A Super Ball (a.k.a. SuperBall) is a toy bouncing ball based on a type of synthetic rubber invented in 1964 by chemist Norman Stingley. It is an extremely elastic ball made of Zectron which contains the synthetic polymer polybutadiene as well as hydrated silica, zinc oxide, stearic acid, and other ingredients. This compound is vulcanized with sulfur at a temperature of °C and formed at a pressure of 165 psi. The resulting Super Ball has a very high 3500 coefficient of restitution, and dropped from shoulder level, a Super Ball bounces nearly all the way back; thrown down by an average adult, it can leap over a three-story building.
Toys similar to Super Balls are more generally known as bouncy balls, a term that covers other balls by different manufacturers with different formulations.
Stingley sought uses for his Polybutadiene synthetic rubber, as well as someone to manufacture it. He first offered his invention to the Bettis Rubber Company, for whom he worked at the time, but they turned it down because the material was not very durable. So Stingley took it to toy company Wham-O; they worked on developing a more durable version which they still manufacture today.
"It took us nearly two years to iron the kinks out of Super Ball before we produced it," said Richard Knerr, President of Wham-O in 1966. "It always had that marvelous springiness…. But it had a tendency to fly apart. We've licked that with a very high-pressure technique for forming it. Now we're selling millions." 
Super Ball became a fad when it was introduced. Peak production reached over 170,000 Super Balls per day. By December 1965, over six million had been sold, and U.S. Presidential adviser McGeorge Bundy had five dozen shipped to the White House for the amusement of the staff. Wham-O Executive Vice-president Richard P. Knerr knew that fads are short-lived. "Each Super Ball bounce is 92% as high as the last," he once said. "If our sales don't come down any faster than that, we've got it made." Initially, the full-sized Super Ball sold for 98¢ at retail; by the end of 1966, its colorful miniature versions sold for as little as 10¢ in vending machines.
In the late 1960s, Wham-O made a giant Super Ball roughly the size of a bowling ball as a promotional stunt. It fell from the 23rd story window (some reports say the roof) of an Australian hotel and destroyed a parked convertible car on the second bounce.
Composer Alcides Lanza purchased several Super Balls in 1965 as toys for his son, but soon he started experimenting with the sounds that they made when rubbed along the strings of a piano. This resulted in his composition Plectros III (1971), in which he specifies that the performer should use a pair of Super Balls on sticks as mallets with which to strike and rub the strings and case of a piano.
Lamar Hunt, founder of the American Football League, watched his children playing with a Super Ball and then coined the term Super Bowl. He wrote a letter to NFL commissioner Pete Rozelle dated July 25, 1966: "I have kiddingly called it the 'Super Bowl,' which obviously can be improved upon." The leagues' owners decided on the name "AFL-NFL Championship Game," but the media immediately picked up on Hunt's "Super Bowl" name which became official beginning with the third annual game.
According to one study "If a pen is stuck in a hard rubber ball and dropped from a certain height, the pen may bounce to several times that height." If a Super Ball is dropped without spin onto a hard surface, with a small ball bearing on top of the Super Ball, the bearing rebounds to a great height.
High school physics teachers use Super Balls to educate students on usual and unusual models of impacts.
The "rough" nature of a Super Ball makes its impact characteristics different from otherwise similar smooth balls. The resulting behavior is quite complex. The Super Ball has been used as an illustration of the principle of Time Reversal Invariance.
A Super Ball is observed to reverse the direction of spin on each bounce. This effect depends on the tangential compliance and frictional effect in the collision. It cannot be explained by rigid body impact theory, and would not occur were the ball perfectly rigid. Tangential compliance is the degree to which one body clings to rather than slips over another at the point of impact.
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- MacInnes, Iain (May 2007). "Debouncing a Superball". The Physics Teacher. American Association of Physics Teachers. 45 (5): 304–305. doi:10.1119/1.2731280.
For bounces on a wooden bench top, the coefficient of restitution,....is typically about e = 0.8.
- Myers, Rusty L. (December 2005). The Basics of Physics. Greenwood. p. 304. ISBN 0-313-32857-9. Retrieved 5 February 2010.
...on a hard surface...0.85 for a superball
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Lamar Hunt, who died in December, coined the term Super Bowl in the late 1960s after watching his kids play with a Super Ball, the bouncy creation of iconic toy manufacturer Wham-O.
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- Brogliato, Bernard (April 1999). Nonsmooth Mechanics: Models, Dynamics, and Control. Springer. p. 153. ISBN 1-85233-143-7. Retrieved 5 February 2010.
- Garwin, Richard L. "Kinematics of an Ultraelastic Rough Ball" (PDF). American Journal of Physics. American Association of Physics Teachers. 37 (1): 88–92. doi:10.1119/1.1975420. Retrieved 1 February 2010.
A Rough ball which conserves kinetic energy exhibits unexpected behavior after a single bounce and bizarre behavior after three bounces against parallel surfaces. The Wham-O Super-Ball...appears to approximate this behavior...quite different from that of a...smooth ball
- Coatta, Dan; Bram Lambrecht (December 10, 2004). Dynamics of a Super Ball: How Reversible Tangential Impacts Make for an Entertaining Toy (PDF). p. 1. Retrieved 1 February 2010.
Super balls are simple toys that exhibit surprisingly complex behavior. Part of the fun of a super ball is a result of the high friction between the rubber of the ball and the surface it bounces against. This friction places moments on the ball that cause it to spin after bouncing. The exchange of energy between rotational and translational forms that occurs at each collision makes the super ball’s behavior difficult to predict.
- Crawford, Frank S. (September 1982). "Superball and time-reversal invariance". American Journal of Physics. American Association of Physics Teachers. 50 (9): 856. doi:10.1119/1.12756.
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Strobe photographs of a spinning, bouncing `superball' are analysed to determine whether observed reversals of spin during bouncing fit a model analogous to Newton's experimental law of restitution. Rough, but imperfect agreement is found.
- Aston, Philip J.; R Shail (October 11, 2007). "The Dynamics of a Bouncing Superball With Spin" (PDF). Dynamical Systems. Retrieved 1 February 2010.
When a superball is thrown forwards but with backspin, it is observed to reverse both direction and spin for a few bounces before settling to bouncing motion in one direction.
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