Sunshine Skyway Bridge
Sunshine Skyway Bridge
|Carries||4 lanes of I-275 / US 19|
|Locale||South of St. Petersburg and north of Terra Ceia, Florida|
|Official name||Bob Graham Sunshine Skyway Bridge|
|Other name(s)||The Skyway|
|Named for||Bob Graham|
|Maintained by||Florida Department of Transportation|
|Total length||4.14 miles (6.7 km)|
|Width||94 feet (29 m)|
|Height||430 feet (131 m)|
|Longest span||1,200 feet (366 m)|
|Clearance below||180.5 feet (55 m)|
|No. of lanes||4|
|Engineering design by||Figg & Muller Engineering Group|
|Constructed by||American Bridge Company|
|Construction start||February 7, 1987|
|Construction cost||$244 million|
|Opened||April 20, 1987|
|Replaces||Sunshine Skyway Bridge|
|Daily traffic||59,178 (2018)|
|Toll||$1.50 for passenger cars or $1.07 with SunPass|
(Former) Sunshine Skyway Bridge
|Carries||4 lanes of US 19 (as two separate 2-lane bridges for each direction)|
|Locale||South of St. Petersburg and north of Terra Ceia, Florida|
|Pier construction||Reinforced concrete|
|Construction start||1950 (original bridge, later converted to northbound only traffic)|
1967 (southbound span)
|Construction end||1954 (northbound span)|
1971 (southbound span)
|Inaugurated||September 6, 1954|
|Opened||September 6, 1954(original bridge)|
|Collapsed||May 9, 1980|
|Replaces||Bee Line Ferry|
|Replaced by||Sunshine Skyway Bridge|
The Bob Graham Sunshine Skyway Bridge, also known as Sunshine Skyway Bridge or simply the Skyway, is a cable-stayed bridge spanning the Lower Tampa Bay connecting St. Petersburg, Florida to Terra Ceia. The bridge carries Interstate 275 and U.S. Route 19, passing through Pinellas County, Hillsborough County, and Manatee County.
The bridge has been the site of tragic events including the collision of the US Coast Guard Cutter Blackthorn and tanker Capricorn in January 1980 and the collision of freighter MV Summit Venture with a bridge support in May 1980 resulting in a structural collapse. The current bridge, designed by the Figg & Muller Engineering Group and built by the American Bridge Company, is considered a symbol of Florida.
The original two-lane bridge was built by the Virginia Bridge Company was opened to traffic on September 6, 1954, with a similar structure built parallel and to the west of it in 1969 to make it a four-lane bridge and bring it to Interstate Highway standards. Opening of the newer span was delayed until 1971 for reinforcing of the south main pier, which had cracked due to insufficient supporting pile depth. The second span was used for all southbound traffic, while the original span was converted to carry northbound traffic.
The southbound span (opened in 1971) of the original bridge was destroyed at 7:33 a.m. on May 9, 1980, when the freighter MV Summit Venture collided with a pier (support column) during a sudden squall, sending over 1,200 feet (370 m) of the bridge plummeting into Tampa Bay. The collision caused six cars, a truck, and a Greyhound bus to fall 150 feet (46 m) into the water, killing 35 people. One man, Wesley MacIntire, survived when his Ford Courier pickup truck landed on the deck of the Summit Venture before falling into the bay. He sued the company that owned the ship, and settled in 1984 for $175,000 ($422,000 today). Several other drivers - including former major league baseball player Granny Hamner - were able to stop their vehicles before reaching the gap in the roadway.
John Lerro, the harbor pilot who had been steering the ship, was later cleared of wrongdoing by both a state grand jury and a Coast Guard investigation. A microburst had suddenly hit the freighter with torrential rains and 70 mile per hour winds as it was in the middle of a turn in the shipping channel nearing the bridge, cutting visibility to near zero and temporarily rendering the ship's radar useless. Lerro put the ship's engines into full reverse and ordered the emergency dropping of the anchor as soon as he realized that the freighter was out of the channel, but the bow still hit a two support piers with enough force to cause a portion of the roadway to collapse. The south main pier withstood the ship strike without significant damage, but a secondary pier to the south was not designed to withstand such an impact and failed catastrophically.
After the Summit Venture disaster, the southbound span was used as a temporary fishing pier and the northbound span was converted back to carry one lane in either direction until the current bridge opened. Before the old bridge was demolished and hauled away in barges, MacIntire (the only survivor in the collapse) was the last person to drive over it. He was accompanied by his wife, and when they reached the top of the bridge, they dropped 35 white carnations into the water, one for each person who died in the disaster. Both the main spans of both the intact northbound bridge and the damaged southbound bridge were demolished in 1993 and the approaches for both old spans were made into the Skyway Fishing Pier State Park. These approaches sit 1⁄2 mile (800 m) to the south and west of the current bridge. The approaches of the 1950 span were demolished in 2008.
Gov. Graham's idea for the design of the current bridge won out over other proposals, including a tunnel (deemed impractical due to Florida's high water table) and a simple reconstruction of the broken section of the old bridge that would not have improved shipping conditions. The new bridge's main span is 50% wider than the old bridge. The piers of the main span and the approaches for 1⁄4 mile (400 m) in either direction are surrounded by large concrete barriers, called "dolphins", that can protect the bridge piers from collisions by ships larger than the Summit Venture like tankers, container ships, and cruise ships.
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In 1990 FDOT awarded the winning bid to the Hardaway Company to demolish all steel and concrete sections of the Sunshine Skyway Bridge. The scope of the project required that all underwater piles and piers, and surface roadway, girders, and beams be dismantled. Special care had to be taken in removing underwater bridge elements near the shipping channel. Additionally, the concrete material, deck sections, pilings and steel girders were to be collected in order to be placed offshore and along the remaining bridge approaches to become artificial reefs for the new planned state fishing park. The main bridge span had to be removed in one piece in order not to block the main shipping canal leading to the Port of Tampa.
During the disassembly work of the bridges’ structural steel members, several difficult engineering challenges had to be resolved: the order of disassembly, a safe method for detonating charges on concrete and steel members in a publicly open and difficult to control area such as the Tampa Bay, and the development of a safe methodology for the removal in one piece of the bridge’s main span and concrete piers.
After extensive research, the engineering team developed a 4 × 1:16 ratio pulley system where each of the four corners of the span was connected to two 25-ton winches (bolted to the pavement of the deck). These winches controlled the descent of the main 360-foot (110 m), 608-ton span to a barge anchored 150 feet (46 m) below. As part of the project design, the engineering team developed a real-time, computerized, synchronized descent calculator and control program to help each of the two winch management teams ensure that all winches were synchronized at the same 30 feet (9.1 m) per minute descent rate. The operation was executed successfully in 2 1⁄2 hours despite adverse weather conditions.
According to compilations from various media reports as of 2009, at least 207 people have committed suicide by jumping from the center span into the waters of Tampa Bay since the opening of the new bridge in 1987, and an estimated 34 others have tried, but survived. A Rottweiler named Shasta survived after either following or being carried over the edge by its owner, who died. Another 51 people ended their lives from the old Sunshine Skyway from 1954 to 1987. One man, 23-year-old Michael "Luciano" Plezia of Cleveland, was forced to jump at gunpoint on July 17, 1981, after having been kidnapped, beaten, tortured, and stabbed.; another, a 24-year-old Sarasota carpenter, hanged himself from the bridge on Saturday morning, July 4, 1992. Several other missing persons are suspected of having jumped from the bridge, but their deaths could not be confirmed as no bodies were recovered.
In response to the high number of suicide attempts from the bridge, the state of Florida installed six crisis hotline phones along the center span in 1999, and began 24-hour patrols. As of 2003, the call center at the Crisis Center of Tampa Bay received 18 calls from potential jumpers, all of whom survived, according to a St. Petersburg Times report. However, the total number of jumpers has not significantly declined since the introduction of these safeguards.
In 2006, a feature film entitled Loren Cass was released, which depicted a suicide jump off the Sunshine Skyway. Two years later, a second filmmaker, Sean Michael Davis of Rhino Productions, was inspired by his haunting experience witnessing a woman jump off the bridge so quickly that no one could intervene, to create a non-for-profit film titled Skyway Down. His objectives: to deter other potential jumpers by " 'punch[ing] them in the face' with interviews with survivors and family members", to give them "hope and to try to de-glorify the romanticism of the bridge", in part by informing those who have "mulled a leap to know about the bloody, battered aftermath."
As part of any Florida controlled-access highway, pedestrians and bicycles are prohibited. Stopping on the bridge for any non-emergency, including sightseeing, is prohibited. Traffic on the bridge is monitored by the Florida Highway Patrol, and a stopped vehicle, bicyclist, or a pedestrian will elicit a police dispatch.
A major problem with the Sunshine Skyway Bridge is corrosion of the steel in the precast concrete segmental columns on the high level approaches. Because the segments are hollow, workers were able to enter the bridge superstructure in 2003 and 2004 to reinforce the corroded sections of the bridge, ensuring its future safety. Another problem arose around 2005–06 when several news bureaus reported paint discolorations on the bridge's cables. These paint splotches and patches were a result of touch-ups that were performed over the years but began to show through over recent years. In 2008, the Florida Department of Transportation (FDOT) began an overhaul including repainting the cables in their entirety (instead of touching up) and rehabilitating the lighting system at the summit of the bridge.
A 2014 FDOT study noted that the Skyway's low bridge clearance prevented larger vessels from using the Port Tampa Bay terminals, but made no recommendation about options as the air draft of most new cruise ships exceeds the bridge's height limit at 180 feet (55 m).
Usage and tourism
The former and current bridge have been featured in various forms of media. The original Sunshine Skyway Bridge is featured in Yours Truly, Johnny Dollar and the opening credits to Superboy. The current bridge has provided the setting for several films such as Loren Cass and The Punisher. The bridge also served as plot devices to various novels such as Dennis Lehane's 1997 novel Sacred and Ben Bova's 2005 novel Powersat. The bridge is also the subject of the song "Skyway Avenue" by We the Kings.
In 2005, an act of the Florida Legislature officially named the current bridge the Bob Graham Sunshine Skyway Bridge, after the former Governor of Florida and then U.S. Senator who presided over its design and most of its construction. According to sources[which?], he was inspired to suggest the current design by a visit to France, where he saw a similar cable-stayed bridge, the Brotonne Bridge. The original bridge was dedicated to state engineer William E. Dean, as noted on a plaque displayed at the rest area at the south end of the bridge.
On January 11, 1987, the Skyway Bridge opened-up to 10,000 runners, joggers and walkers before the bridge was opened to motor vehicle traffic the following week. Runners participated in four races that ran simultaneously across the bridge, with two races going southbound and two races directed northbound.
On March 4, 2018, in partnership with the Armed Forces Families Foundation, the Skyway Bridge was closed for the Inaugural Skyway 10K. In contrast to the one-time race in 1987, the Skyway 10K is planned to be held annually.
Old bridge demolition
MV Summit Venture Mayday Call of the collision incident
- Bergen, Katy (August 16, 2014). "If Skyway Run Gets Approval, Appeal Could Be Widespread". Sarasota Herald-Tribune. Retrieved May 4, 2015.
- Dickinson, S.L. (March 25, 2011). "Port Community Information Bulletin # 04-11: Sunshine Skyway Vertical Clearance" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on April 18, 2016. Retrieved November 8, 2016.
- "Florida Bridge Information – 2019 1st Quarter" (PDF). Florida Department of Transportation. January 2, 2019. p. 216. Retrieved February 14, 2019.
- Nunez, Judy Kay. "28 January 1980, Blackthorn and Capricorn: Collision with History in Tampa Bay". Florida State University Libraries. Retrieved February 15, 2019.
- "The Greatest American Bridges (& What We Can Learn from Them)". Bridge Masters. September 30, 2016. Retrieved February 15, 2019.
- "Tampa Bay Crossing Spans 14 Miles of Tidewater". Popular Mechanics. August 1954. pp. 72–73 – via Google Books.
- http://interstate275florida.blogspot.com/2009/07/old-sunshine-skyway-bridge.html[self-published source]
- "A Blinding Squall, then Death". St. Petersburg Times. Retrieved February 1, 2007.
- Heller, Jean (May 7, 2000). "The Day Skyway Fell: May 9, 1980". St. Petersburg Times. Retrieved July 4, 2007.
- "Suit in Bridge Fall Settlement". The New York Times. May 6, 1984. Retrieved February 1, 2007.
- Conlin, Bill (15 September 1993). "A Date with Fate Hamner Once Survived Collapse of Bridge over Troubled Waters". St. Louis Post-Dispatch. Retrieved 13 February 2019.
- Heller, Jean (May 7, 2000). "Memories Stay with Man at Command of the Ship". St. Petersburg Times. Retrieved July 4, 2007.
- OLIVER, MYRNA (9 September 2002). "John Lerro, 59; Harbor Pilot Haunted by Role in Deadly Bridge Accident". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 13 February 2019.
- Thalji, Jamal (May 8, 2018). "The Sunshine Skyway Bridge plunged into Tampa Bay 38 years ago". Tampa Bay Times. Retrieved 13 February 2019.
- Sussingham, Robin. "Remembering the Sunshine Skyway Bridge Collapse". wusfnews.wusf.usf.edu (May 8, 2015). WUSF-FM. Retrieved 13 February 2019.
- Wright, E. Lynne (2006). Disasters and Heroic Rescues of Florida. Morris Book Publishing. p. 111. ISBN 978-0-7627-3984-4.
- "Building big: Databank: Sunshine Skyway Bridge". PBS Online. Retrieved July 4, 2007.
- King, Robert (September 25, 1991). "Chunk of Old Skyway Dismantled". The Bradenton Herald. p. 1B.
- Wilmath, Kim (July 25, 2009). "Bradenton Man's Unlikely Catch Under Sunshine Skyway Bridge Is a Lifesaver". St. Petersburg Times. Archived from the original on July 27, 2009.
- "Murder Victim Identified as Ohioan". Sarasota Herald Tribune. July 21, 1981. Retrieved September 21, 2012.
- Barnes, Robert (April 16, 1982). "Three Found Guilty in Skyway Murder Case". St. Petersburg Times. p. 9B. Retrieved September 21, 2012.
- "Divers Recover Body of Man Forced to Jump From Skyway". Gainesville Sun. July 19, 1981. Retrieved September 21, 2012 – via Google News.
- "Man Who Was Forced From Span Identified". Palm Beach Post. July 22, 1981. Retrieved September 21, 2012.
- "Sarasota Man Jumps From Bridge, Hangs". Ocala Star-Banner. Associated Press. July 6, 1992. Retrieved September 21, 2012.
- Jones, Jamie (October 6, 2003). "Skyway Safeguards Don't Deter Jumpers". St. Petersburg Times. Retrieved February 1, 2007.
- Wilson, Jon (October 11, 2006). "Movie will have its first local viewing". St. Petersburg Times. Retrieved May 28, 2007.
- Sanders, Katie (June 13, 2010). "Filmmaker haunted by Sunshine Skyway bridge suicide hopes documentary will deter others". The New York Times. Archived from the original on November 6, 2012. Retrieved September 21, 2012.
- "Skyway Down: A Permanent Solution to a Temporary Problem; A Film Project". Retrieved September 21, 2012.
- Garcia, Jose. "The Skyway Bridge: Yesterday, Today & Tomorrow" (PDF). Florida Department of Transportation. Retrieved March 18, 2007.
- St. Petersburg Times
- Kennedy, Sara (July 8, 2014). "Study offers options for Cruise Ships too tall for the Sunshine Skyway Bridge". bradenton.com. Bradenton Herald. Retrieved February 12, 2018.
- Lehane, Dennis (2013). Sacred (First William Morrow Paperback ed.). HarperCollins. p. 233. ISBN 9780062224040.
- Powersat by Ben Bova, 2005: pp 56-58. TOR Books - New York http://us.macmillan.com/books/9780765348173
- We the Kings by We the Kings, 2007-10-02, retrieved 2018-07-24
- "Sunshine Skyway Bridge to be on postage stamp". Sarasota Herald-Tribune. December 30, 2011. Retrieved February 27, 2012.
- "Tampa Bay Times from St. Petersburg, Florida on January 1, 1987 · 100". Newspapers.com. Retrieved 2018-03-14.
- "Skyway 10K". SKYWAY 10K. Retrieved 2018-03-14.
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