|सुनुवार, कोँइच, किराँती-कोँइच, मुखिया|
Official language in
Sunwar, Sunuwar, or Kõinch (कोँइच; kõich; other spellings are Koinch and Koincha), is a Kiranti language spoken in Nepal and India by the Sunuwar people. It was first comprehensively attested by the Himalayan Languages Project. It is also known as Kõits Lo (कोँइच लो ; kõica lo), Kiranti-Kõits (किराँती-कोँइच ; kirā̃tī-kõich), Mukhiya (मुखिया ; mukhiyā).
The Sunwar language is one of the smaller members of the Tibeto-Burman language family. About 40,000 speakers are residing in eastern Nepal. With another 40,000 speakers residing in eastern Nepal.
The language is commonly known as Koic, for many ethnic Sunwar and Sunwar speakers also refer to the language as “Sunuwar, Kõinch , Koinch or Koincha (कोँइच); Kõits Lo (कोँइच लो), Kiranti-Kõits (किराँती-कोँइच) or Mukhiya (मुखिया).”
Moreover, most Sunwar speakers have the surname (सुनुवार), Sunuvār in Latin script. Many affiliated Sunwar with Sunar; they share the initial syllable, sun, “gold,” in Nepali, similar to the Sunar community of India, who are goldsmiths. However, the ethnonym Sunuvār is believed to be connected with Sunkosi, a river nearby the Sunwar villages.
- District Rāmechāp and Okhaldhū۠ngā
- Kũbhu Kãsthālī, Rāmechāp
- Pahare, Rāmechāp and Vacul, Okhaldhū۠ngā
A cluster of Sunwars villages are located around the region of the core spoken language. In the northern area, the village of Kũbhu Kãsthālī in Rāmechāp where a small group are speakers of Sunwar. Whereas the southern border, villages Pahare in Ramechap and Vacpu in Okhaldhū۠ngā the majority of the Sunwar speakers live in this region. According to Borchers, there are other villages located outside of the core region. The Surel are claimed to be Sunwar speakers however there are no certainties that it is true.
The Sunwar language is commonly spoken in the districts of Rāmechāp and Okhaldhū۠ngā distant from the Nepalese road system. Therefore, many Sunwar households are farmers, own a small lot of land and livestock. Moreover, each village often visits their neighboring village markets to purchase inaccessible goods such as spices, sugar, tea, and salt.
The Sunwar villages are scattered alongside the river banks of Likhu river. Located 1,800 meters above sea level, their fields aren’t all fallow from year round cultivation. (Borchers, 2008) In the winter, they experience no snow but freezing temperatures. In warmer weather, they experience a lot of rainfall, in the summer, monsoon rainfall. Especially between June and August, it is when they
experience the most rain, more so monsoon rainfall.
Although Sunwar has no traditional written language, most literate speakers use the Devanagari alphabet, scripture used for writing Nepali. Sunwar speakers from Sikkim, northeastern India, use the Jenticha alphabet for printed materials such as newspapers and literature. In 2005, another script was invented for Sunwar; it is known as Tikamuli.
जेँःतिच ब्रेःसे (jẽtica brese)
|[rə]||[lə]||[və]||[ʃə]||[sə]||[hə]||[ɦə]||Jenticha sign, virama- halant sangmilu*
mutes inherent vowel
The trill mark ् represents, Jenticha sign virama- sangmilu, halant. It is used to silent the vowel after the consonant. The trill mark ँ, is known as taslathenk, it corresponds to the diacritic ँ candravindu in devanagari.
|Nasal||/m/ [m]||/n/ [n]||/ ̇n/ [ŋ]|
|Fricative||/s/ [s]||/ʃ/ [ʃ]||h [h]|
|Approximant||/w/ [w~wh]||/y/ [j]|
|Lateral Approximant||/l/ [l̪]|
According to Borchers, there are eleven vowel phonemes in Sunwar:
<a> [a~ɑ], /ā / [aː], /e/ [e~ɛ], /i/ [i], /o/ [o], /u/ [u], / ū/ [uː~y], /ã/ [ã~ɑ̃], /ã̄/ [ãː], /ẽ/ [ẽ~ɛ̃], /ĩ/ [ĩ]
|High||/i/ [i], /ĩ/ [ĩ] /ū/ [y]||/u/ [u] /ū/ [uː~y]|
|Mid||/ẽ/ [ẽ~ɛ̃], /e/ [e~ɛ]||/o/ [o]|
|Low||/a/ [a~ɑ], /ā / [aː]|
Vowels with bar - Represents long vowels
Vowels with tilde - Represents short nasalized vowels
Vowels with bar and tilda - Represents long and nasalized vowels
There are a total of eight diphthongs in Sunwar: /ai/ [aɪ], /aĩ/ [aɪ̃], /au/ [au], /eu/ [eu], /oi/ [oi], /oĩ/ [oĩ], /ui/ [ui], /uĩ/ [uĩ]
|/joĩ/||[joĩ]||‘younger sister’s husband’|
|/puĩcā/||[puĩcaː]||‘ask for, beg’|
Syllable Structure of Sunwar: C₁(C₂)V₁(V₂)(C₃)(C₄)
Case Marking Suffixes
As exemplified by Borchers, this table consists of the noun case markers.
|Morpheme:||Gloss:||Marks:||Occurs suffixed to denotions of:|
m ~ -m
|agents, instruments, locations||persons,
|-ke||POSS||possessions of animate beings||persons,
|-ṅā||GEN||belongings of inanimate items||things,
|-lā/-le||FROM||place of departure of persons or items that changed places (ABL); time of begin of action||locations,
|-re||FROM||place of departure of persons or items that changed places (ABL); time of begin of action||locations,
|-au||VOC||name of person called||persons|
A dual marker can be associated with dual/pair or the cardinal number ‘two’. 
Example of dual marker by Borchers:
|iciṅā āl.ni⟆i chan|
|Now child.DU exist-NPT3p|
|Now I have two children.|
In addition items in a group can be marked plural. 
|Morpheme:||<-paki ~ -puki ~ -piki>|
Examples of the plural marker used to point at items in a group by Borchers: 
|pujā dum pachi rãga po.paki sai.ni.mī|
|worship happen after buffalo pig.PL kill.NPT-23d/-p3.p/Svi|
|After worship, they kill the buffalo, pig and so on.|
|sāg.paki acā.paki ho.⟆a.ṅāmin ⟆am cai thupro dum.ba
sāg.PL pickle.PL keep.PF.then beer SNG much happen.NPT+3s
much drink. NPT-23d/-p.3p/Svi
|Having stored away sāg (green leafy vegetable) and so on
and pickle and so on and, there has to be much beer, they drink a lot.
According to Borchers, the Sunwar language does not have a zero morpheme, but it can still indicate the number amount of something through verbal agreement markers or numerals.
Example of the absent marker by Borchers:
|go khame jāʔi.na.sku|
|I rice eat.NPT-1d.1d|
|Wed eat rice.|
Possessive Suffix: <-ke> (Animate Agent)
Examples of the possessive <-ke> by Borchers:
|nāso.ke dui.ta dhol bā.ba dhanu.kan nāso.ke bā.ba|
|priest.POSS two.piece drum stay.NPT+3s bow.arrow priest.POSS
|The priest has two drums. The priest has bow and arrow.|
|ne ⟆o.ke bhāg ho|
|nose face. POSS part be-NPT3s|
|The nose is part of the face.|
Possessive Suffix: <-ke> (Inanimate Subject)
|jasi.ke bā.b meko jasi ā.kilā|
|Jasi.POSS stay.NPT+3s that Jasi its.peg|
|It is made of Jasi wood. This is a peg made of Jasi wood.|
|(Jasi is the tree Bauhinia variegata)|
Quantifiers in the Sunwar language are loaned from Nepali. Quantifiers are used for amounts or masses. As exemplified by Borchers, this table consists of quantifiers; including some that are loaned from Nepali.
|besā||very much||[<Nep. besarī ‘very much’]|
|dherei||many, very, much||[<Nep. dherai]|
|imci||some, a bit|
|matra, matrei||only||[<Nep. mātra]|
|⟆ū⟆ ⟆ūs||much, very, expensive|
|thorei, torei||some, little||[<Nep. thorai]|
|thupro, tupro||much, a lot||[<Nep. thupro]|
|I much NEG.eat.NPT+1s.1s|
|I don’t eat much.|
|disā matrei tui.nu.ṅ|
|tomorrow only know.NPT+1s.1s|
|I won’t know until tomorrow.|
Adjectives: Color Form/Terms
|giิk||light green, light blue|
|nilo||dark blue [<Nep. nilo]|
Adjectives: Non Verbal Nouns Without <-⟆o> Attached
The Sunwar language has a category for adjectives under the form ‘others’, that are not verbal nouns. In addition, some adjectives may be interchangeable as an adverb.  As exemplified by Borchers, this table consists of the adjectives that are not verbal nouns ending in <-⟆o> form/terms.
|⟆ū⟆||much, many, very, expensive|
|theb||big, great (idea, thing)|
|ɓak besā.n wan cha|
|water very-much.REIN far exist-NPT3s|
|Water is far away.|
|go umcili thiẽ bara bars.ṅā|
|I small exist-PT1s twelve year.GEN|
|I was small, twelve years old.|
|nepāli.puki ⟆ū⟆ choto bā.ni.m|
|Nepali.PL very small stay.NPT-23d/-p.3p/Svi|
|Nepalese people are very small.|
|minu <-nu>||and then|
|<-bhandā>: A comparison.||‘than’|
|<cai>: Singling out or can be seen as “exactly this one”.||SNG|
|<yo>: Inclusive focus.||‘also’|
|<kõ>: A tag on questions asking for affirmation or negation of a statement.||OR|
|<da ~ ta>: Sunwar focus marker||IFOC|
My stomach v.s. Your stomach
Example by Borchers: 
Order: Subject/ Object/ Verb
|kuṣulanoʔbam.mī pani pher.ni.m|
|shoemaker.INS/LOC shoes sew.NPT-23d/-p.3p|
|(Subject) Shoemakers/ (Object) Shoes/ (Verb) Sew.|
|Shoemakers make shoes.|
|Kocombo.mī buʔs sāʔī.b|
|mongoose.INS/LOC snake kill.NPT+3s|
|(Subject) Mongoose/ (Object) Snake/ (Verb) kill.|
|The mongoose kills a snake.|
|Namsewal||Hello / Good Bye|
|Sew||(Respect) / (Greeting) / I bow to you|
|Gepukhi||You are (informal)|
|GoiPuki||we are (formal)|
In linguistic typology, a subject+object+verb (SOV) language is one in which the subject, object, and verb of a sentence always or usually appear in that order. If English were SOV, "Sam oranges ate" would be an ordinary sentence, as opposed to the actual Standard English "Sam ate oranges". (A Grammar of Sunwar) 
- 2011 Nepal Census, Social Characteristics Tables
- Ager, Simon. "Jenticha alphabet, and the Sunuwar language". Omniglot. Retrieved 25 August 2014.
- Borchers, Dörte (2008). A grammar of Sunwar: descriptive grammar, paradigms, texts and glossary ([Online-Ausg.]. ed.). Leiden: Brill. pp. 1–2. ISBN 9789004167094.
- "Sunwar Language and Alphabet". Retrieved 20 November 2020.
- Borchers, Dörte (2008). A Grammar of Sunwar: Descriptive Grammar, Paradigms, Texts and Glossary. BRILL. ISBN 978-90-04-16709-4.
- "A Grammar of Sunwar". Dörte Borchers. Retrieved 27 August 2018.
- Pandey, Anshuman (31 May 2011). "Proposal to Encode the Jenticha Script in ISO/IEC 10646" (PDF). Retrieved 18 December 2019.