtrak's Fiscal Year (FY) runs from October 1 of the prior year to September 30 of the named year.

External links[edit]