Super Mario World
|Super Mario World|
North American boxart
Super Mario World[a] is a 1990 side-scrolling platform game developed and published by Nintendo for the Super Nintendo Entertainment System (SNES). The story follows Mario's quest to save Princess Toadstool and Dinosaur Land from the series antagonist Bowser and his children, the Koopalings. The gameplay is similar to that of earlier Super Mario games: Players control Mario or his brother Luigi through a series of levels in which the goal is to reach the flagpole at the end. Super Mario World introduced Yoshi, a dinosaur who can eat enemies and gain abilities by eating the shells of Koopa Troopas.
Nintendo Entertainment Analysis & Development developed the game, led by director Takashi Tezuka and producer and series creator Shigeru Miyamoto. It is the first Mario game for the SNES and was designed to make the most of the console's technical features. The development team had more freedom compared to the series instalments for the Nintendo Entertainment System (NES). Yoshi was conceptualised during the development of the NES games but was not used until Super Mario World due to hardware limitations.
Super Mario World is often considered one of the greatest video games of all time. It sold over 20 million copies worldwide, making it the bestselling SNES game. It also led to an animated television series of the same name and a prequel, Yoshi's Island, released in August and October 1995. It has been rereleased on multiple occasions: It was part of the 1994 compilation Super Mario All-Stars + Super Mario World for the SNES and was rereleased for the Game Boy Advance as Super Mario World: Super Mario Advance 2 in 2001, on the Virtual Console for the Wii, Wii U, and New Nintendo 3DS consoles, and as part of the Super NES Classic Edition.
Super Mario World is a side-scrolling platform game in which the player controls Mario, the protagonist of the game. The game has similar gameplay to earlier games in the Super Mario series—Super Mario Bros., Super Mario Bros. 2, and Super Mario Bros. 3—but introduces new elements. As well as running and jumping, the player can also fly or float with the aid of certain power-ups and can execute the new spin jump move. The game has 96 levels in total.
The player navigates through the game via two game screens: an overworld map and a side-scrolling playfield. The overworld map displays an overhead representation of the current world and has several paths leading from the world's entrance to a castle. Paths connect to action panels, fortresses, ghost houses and other map icons, and allow players to take different routes to reach the world's goal. Moving the on-screen character to an action panel or fortress allows access to that level's playfield. The majority of the game takes place in these linear levels, populated with obstacles and enemies, which involves the player traversing the stage by running, jumping, and dodging or defeating enemies. The player is given a number of lives, which are lost if Mario comes into contact with an enemy, falls into a bottomless pit, gets crushed, or runs out of time. If all lives are lost at any point in the game, the "Game Over" screen will appear, from which the player can continue from the last level played by selecting "Continue". Each world features a final stage with a boss to defeat; each of the seven worlds features fortresses controlled by one of the Koopalings, and the player also battles Bowser in his castle in the seventh and final world. Super Mario World includes a multiplayer option which allows two players to play the game by alternating turns at navigating the overworld map and accessing stage levels; the first player controls Mario, while the second controls his brother, Luigi.
In addition to the power-ups from previous games, such as the Super Mushroom and Fire Flower, new power-ups that provide new gameplay options are also introduced. The new power-up in the game is the Cape Feather, which gives Mario a cape and the ability to fly, glide in the air, and use the cape as a sail. The game also introduces the ability to "store" an extra power-up in a box at the top centre of the screen. For example, if the player obtains a Fire Flower or a Cape Feather, then a Super Mushroom will appear in the box. If Mario gets hit by an enemy, the stored item in the box will automatically drop. Alternatively, the player can manually release the stored item at any time.
The game introduces Yoshi, a dinosaur companion Mario can ride who is able to eat most enemies. If Yoshi attempts to eat a Koopa or its shell he can spit it and fire it at enemies. If the player fails to spit the shell out within a certain amount of time, Yoshi will swallow it, rendering it useless. When holding any Koopa shell in its mouth, Yoshi gains the ability that corresponds to its colour: a blue shell enables Yoshi to fly, a yellow shell causes Yoshi to emit dust clouds that kill nearby enemies, and a red shell allows Yoshi to produce three fireballs. Flashing Koopa shells produce all three abilities, while green shells produce none. The default Yoshi is green, but the game also has hidden blue, yellow, and red Yoshis; the player can obtain each coloured Yoshi by finding its egg in hidden areas, and feeding it five enemies, causing the baby Yoshi to mature.
Although the main objective is to navigate through seven worlds to reach the end of the game, the player can beat the game much faster by using secret Star Road routes. To access hidden worlds, the player needs to find portals scattered throughout the game's levels. Portals are usually locked and require keys to open. Exploring these secret stages can lead to other stages, such as Special World. Completion of Special World permanently changes some of the enemies' sprites and alters the overworld map's colour scheme.
After saving the Mushroom Kingdom in Super Mario Bros. 3, brothers Mario and Luigi decide to go on holiday to a place called Dinosaur Land, a prehistoric-themed world swarming with dinosaurs and other enemies. While resting on the beach, Princess Toadstool disappears. When Mario and Luigi wake up, they try to find her and, after hours of searching, come across a giant egg in the forest. It suddenly hatches and out of it comes a young dinosaur named Yoshi, who tells them that his dinosaur friends have also been imprisoned in eggs by evil Koopas. Mario and Luigi soon realise that it must be the evil King Bowser and his Koopalings.
Mario, Luigi and Yoshi set out to save Princess Toadstool and Yoshi's dinosaur friends, searching Dinosaur Land for Bowser and his Koopalings. To aid him, Yoshi gives Mario a cape as they begin their journey. Mario and Luigi continue to follow Bowser, defeating the Koopalings in the process, and save all of Yoshi's dinosaur friends. They eventually make it to Bowser's castle, where they fight him in a final battle. They defeat Bowser and save the Princess, restoring peace to Dinosaur Land.
Development and release
The game was directed by Takashi Tezuka, while Shigeru Miyamoto, the creator of both Super Mario and The Legend of Zelda, served as producer. Shigefumi Hino took the role of graphics designer. Nintendo Entertainment Analysis and Development handled development with a team of ten people including three main programmers and a character designer, most of whom had worked on Super Mario Bros. In a retrospective interview, the core team said that Miyamoto wielded the most authority during development.
Super Mario World was the first Mario game series developed for the then-upcoming Super Nintendo Entertainment System (SNES). As such, the team anticipated some difficulty in working with new and more advanced hardware. According to Tezuka, the software tools were not yet fully developed, and the team had to "go along with starting something new". Miyamoto acknowledged the team no longer had restrictions on certain mechanics such as scrolling and the number of colours they could implement. As a hardware experiment, the team ported Super Mario 3 to the SNES and it felt like the same game to them, despite the improved colours and sprites. After that, Miyamoto realised the team's goal would be to use the new hardware to create something "totally new".
Miyamoto said he had wanted Mario to have a dinosaur companion ever since Super Mario Bros., but Nintendo engineers could not add such a character into the game due to the limitations of the Nintendo Entertainment System (NES). The inspiration for Yoshi can be traced back even further; Miyamoto designed a green dragon for the 1984 game Devil World which shared many similarities with Yoshi. During the development of Super Mario Bros. 3, Miyamoto had a number of sketches around his desk, including an image of Mario riding a horse. As development of Super Mario World progressed, the team opted to set the game in a "dinosaur land", so Tezuka asked designer Shigefumi Hino to draw a reptile-like creature based on Miyamoto's sketches. Hino originally produced a design that Tezuka deemed too reptilian, and "didn't really fit into the Mario world", so he encouraged the designer to create a "cuter" character. Tezuka speculated that Miyamoto's love of horse riding, as well as country and western themes, influenced Yoshi's creation.
Reflecting on how he had created different melodies for Super Mario Bros 3., composer Koji Kondo decided to reuse the same themes for Super Mario World, albeit in a rearranged form. By doing this, he assumed that players would be able to recognise the same melodies, while exposing them to new variations of music as they progressed through the game. As Super Mario World was the first game developed for the SNES, Kondo felt "overjoyed" at being able to compose music by using eight sounds at once. To express the technological novelty of the new console, he used several different instruments, often implementing them all one after the other in the game's title song. As development progressed, Kondo grew concerned over how people would react to his unusual combinations of instruments as he noted the use of more traditional square waves and triangle waves had "gained acceptance" with consumers. For the game's sound effects, Kondo decided to use a variety of musical instruments as opposed to square waves to emphasise the game used traditional technology with a hybrid of new materials. It took Kondo around a year and a half to write all the music for the game.
Super Mario World was released during the console wars—a result of the rivalry between Nintendo's SNES and Sega's two-year-old Mega Drive system—which led to fierce competition between the two companies. Sega's mascot, Sonic the Hedgehog, was seen by many as a faster and "cooler" alternative to Mario. Super Mario World was one of two launch games for the SNES in Japan, along with F-Zero. After the game's release, Miyamoto admitted publicly he felt it was incomplete and development was rushed toward the end.
Nintendo issued a version of Super Mario World for arcade cabinets. The game was re-released in a special version of Super Mario All-Stars, Super Mario All-Stars + Super Mario World, as a pack-in game for the SNES in 1994. The game pack contains enhanced remakes of the first four Super Mario games released for the NES: Super Mario Bros., Super Mario Bros. 2, Super Mario Bros. 3 and Super Mario Bros.: The Lost Levels. It was released on the Wii's Virtual Console in Japan on 2 December 2006, in the United States on 5 February 2007, and in Europe on 9 February 2007. It was also released for the Wii U in North America and Japan on 26 April 2013, and in Europe on 27 April 2013, along with the full launch of the Wii U Virtual Console. Super Mario World was included on the SNES' re-release as the Super NES Classic Edition in September 2017.
Super Mario World was ported to the Game Boy Advance (GBA) as Super Mario World: Super Mario Advance 2 between 2001 and 2002. It features the same number of levels as the original (albeit with a toned down difficulty), Game Link Cable support for four players, and the ability to save. In the United States, Super Mario Advance 2 sold 2.5 million copies and earned $74 million in revenue by August 2006. During the period between January 2000 and August 2006, it became the second highest-selling portable game in that country. It received positive reviews upon its release; critics enjoyed its new inclusions and retention of the SNES original's "feel".
Review aggregator GameRankings ranks Super Mario World as the seventeenth highest-rated game of all time with an aggregate score of 94% based on nine reviews. Nintendo has sold 20.61 million copies of the game worldwide, making it the best-selling game for the Super Nintendo Entertainment System.
The visuals and presentation were two of the most praised aspects of the game. After its release, Rob Swan of Computer and Video Games noted that the graphics were an excellent example of what the then-new SNES was capable of, while in the same review, Paul Glancey similarly remarked that the visuals were stunning, and he was grateful the game came free with the console. Four reviewers echoed this in Electronic Gaming Monthly, but commented that the game took little advantage of the SNES's capabilities compared to other games available for the system. Retrospective reviewers agreed that the game's visuals were still of a high quality. Karn Bianco from Cubed3 enjoyed the game's relaxed visual style, and praised Nintendo for keeping everything "nice and simple" designing a game perfect for children. IGN's Lucas Thomas heralded the game as a significant leap over the visuals of the 8-bit era, but in retrospect felt that it did not distinguish itself from being a graphically-upgraded continuation of its predecessor, Super Mario Bros. 3. In contrast, Frédéric Goyon of Jeuxvideo.com thought the game brought out the full potential of the SNES (albeit less so than Donkey Kong Country), and Nadia Oxford from USGamer also felt the game was a less rigid version of its predecessor. AllGame's Skyler Miller and Alex Navarro of GameSpot both praised the game's well-drawn characters, colourful visuals and pleasing animation. Morgan Sleeper of Nintendo Life said that Super Mario World was the "graphical holy grail" that retro-styled games aspire to, and insisted that its design holds up well today.
Critics commended the game's replay value and unique gameplay in comparison to older Super Mario games. Four reviewers in Electronic Gaming Monthly praised the game's number of secrets and diversity among its levels, expressing appreciation that Nintendo did not recycle assets from Super Mario Bros. 3. Swan and Glancey enjoyed the addictive gameplay and the vast number of levels, while Dan Whitehead of Eurogamer lauded the game's divergence from linear platforming and asserted that Super Mario World was an evolutionary leap for gaming in general. Likewise, Groyon appreciated the option of being able to finish the game by using alternative routes. Bianco opined that the game was "one of the smoothest platformers in existence" while Thomas thought that its "masterful" and innovative level design enhanced the overall experience. Navarro similarly felt that the game featured some of the best and most challenging levels the series has offered thus far, saying "nothing about the game feels out of place or superfluous". Miller considered the game's overall length to be its strongest aspect, while Oxford thought that Super Mario World's gameplay could be both straightforward and complex, owing to the myriad secrets the game contained. In retrospect, Sleeper believed that the game's biggest achievement was its level design, calling it an "unrivalled master class" with a constant sense of momentum.
The game's audio was also well received by critics. Swan believed that the game utilised the SNES' PSM chip to its fullest potential, and both he and Glancey agreed that the game's sound effects were "mindblowing". Thomas labelled the soundtrack "another one of Koji Kondo's classics," but in hindsight remarked that it was not as memorable as his earlier work. Goyon praised the originality of the game's soundtrack, and thought the technical contribution of the SNES allowed players to enjoy a "globally magnificent" composition. Both Goyon and Jason Schreider of Kotaku felt that its rhythmic sound effects were important and helped to reinforce the game's atmosphere. Miller liked Super Mario World's upbeat music, and particularly enjoyed the echoing sound effects heard when Mario was underground—a sentiment shared by other reviewers. Both Sleeper and Navarro wrote that the game featured the best music in the entire Super Mario series, with Sleeper praising Kondo's "timeless" soundtrack and memorable melodies.
The game received 1991 Game of the Year awards from Nintendo Power and Power Play. Many retrospective critics declared Super Mario World one of the greatest video games of all time. In 2009, a poll conducted by Empire voted it "the greatest game of all time". In its final issue in October 2014, the Official Nintendo Magazine ranked Super Mario World the third-greatest Nintendo game of all time, behind The Legend of Zelda: Ocarina of Time, and Super Mario Galaxy. In 2012 Nintendo Power similarly named Super Mario World the fifth greatest game of all time, a step up from its eighth best ranking in their 2006 poll. The game has appeared on several "best video games of all time" lists such as those from Electronic Gaming Monthly, Game Informer, Retro Gamer and GameSpot. In 2007, Retro Gamer ranked it as the best platform game of all time, while USgamer listed it as the best Super Mario platform game ever in 2015.
Yoshi became one of the most important characters in the Mario franchise, re-appearing in later Super Mario games and in nearly all Mario sports and spin-off games. Yoshi appears as the main playable character in Super Mario World's 1995 sequel Super Mario World 2: Yoshi's Island, which helped lead to multiple video games focused on the character. A Super Mario World clone, Super Mario's Wacky Worlds, was in development for the Philips CD-i device by NovaLogic from 1992 to 1993, but was cancelled because of the console's commercial failure. In a poll conducted in 2008, Yoshi was voted as the third-favourite video game character in Japan, with Cloud Strife and Mario placing second and first.
DIC Entertainment produced an animated series of the same name, consisting of thirteen episodes, which ran on NBC from September to December 1991. In recent years, fans have made a number of Super Mario World ROM hacks, notably Kaizo Mario World, that has been used for many Let's Play videos. In a similar way, Super Mario World is one of the four games whose assets are available in Super Mario Maker, a custom level creator released for the Wii U in 2015.
- "Super Mario World for SNES". GameRankings. CBS Interactive. Archived from the original on 1 April 2009. Retrieved 11 April 2009.
- Fahey, Mike (21 November 2015). "Happy 25th Birthday, Super Famicom And Friends". Kotaku. Retrieved 18 November 2017.
- Phillips, Tom (29 November 2012). "How does the Wii U launch line-up compare to the SNES, N64 and GameCube's?". Eurogamer. Eurogamer Network. Retrieved 18 November 2017.
- "GBA Games by Game Boy Advance". Nintendo Life. Retrieved 18 November 2017.
- Miller, Skyler. "Super Mario World review". Allgame. All Media Network. Archived from the original on 16 February 2010. Retrieved 13 July 2009.
- Dale 2014, p. 101.
- Harris 1991, p. 18.
- Nintendo EAD (21 November 1990). Super Mario World. Super Nintendo Entertainment System. Nintendo.
- Super Mario World Instruction Booklet (PDF). Nintendo of America. 31 August 1991. Archived (PDF) from the original on 15 June 2018.
- Goyon, Frédéric (30 April 2007). "Test Super Mario World sur SNES". Jeuxvideo.com (in French). Webedia. Archived from the original on 12 September 2017. Retrieved 12 September 2017.
- Nintendo 1991, p. 11.
- Nintendo 1991, p. 7.
- Nintendo 1991, p. 19.
- Nintendo 1991, p. 20.
- Nintendo 1991, p. 9.
- Nintendo 1991, p. 15-16.
- Nutter 2006, p. 119.
- Nintendo 1991, p. 18.
- Oxford, Nadia (7 July 2017). "Super NES Classic Reviews Game by Game #1: Super Mario World". USgamer. Eurogamer Network. Archived from the original on 12 September 2017. Retrieved 12 September 2017.
- Nintendo 1991, p. 21.
- Kawasaki 1991, p. 28.
- Kawasaki 1991, p. 29.
- Kawasaki 1991, p. 29-30.
- Sao, Akinori. "Developer Interview: Super Mario World & Yoshi's Island – Super Nintendo Entertainment System: Super NES Classic Edition". Nintendo. Archived from the original on 3 October 2017. Retrieved 23 October 2017.
- Kawasaki 1991, p. 31.
- Nutter 2006, p. 118.
- Nintendo Power staff 1991, p. 32.
- Corrigan, Hope (28 September 2017). "Super Mario World: Mario Was Originally Punching Yoshi in The Head". IGN. Ziff Davis. Archived from the original on 3 October 2017. Retrieved 12 October 2017.
- East 2012, p. 52.
- "Iwata Asks: Music Commentary by Koji Kondo (2)". Nintendo. p. 5. Retrieved 12 October 2017.
- Kawasaki 1991, p. 36.
- Kent 2001, p. 431.
- Sheff 1993, p. 361.
- "Super Mario World - Videogame by Nintendo". The International Arcade Museum. Killer List of Video Games. 1995–2017. Retrieved 18 December 2017.
- Brown, Andrew (18 August 2011). "Super Mario All-Stars + World". Nintendo World Report. Archived from the original on 6 February 2017. Retrieved 5 February 2017.
- "Virtual Console". Nintendo Power. 213: 40. March 2007.
- Corriea, Alexa Ray (23 April 2013). "Wii U Virtual Console launch lineup includes Kirby's Adventure, Super Mario World". Polygon. Vox. Archived from the original on 6 February 2017. Retrieved 5 February 2017.
- Brown, Ryan (29 June 2017). "Nintendo Classic Mini SNES games list including Super Mario, Zelda and Donkey Kong". The Daily Mirror. Archived from the original on 12 October 2017. Retrieved 12 October 2017.
- "Joining Nintendo After Super Mario". Iwata Asks: Super Mario Bros. 25th Anniversary. Nintendo. 13 September 2010. Archived from the original on 17 February 2011. Retrieved 19 January 2011.
- Harris, Craig (11 February 2002). "Super Mario World: Super Mario Advance 2". IGN. Ziff Davis. Archived from the original on 25 August 2017. Retrieved 21 October 2017.
- Gerstmann, Jeff (12 February 2002). "Super Mario Advance 2 Review". GameSpot. CBS Interactive. Archived from the original on 22 June 2013. Retrieved 13 April 2009.
- Keiser, Joe (2 August 2006). "The Century's Top 50 Handheld Games". Next Generation. Archived from the original on 10 October 2007.
- Famitsu staff 2006, p. 116.
- Glancey 1991, p. 50.
- Whitehead, Dan (9 June 2007). "Virtual Console roundup". Eurogamer. Eurogamer Network. p. 2. Archived from the original on 12 September 2017. Retrieved 12 September 2017.
- Hilliard, Kyle (12 September 2015). "Here Are Our Review Scores For (Almost) All Of Mario's Core Releases". Game Informer. Gamestop Network. Archived from the original on 12 September 2017. Retrieved 12 September 2017.
- Navarro, Alex (6 February 2007). "Super Mario World review". GameSpot. CBS Interactive. Archived from the original on 9 February 2007. Retrieved 12 September 2017.
- Thomas, Lucas (5 February 2007). "Super Mario World Virtual Console review". IGN. Ziff Davis. Archived from the original on 20 April 2010. Retrieved 14 April 2010.
- Sleeper, Morgan (4 May 2013). "Review: Super Mario World (Wii U eShop / SNES)". Nintendo Life. Gamer Network. Archived from the original on 12 September 2017. Retrieved 12 September 2017.
- Bianco, Karn (15 October 2003). "Super Mario World (Super Nintendo) review". Cubed3. Cubed3 Limited. Archived from the original on 12 September 2017. Retrieved 12 September 2017.
- Schreier, Jason (5 September 2013). "Super Mario World: The Kotaku Review". Kotaku. Archived from the original on 12 September 2017. Retrieved 12 September 2017.
- Brookes 1992, p. 84.
- Nintendo Power staff 1992, p. 72.
- Power Play staff 1992, p. 84.
- "All-Time Best". GameRankings. CBS Interactive. Archived from the original on 15 July 2009. Retrieved 13 June 2008.
- O'Malley, James (11 September 2015). "30 Best-Selling Super Mario Games of All Time on the Plumber's 30th Birthday". Gizmodo. Univision Communications. Archived from the original on 28 February 2017. Retrieved 23 April 2017.
- "The Nintendo Years: 1990". Edge. Future plc. 25 June 2007. p. 2. Archived from the original on 20 August 2012. Retrieved 27 June 2007.
- Glancey 1991, pp. 49–50.
- "The 100 Greatest Games Of All Time". Empire. Bauer Consumer Media. Archived from the original on 6 July 2011. Retrieved 30 May 2009.
- Castle 2014, p. 69.
- Thomason, Steve; Hoffman, Chris, eds. (December 2012). "New Super Mario Bros. U". Nintendo Power. Future plc. 285: 27.
- Nintendo Power staff 2006, p. 62.
- Harris 2006, p. 98.
- Game Informer staff 2001, p. 59.
- Retro Gamer staff 2004, p. 62.
- Navarro, Alex. "The Greates Games Of All Time". GameSpot. CBS Interactive. Archived from the original on 24 November 2011. Retrieved 20 March 2012.
- Jones 2007, p. 63.
- Parish, Jeremy (9 September 2015). "Page 3: What's the Greatest Mario Game Ever? We Ranked Them All, and You Can Too!". USgamer. Gamer Network. Archived from the original on 10 September 2015. Retrieved 11 September 2015.
- Kelly, Andy (14 November 2008). "101 game facts that will rock your world". GamesRadar. Future plc. p. 4. Archived from the original on 18 September 2017. Retrieved 17 September 2017.
- Mitchell, Richard. "Super Mario World is Miyamoto's favorite Mario game". Engadget. Retrieved 22 June 2018.
- Claiborn, Samuel. "This is Shigeru Miyamoto's Favorite Mario Game". IGN. Retrieved 22 June 2018.
- "Super Mario's Wacky Worlds". IGN. Archived from the original on 22 February 2014. Retrieved 8 December 2013.
- Ashcraft, Brian (12 August 2008). "And Japan's Favorite Video Game Characters Are...?". Kotaku. Archived from the original on 10 February 2011. Retrieved 12 September 2009.
- Langshaw, Mark (23 April 2011). "Retro Corner: Super Mario World". Digital Spy. Archived from the original on 6 February 2017. Retrieved 5 February 2017.
- Fernando, Kelvin (10 April 2017). "15 Awesome Things You Didn't Know About Super Mario World". The Gamer. Valnet Inc. Archived from the original on 12 September 2017. Retrieved 13 June 2017.
- Davis, Justin (14 July 2015). "Inside the World of Brutally Hard Mario ROM Hacks". IGN. Ziff Davis. Archived from the original on 7 May 2016. Retrieved 21 October 2017.
- Otero, Jose (16 June 2015). "E3 2015: 9 Exciting Things You Need to Know About Super Mario Maker". IGN. Ziff Davis. Archived from the original on 12 September 2017. Retrieved 21 October 2017.
- Brookes, Jason (December 1992). "Super Mario World review". Super Play. Bath: Future plc (2): 84. Retrieved 24 October 2017.
- Castle, Matthew (December 2014). "100 Greatest Nintendo Games". Official Nintendo Magazine. Bath: Future plc (114): 69.
- Dale, Alex (July 2014). "Rewind: Super Mario World". Official Nintendo Magazine. Bath: Future plc (109): 100–101.
- East, Thomas (March 2012). "A brief history of... Yoshi". Official Nintendo Magazine. Bath: Future plc (49): 42.
- Famitsu staff (30 June 2006). "ゲームボーイアドバンス – スーパーマリオアドバンス2". Famitsu. Tokyo: Enterbrain (915): 116.
- Game Informer staff (August 2001). "Top 100 Games of All Time". Game Informer. Grapevine: GameStop (100): 59.
- Glancey, Paul (March 1991). "Super Mario World review". Computer and Video Games. Bath: Future plc (112): 48–50. Retrieved 12 September 2017.
- Harris, Steve (August 1991). "Reviews crew: Super Mario Bros 4". Electronic Gaming Monthly. Lombard: EGM Media (25): 18. Retrieved 12 September 2017.
- Harris, Steve (February 2006). "Greatest Games of Their Time". Electronic Gaming Monthly. Lombard: EGM Media (200): 97.
- Jones, Darran (April 2007). "Top 25 Platformers of All Time". Retro Gamer. Bath: Future plc (37): 63.
- Kawasaki, Hondai (January 1991). "1990 developer interview". 任天堂公式ガイドブックスーパーマリオワールド―Super Mario bros.4 (ワンダーライフスペシャル 任天堂公式ガイドブック) (English translation) (in Japanese). Tokyo: Shogakkan: 167.
- Kent, Steven (2001). The Ultimate History of Video Games: The Story Behind the Craze that Touched our Lives and Changed the World. Roseville: Prima Publishing. ISBN 0-7615-3643-4.
- Power Play staff (January 1992). "Spiel des Jahres Awards 1991". Power Play (in German). Bath: Future plc (21).
- Nintendo (1991). Super Mario World instruction manual. Nintendo EAD. pp. 2–27.
- Nintendo Power staff (August 1991). Mario Mania. Bath: Future plc. p. 32.
- Nintendo Power staff (May 1992). "1991 Nintendo Power Awards". Nintendo Power. Bath: Future plc. 36: 72.
- Nintendo Power staff (February 2006). "Nintendo Power's Top 200". Nintendo Power. Bath: Future plc. 200: 58–66.
- Nutter, Lee (December 2006). "Retro: Yoshi". Official Nintendo Magazine. Bath: Future plc (10): 118–119.
- Retro Gamer staff (October 2004). "Your Top 100 Games (part two)". Retro Gamer. Bath: Future plc (4): 62.
- Sheff, David (1993). Game Over: How Nintendo Zapped an American Industry, Captured Your Dollars, and Enslaved Your Children (First ed.). New York: Random House. ISBN 0-679-40469-4.
- Official website (in Japanese)