Super Bowl XX
|This article needs additional citations for verification. (August 2009)|
|Super Bowl XX|
|Date||January 26, 1986|
|Stadium||Louisiana Superdome, New Orleans, Louisiana|
|MVP||Richard Dent, Defensive end|
|Favorite||Bears by 10|
|Future Hall of Famers|
|Bears: Mike Ditka‡ (coach), Richard Dent, Dan Hampton, Walter Payton, Mike Singletary.
Patriots: Raymond Berry‡ (coach), John Hannah, Andre Tippett.
‡ elected as a player.
|National anthem||Wynton Marsalis|
|Coin toss||Bart Starr representing previous Super Bowl MVPs|
|Halftime show||Up with People presents "Beat of the Future"|
|TV in the United States|
|Announcers||Dick Enberg, Merlin Olsen, and Bob Griese|
(est. 92.57 million viewers)
|Cost of 30-second commercial||US$550,000|
Super Bowl XX was an American football game between the National Football Conference (NFC) champion Chicago Bears and the American Football Conference (AFC) champion New England Patriots to decide the National Football League (NFL) champion for the 1985 season. The Bears defeated the Patriots by the score of 46–10, capturing their first NFL championship since 1963, three years prior to the birth of the Super Bowl. Super Bowl XX was played on January 26, 1986 at the Louisiana Superdome in New Orleans, Louisiana.
To date, it is the fourth, and most recent, Super Bowl where both teams were making their Super Bowl debuts. The Bears entered the game after becoming the second team in NFL history to win 15 regular season games. With their then-revolutionary 46 defense, Chicago led the league in several defensive categories, outscored their opponents with a staggering margin of 456–198, and recorded two postseason shutouts. The Patriots were considered a cinderella team during the 1985 season, and posted an 11–5 regular season record, but entered the playoffs as a wild card because of tiebreakers. But defying the odds, New England posted three road playoff wins to advance to Super Bowl XX.
In their victory over the Patriots, the Bears set or tied Super Bowl records for sacks (seven), fewest rushing yards allowed (seven), and margin of victory (36 points). At the time, New England broke the record for the quickest lead in Super Bowl history, with Tony Franklin's 36-yard field goal 1:19 into the first quarter after a Chicago fumble. But the Patriots were eventually held to negative yardage (−19) throughout the entire first half, and finished with just 123 total yards from scrimmage, the second lowest total yards in Super Bowl history, behind the Minnesota Vikings (119 total yards) in Super Bowl IX. Bears defensive end Richard Dent, who had 1.5 quarterback sacks, forced two fumbles, and blocked a pass, was named the game's Most Valuable Player.
NFL owners awarded the hosting of Super Bowl XX to New Orleans, Louisiana on December 14, 1982 at an owners meeting held in Dallas. This was the sixth time that New Orleans hosted the Super Bowl. Tulane Stadium was the site of Super Bowls IV, VI, and IX; while the Louisiana Superdome previously hosted XII and XV.
Today, Super Bowl XX remains the last Super Bowl to feature two teams both making their first appearance in the game. It was the fourth overall following Super Bowl I, Super Bowl III, and Super Bowl XVI. Any future Super Bowl that would have such a combination would have to have the Detroit Lions playing either the Cleveland Browns, Houston Texans, or Jacksonville Jaguars in the game. Both the Lions and Browns won NFL championships before the Super Bowl era. It was also the last Super Bowl until Super Bowl XXXIV between the St. Louis Rams and Tennessee Titans to feature two teams who had never previously won a Super Bowl.
The nation's recognition of the Bears' accomplishment was overshadowed by the Space Shuttle Challenger disaster two days later, an event which caused the cancellation of the Bears' post-Super Bowl White House visit; the surviving members of the team eventually would be invited to the White House in 2011.
Under head coach Mike Ditka, who won the 1985 NFL Coach of the Year Award, the Bears went 15–1 in the regular season, becoming the second NFL team to win 15 regular season games, while outscoring their opponents with a staggering margin of 456–198.
The Bears' defense, the "46 defense", allowed the fewest points (198), fewest total yards (4,135), and fewest rushing of any team during the regular season (1,319). They also led the league in interceptions (34) and ranked third in sacks (64).
Pro Bowl quarterback Jim McMahon provided the team with a solid passing attack, throwing for 2,392 yards and 15 touchdowns, while also rushing for 252 yards and three touchdowns. Running back Walter Payton, who was then the NFL's all-time leading rusher with 14,860 yards, rushed for 1,551 yards. He also caught 49 passes for 483 yards, and scored 11 touchdowns. Linebacker Mike Singletary won the NFL Defensive Player of the Year Award by recording three sacks, three fumble recoveries, and one interception.
But one of the most distinguishable players on defense was a large rookie lineman named William "The Refrigerator" Perry. Perry came into training camp before the season weighing over 380 pounds. But after Bears defensive coach Buddy Ryan told the press that the team "wasted" their first round draft pick on him, Perry lost some weight and ended up being an effective defensive tackle. He got even more attention when Ditka started putting him in the game at the fullback position during offensive plays near the opponent's goal line. During the regular season, Perry rushed for 2 touchdowns, caught a pass for another touchdown, and was frequently a lead blocker for Payton during goal line plays.
The Bears "46 defense" also had the following impact players: On the defensive line, Pro Bowler and future Hall of Famer Richard Dent led the NFL in sacks for the second year in a row with 17, while Pro Bowler and future Hall of Famer Dan Hampton recorded 6.5 sacks, and nose tackle Steve McMichael compiled 8. In addition to Singletary, linebacker Otis Wilson had 10.5 sacks and 3 interceptions, while Wilber Marshall recorded 4 interceptions. In the secondary, defensive back Leslie Frazier had 6 interceptions, Mike Richardson recorded 4 interceptions, Dave Duerson had 5 interceptions, and Gary Fencik recorded 5 interceptions and 118 tackles.
Chicago's main offensive weapon was Payton and the running game. A big reason for Payton's success was fullback Matt Suhey as the primary lead blocker. Suhey was also a good ball carrier, rushing for 471 yards and catching 33 passes for 295 yards. The team's rushing was also aided by Pro Bowlers Jim Covert and Jay Hilgenberg and the rest of the Bears' offensive line.
In their passing game, the Bears' primary deep threat was wide receiver Willie Gault, who caught 33 passes for 704 yards, an average of 21.3 yards per catch, and returned 22 kickoffs for 557 yards and a touchdown. Tight end Emery Moorehead was another key contributor, catching 35 passes for 481 yards. Wide receiver Dennis McKinnon was another passing weapon, recording 31 receptions, 555 yards, and 7 touchdowns. On special teams, Kevin Butler set a rookie scoring record with 144 points, making 31 of 37 field goals (83%) and 51 of 51 extra points.
Meanwhile, the players brought their characterizations to the national stage with the "Super Bowl Shuffle", a rap song the Bears recorded during the season. Even though it was in essence a novelty song, it actually peaked at #41 on the Billboard charts and received a Grammy nomination for best R&B song by a group.
New England Patriots
The Patriots were a cinderella team during the 1985 season because many sports writers and fans thought they were lucky to make the playoffs at all. New England began the season losing three of their first five games, but won six consecutive games to finish with an 11–5 record. However, the 11–5 mark only earned them third place in the AFC East behind the Miami Dolphins and the New York Jets.
Quarterback Tony Eason, in his third year in the NFL, was inconsistent during the regular season, completing 168 out of 299 passes for 2,156 yards and 11 touchdowns, but also 17 interceptions. Eason suffered an injury midway through the season and was replaced by backup Steve Grogan, who was considered one of the best reserve quarterbacks in the league. Grogan was the starter in six of the Patriots' games, and finished the regular season with 85 out of 156 completions for 1,311 yards, 7 touchdowns, and 5 interceptions.
Wide receiver Stanley Morgan provided the team with a good deep threat, catching 39 passes for 760 yards and 5 touchdowns. On the other side of the field, multi-talented wide receiver Irving Fryar was equally effective, catching 39 passes for 670 yards, while also rushing for 27 yards, gaining another 559 yards returning punts and kickoffs, and scoring 10 touchdowns. But like the Bears, the Patriots' main strength on offense was their rushing attack. Halfback Craig James rushed for 1,227 yards, caught 27 passes for 370 yards, and scored 7 touchdowns. Fullback Tony Collins rushed for 657 yards, recorded a team-leading 52 receptions for 549 yards, and scored 5 touchdowns. The Patriots also had an outstanding offensive line, led by Pro Bowl tackle Brian Holloway and future Hall of Fame guard John Hannah.
New England's defense ranked 5th in the league in fewest yards allowed (5,048). Pro Bowl linebacker Andre Tippett led the AFC with 16.5 sacks and recovered 3 fumbles. Pro Bowl linebacker Steve Nelson was also a big defensive weapon, excelling at pass coverage and run stopping. Also, the Patriots' secondary only gave up 14 touchdown passes during the season, second fewest in the league. Pro Bowl defensive back Raymond Clayborn recorded 6 interceptions for 80 return yards and 1 touchdown, while Pro Bowler Fred Marion had 7 interceptions for 189 return yards.
In the playoffs, the Patriots qualified as the AFC's second wild card.
But the Patriots, under head coach Raymond Berry, defied the odds, beating the New York Jets 26–14, Los Angeles Raiders 27–20, and the Dolphins 31–14 – all on the road – to make it to the Super Bowl. The win against Miami had been especially surprising, not only because Miami was the only team to beat Chicago in the season, but also because New England had not won in the Orange Bowl (Miami's then-home field) since 1966, the Dolphins' first season (then in the AFL). The Patriots had lost to Miami there 18 consecutive times, including a 30–27 loss in their 15th game of the season. But New England dominated the Dolphins in the AFC Championship Game, recording two interceptions from quarterback Dan Marino and recovering 4 fumbles. New England remains the only team to finish third in their division and qualify for the Super Bowl in the same season.
Super Bowl pregame hype
Much of the Super Bowl pregame hype centered on Bears quarterback Jim McMahon. First, he was fined by the NFL during the playoffs for a violation of the league's dress code, wearing a head band on which he had handwritten "Adidas". He then started to wear a head band saying "Rozelle", after then-league commissioner Pete Rozelle.
McMahon suffered a strained glute as the result of a hit taken in the NFC Championship Game and flew his acupuncturist into New Orleans to get treatment. During practice four days before the Super Bowl, he wore a hand band reading "Acupuncture". During a Bears practice before the Super Bowl, McMahon mooned a helicopter that was hovering over the practice.
Another anecdote involving McMahon during the Super Bowl anticipation was the New Orleans’ press reporting quote attributed McMahon, which referred to the women of New Orleans as "sluts".
This caused wide controversy among the women of New Orleans and McMahon publicly apologized on sports radio, denouncing the claim as false, indicating that he couldn’t have said such things simply because he’s a late-sleeper, and wouldn’t have been up that early in the morning to publicly smear the women of New Orleans.
Television and entertainment
The NBC telecast of the game, with play-by-play announcer Dick Enberg and color commentators Merlin Olsen and Bob Griese (who was not in the booth with Enberg and Olsen), garnered the third highest Nielsen rating of any Super Bowl to date, a 48.3 but it ended up being the first Super Bowl to garner over 90 million viewers the highest to date up to that point. While Dick Enberg, Merlin Olsen and Bob Griese called the game, Bob Costas and his NFL '85 castmates, Ahmad Rashad and Pete Axthelm anchored the pregame, halftime and postgame coverage. Other contributors included Charlie Jones (recapping Super Bowl I) and Bill Macatee. Also, the pregame coverage included what became known as "the silent minute"; a 60-second countdown over a black screen (a concept devised by then-NBC Sports executive Michael Weisman); a skit featuring comedian Rodney Dangerfield and an interview by NBC Nightly News anchor Tom Brokaw of United States President Ronald Reagan at the White House (this would not become a regular Super Bowl pregame feature until Super Bowl XLIII; when Today show host Matt Lauer interviewed U.S. President Barack Obama).
To celebrate the 20th Super Bowl game, the Most Valuable Players of the previous Super Bowls were featured during the pregame festivities. After trumpeter Wynton Marsalis performed the national anthem, Bart Starr, MVP of Super Bowl I and Super Bowl II, tossed the coin.
The performance event group Up with People performed during the halftime show titled "Beat of the Future". Up with People dancers portrayed various scenes into the future. This was the last Super Bowl to feature Up with People as a halftime show, though they later performed in the Super Bowl XXV pregame show. The halftime show was dedicated to the memory of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. (the first observance of Martin Luther King, Jr. Day had been held the previous Monday).
The Patriots took the then-quickest lead in Super Bowl history after linebacker Larry McGrew recovered a fumble from Walter Payton at the Chicago 19-yard line on the second play of the game (the Bears themselves would break this record in Super Bowl XLI when Devin Hester ran back the opening kickoff for a touchdown). Bears quarterback Jim McMahon took responsibility for this fumble after the game, saying he had called the wrong play. This set up Tony Franklin's 36-yard field goal 1:19 into the first quarter after three incomplete passes by Tony Eason (the first of which starting tight end Lin Dawson went down with torn ligaments in his knee). "I looked up at the message board," said Chicago linebacker Mike Singletary, "and it said that 15 of the 19 teams that scored first won the game. I thought, yeah, but none of those 15 had ever played the Bears." Chicago struck back with a 7-play, 59-yard drive, featuring a 43-yard pass completion from McMahon to wide receiver Willie Gault, to set up a field goal from Kevin Butler, tying the score 3–3.
After both teams traded punts, Richard Dent and linebacker Wilber Marshall shared a sack on Eason, forcing a fumble that lineman Dan Hampton recovered on the Patriots 13-yard line. Chicago then drove to the 3-yard line, but had to settle for another field goal from Butler after rookie defensive lineman William "The Refrigerator" Perry was tackled for a 1-yard loss while trying to throw his first NFL pass on a halfback option play. On the Patriots' ensuing drive, Dent forced running back Craig James to fumble, which was recovered by Singletary at the 13-yard line. Two plays later, Bears fullback Matt Suhey scored on an 11-yard touchdown run to increase the lead to 13–3.
New England took the ensuing kickoff and ran one play before the first quarter ended, which resulted in positive yardage for the first time in the game (a 3-yard run by James). But after an incomplete pass and a 4-yard loss, they had to send in punter Rich Camarillo again, and receiver Keith Ortego returned the ball 12 yards to the 41-yard line. The Bears subsequently drove 59 yards in 10 plays, featuring a 24-yard reception by Suhey, to score on McMahon's 2-yard touchdown run to increase their lead, 20–3. After the ensuing kickoff, New England lost 13 yards in 3 plays and had to punt again, but got the ball back with great field position when defensive back Raymond Clayborn recovered a fumble from Suhey at their own 46-yard line. On the punt, Ortego forgot what the play call was for the punt return, and the ensuing chaos resulted in him being penalized for running after a fair catch and teammate Leslie Frazier suffering a knee injury, which ended his career.
Patriots coach Raymond Berry then replaced Eason with Steve Grogan, who had spent the previous week hoping he would have the opportunity to step onto NFL's biggest stage. "I probably won't get a chance," he had told reporters a few days before the game. "I just hope I can figure out some way to get on the field. I could come in on the punt-block team and stand behind the line and wave my arms, or something." But on his first drive, Grogan could only lead them to the 37-yard line, and they decided to punt rather than risk a 55-yard field goal attempt. The Bears then marched 72 yards in 11 plays, moving the ball inside the Patriots 10-yard line. New England kept them out of the end zone, but Butler kicked his third field goal on the last play of the half to give Chicago a 23–3 halftime lead.
The end of the half was controversial. With 21 seconds left in the first half, McMahon scrambled to the Patriots' 3-yard line and was stopped inbounds. With the clock ticking down, players from both teams were fighting, and the Bears were forced to snap the ball before the officials formally put it back into play, allowing McMahon to throw the ball out of bounds and stop the clock with three seconds left. The Bears were penalized five yards for delay of game, but according to NFL rules, 10 seconds should have also been run off the clock during such a deliberate clock-stopping attempt in the final two minutes of a half. In addition, a flag should have been thrown for fighting (also according to NFL rules). This would have likely resulted in offsetting penalties, which would still allow for a field goal attempt. As far as the illegal snap is concerned, the non-call was promptly acknowledged by the officials and reported by NBC sportscasters during halftime, but the resulting three points were not taken away from the Bears (because of this instance, the NFL instructed officials to strictly enforce the 10-second run-off rule at the start of the 1986 season).
The Bears had dominated New England in the first half, holding them to 21 offensive plays (only four of which resulted in positive yardage), −19 total offensive yards, two pass completions, one first down, and 3 points. While Eason was in the game, the totals were six possessions, one play of positive yardage out of 15 plays, no first downs, 3 points, 3 punts, 2 turnovers, no pass completions, and -36 yards of total offense. Meanwhile, Chicago gained 236 yards and scored 23 points themselves.
After the Patriots received the second-half kickoff, they managed to get one first down, but then had to punt after Grogan was sacked twice. Camarillo, who punted four times in the first half, managed to pin the Bears back at their own 4-yard line with a then-Super Bowl record 62-yard punt. But the Patriots' defense still had no ability to stop Chicago's offense. On their very first play, McMahon faked a handoff to Payton, then threw a 60-yard completion to Gault. Eight plays later, McMahon finished the Super Bowl-record 96-yard drive with a 1-yard touchdown run to increase the Bears' lead to 30–3. On New England's second drive of the quarter, Chicago cornerback Reggie Phillips (who replaced Frazier) intercepted a pass from Grogan and returned it 28 yards for a touchdown to increase the lead to 37–3.
On the second play of their ensuing possession, the Patriots turned the ball over again, when receiver Cedric Jones lost a fumble after catching a 19-yard pass from Grogan, and Wilber Marshall returned the fumble 13 yards to New England's 37-yard line. A few plays later, McMahon's 27-yard completion to receiver Dennis Gentry moved the ball to the 1-yard line, setting up perhaps the most memorable moment of the game. "Refrigerator" Perry was brought on to score on offense, as he had done twice in the regular season. His touchdown made the score 44–3. The Bears' 21 points in the third quarter is still a record for the most points scored in that period.
Perry's surprise touchdown cost Las Vegas sports books hundreds of thousands of dollars in losses from prop bets. The Patriots finally scored a touchdown early in the fourth quarter, advancing the ball 76 yards in 12 plays and scoring on an 8-yard fourth-down pass from Grogan to receiver Irving Fryar. But the Bears' defense dominated New England for the rest of the game, forcing another fumble, another interception, and defensive lineman Henry Waechter's sack on Grogan in the end zone for a safety to make the final score 46–10.
One oddity in the Bears' victory was that Walter Payton had a relatively poor performance running the ball and never scored a touchdown in Super Bowl XX, his first and only Super Bowl appearance during his Hall of Fame career (Many people including Mike Ditka have claimed that the reason for this was due to the fact that the Patriots' defensive scheme was centered on stopping Payton). Although Payton was ultimately the Bears' leading rusher during the game, the Patriots' defense held him to only 61 yards on 22 carries, with his longest run being only 7 yards. He was given several opportunities to score near the goal line, but New England stopped him every time before he reached the end zone (such as his 2-yard loss from the New England 3-yard line a few plays before Butler's second field goal, and his 2-yard run from the 4-yard line right before McMahon's first rushing touchdown). Thus, Chicago head coach Mike Ditka opted to go for other plays to counter the Patriots' defense. Perry's touchdown and McMahon's rushing touchdowns are scoring opportunities that were denied to Payton. Ditka has since gone on record stating that his biggest regret of his career was not creating a scoring opportunity for Payton during the game.
McMahon, who completed 12 out of 20 passes for 256 yards, became the first quarterback in a Super Bowl to score 2 rushing touchdowns. Bears receiver Willie Gault finished the game with 129 receiving yards on just 4 receptions, an average of 32.3 yards per catch. He also returned 4 kickoffs for 49 yards. Suhey had 11 carries for 52 yards and a touchdown, and caught a pass for 24 yards. Singletary tied a Super Bowl record with 2 fumble recoveries.
Eason became the first Super Bowl starting quarterback to fail to complete a pass, going 0 for 6 attempts. Grogan completed 17 out of 30 passes for 177 yards and 1 touchdown, with 2 interceptions. Although fullback Tony Collins was the Patriots' leading rusher, he was limited to just 4 yards on 3 carries, and caught 2 passes for 19 yards. New England receiver Stephen Starring returned 7 kickoffs for 153 yards and caught 2 passes for 39 yards. The Patriots, as a team, only recorded 123 total offensive yards, the second-lowest total in Super Bowl history.
- Date: January 26, 1986
- Game time: 4:21 p.m. CST
- Game weather: Played indoors, domed stadium
New England Patriots
|First downs rushing||13||1|
|First downs passing||9||10|
|First downs penalty||1||1|
|Third down efficiency||7/14||1/10|
|Fourth down efficiency||0/1||1/1|
|Net yards rushing||167||7|
|Yards per rush||3.4||0.6|
|Passing – Completions/attempts||12/24||17/36|
|Times sacked-total yards||3–15||7–61|
|Net yards passing||241||116|
|Total net yards||408||123|
|Punt returns-total yards||2-20||2-22|
|Kickoff returns-total yards||4-49||7-153|
|Interceptions-total return yards||2–75||0–0|
|Time of possession||39:15||20:45|
1Completions/attempts 2Carries 3Long gain 4Receptions
Hall of Fame ‡
|Willie Gault||WR||Irving Fryar|
|Jim Covert||LT||Brian Holloway|
|Mark Bortz||LG||John Hannah‡|
|Jay Hilgenberg||C||Pete Brock|
|Tom Thayer||RG||Ron Wooten|
|Keith Van Horne||RT||Steve Moore|
|Emery Moorehead||TE||Lin Dawson|
|Dennis McKinnon||WR||Stanley Morgan|
|Jim McMahon||QB||Tony Eason|
|Matt Suhey||FB||Tony Collins|
|Walter Payton‡||RB||Craig James|
|Dan Hampton‡||LE||Julius Adams|
|Steve McMichael||LDT/NT||Lester Williams|
|William Perry||RDT/RE||Garin Veris|
|Richard Dent‡||RE/LOLB||Andre Tippett‡|
|Otis Wilson||LOLB/LILB||Steve Nelson|
|Mike Singletary‡||MLB/RILB||Larry McGrew|
|Wilber Marshall||ROLB||Don Blackmon|
|Leslie Frazier||LCB||Raymond Clayborn|
|Mike Richardson||RCB||Ronnie Lippett|
|Dave Duerson||SS||Roland James|
|Gary Fencik||FS||Fred Marion|
- Referee: Red Cashion #43 first Super Bowl
- Umpire: Ron Botchan #110 first Super Bowl
- Head Linesman: Dale Williams #8 first Super Bowl
- Line Judge: Bama Glass #15 first Super Bowl
- Field Judge: Jack Vaughan #93 first Super Bowl
- Side Judge: Bob Rice #80 second Super Bowl (XVI)
- Back Judge: Al Jury #106 first Super Bowl
- DiNitto, Marcus (January 25, 2015). "Super Bowl Betting History – Underdogs on Recent Roll". The Linemakers. Sporting News. Retrieved February 4, 2015.
- "Super Bowl History". Vegas Insider. Retrieved February 4, 2015.
- "Super Bowl Winners". NFL.com. Retrieved February 4, 2015.
- "Super Bowl on TV (ratings)". CNN Sports Illustrated. Retrieved August 2, 2007.
- "Historical Super Bowl Nielsen TV Ratings, 1967–2009 – Ratings". TVbytheNumbers. Retrieved August 24, 2012.
- Richard Dent became just the second defensive end to be named Super Bowl MVP. The first being Harvey Martin, as he shared to MVP with fellow D-Lineman Randy White for Super Bowl XII.
- Melissa IsaacsonColumnist, ESPNChicago.comFollowArchive (September 23, 2011). "Sources – '85 Chicago Bears to get White House honors – ESPN Chicago". Espn.go.com. Retrieved August 24, 2012.
- A major reason why the 46 defense was so effective in 1985 was that almost all of their opponents were unprepared for its then-unusual primary tactic: blitz five to eight players on each play. But in less than two years, offensive coaches discovered how to exploit the 46 defense by using quick, timed passes from formations that used multiple receivers.
- ESPN Classic - McMahon was a rebel without pause
- Taylor, Roy. "BearsHistory.com". BearsHistory.com. Retrieved August 24, 2012.
- "Complete History of the Super Bowl on NBC". Bizoffootball.com. January 31, 2009. Retrieved August 24, 2012.
- "Hester takes opening kick of Super Bowl for TD – NFL – ESPN". Sports.espn.go.com. February 4, 2007. Retrieved August 24, 2012.
- "SportsIllustrated". Sportsillustrated.cnn.com. Retrieved August 24, 2012.
- "History of the Super Bowl – Super Bowl XX". The Sporting News. Retrieved August 24, 2012.
- "USA Today Super Bowl XX Play by Play".
- Drape, Joe (2014-01-28). "Putting a Lot on the Line". The New York Times. pp. B10. Retrieved 5 February 2014.
- "'85 Bears: On top of world – and Mongo, Fridge". Chicago Sun-Times. February 4, 2007.[dead link]
- Neft, David S., Cohen, Richard M., and Korch, Rick. The Complete History of Professional Football from 1892 to the Present. 1994 ISBN 0-312-11435-4
- Super Bowl official website
- 2006 NFL Record and Fact Book. Time Inc. Home Entertainment. ISBN 1-933405-32-5.
- Total Football II: The Official Encyclopedia of the National Football League. Harper Collins. ISBN 1-933405-32-5.
- The Sporting News Complete Super Bowl Book 1995. ISBN 0-89204-523-X.
- http://www.pro-football-reference.com – Large online database of NFL data and statistics
- Super Bowl play-by-plays from USA Today (Last accessed September 28, 2005)
- All-Time Super Bowl Odds from The Sports Network (Last accessed October 16, 2005)