Supercomputing in India

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India's supercomputer program was started in late 1980s because Cray supercomputers were denied for import due to an arms embargo imposed on India, as it was a dual-use technology and could be used for developing nuclear weapons.[1][2]

Supercomputer PARAM 8000 (made by the Centre for Development of Advanced Computing (C-DAC)) was launched on July 1, 1991 is considered India's first supercomputer. It was indigenously built in 1991 by C-DAC and was replicated and installed at ICAD Moscow in 1991 under Russian collaboration.[3][4][5][6]

Indian supercomputers in the TOP500[edit]

As of June 2018, India has 5 systems on the TOP500 list ranking.[7]

Rank Site Name Rmax
39 Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology Pratyush (Cray XC40) 3,763.9 4,006.2
66 National Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasting Mihir (Cray XC40) 2,570.4 2,808.7
206 Software Company InC1 - Lenovo C1040 1,123.2 1,413.1
327 Indian Institute of Science SERC - Cray XC40 901.5 1,244.2
496 Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology iDataPlex DX360M4 719.2 790.7

India's rank in TOP500[edit]

As of November 2016, India was ranked 14th on the TOP500 list ranking based on Rmax.[8]

Country Total Rmax
Total Rpeak
Number of systems
in TOP500
United States 228,032,809 327,303,955 171
China 223,571,136 394,013,392 171
Japan 54,486,820 77,371,577 27
Germany 36,501,435 45,628,388 31
United Kingdom 27,602,596 31,682,369 13
France 25,398,803 31,727,765 20
Italy 14,062,113 21,140,514 6
Switzerland 12,273,082 18,811,648 4
Saudi Arabia 9,577,664 12,798,147 5
Poland 6,162,214 8,157,370 7
Korea, South 5,679,725 7,597,851 4
Russia 4,411,812 6,515,928 5
Sweden 3,378,143 4,291,609 4
India 3,092,368 4,456,051 5
Australia 2,791,709 3,437,363 3
Netherlands 2,117,521 2,900,275 3
Finland 1,762,018 2,437,632 2
Austria 1,537,298 2,096,230 3
Czech Republic 1,457,730 2,011,641 1
New Zealand 1,372,751 2,208,000 3


SpaceTime II[9][edit]

Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay, Mumbai has inaugurated a new super-computing system called the SpaceTime 2 replacing the earlier SpaceTime system. It is a Cray XC50 architecture achieving ~1 PFlops of peak performance. It consists of 216 nodes with 2x Intel Skylake 6148, 2.4 GHz 20 Core, 1003 TFLOPS Total Peak Performance, 4 High Memory Nodes with total of 1.5 TB RAM and 64 CPU+GPU Nodes consisting of 1xIntel Broadwell + P100 NVIDIA GPU.

It also includes additional nodes as follows:

  • Login Nodes—2
  • System Nodes—2
  • External Server—1
  • System Management Workstation—1


  • Parallel File System -- Lustre®
  • LNet Nodes—4
  • Storage Array—Cray ClusterStor L300
Home Storage[edit]
  • Usable Storage (/home) -- 480 TB @ 9 GB/s
  • Cray ClusterStor Configuration—One MMU + One SSU
  • Lustre I/O Nodes (Embedded) -- 2 MDS + 2 OSS (Active/Active config)
  • HDD Data 8 TB – 7.2K RPM on GridRAID (RAID 6)
  • HDD Metadata 900 GB – 10K RPM on RAID 10
Scratch Storage[edit]
  • Usable Storage (/scratch) -- 720 TB @ 18 GB/s
  • ClusterStor Configuration—One MMU + Two SSU
  • Lustre I/O Nodes (Embedded) -- 2 MDS + 4 OSS (Active/Active config)
  • HDD Data 6 TB – 7.2K RPM on GridRAID (RAID 6)
  • HDD Metadata 900 GB – 10K RPM on RAID 10


  • Operating System—Cray Linux Environment Version - 6.x
  • Cray Programming Environment (CPE) -- Unlimited
  • Intel Parallel Studio XE—5 Seats
  • PGI Accelerator—2 Seats
  • Workload Manager—PBS Pro

The team responsible for this system consists of professors, PROF VARSHA APTE, Head, Computer Centre; PROF R B SUNOJ, Convener, HPC Committee and other committee members PROF ASHUTOSH MAHAJAN, PROF ATEEQUE MALANI, PROF SHIVASUBRAMANIAN GOPALAKRISHNAN. Also involved are DR JYOTIPRASAD MAHARANA, Sr Technical Officer, TRIRAG CHOWDHURY, System Administrator and AKHILESH DUBEY, Technical Superintendent.

Contact Information[edit]

System Administrator, SpaceTime High Performance Computing Facility

  • Address: G-09 Old CSE Building, IIT Bombay Mumbai 400076
  • Phone: +912221596474, +912225764723
  • EMAIL: For general enquiries: [[1]]


Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology, Pune has a machine called Aaditya with a theoretical peak of 790.7 teraflop/s which is used for climate research and operational forecasting. It ranked 96th on the June 2013 list of the world's top 500 supercomputers.[10]

PARAM Yuva II[edit]

Unveiled on 8 February 2013, this supercomputer was made by Centre for Development of Advanced Computing in a period of three months, at a cost of 160 million (US$2 million). It performs at a peak of 524 TFLOPS, about 10 times faster than the present facility, and will consume 35% less energy as compared to the existing facility. According to CDAC, the supercomputer can deliver sustained performance of 360.8 TFLOPS on the community standard LINPACK benchmark, and would have been ranked 62 in the November 2012 ranking list of TOP500. In terms of power efficiency, it would have been ranked 33rd in the November 2012 List of Top Green 500 supercomputers of the world.[11][12] It is the first Indian supercomputer achieving more than 500 teraflops.[13][14]

Param Yuva II will be used for research in space, bioinformatics, weather forecasting, seismic data analysis, aeronautical engineering, scientific data processing and pharmaceutical development. Educational institutes like the Indian Institutes of Technology, National Institutes of Technology and Indian Institute of Information Technology can be linked to the computer through the national knowledge network. This computer is a stepping stone towards building the future petaflop-range supercomputers in India.[13][14][15]


Pratyush is a Cray XC40 system. Pratyush is an array of computers that can deliver a peak power of 6.8 petaflops. As of January 2018, Pratyush is the fastest supercomputer in India.[16] Pratyush is the fourth-fastest supercomputer in the world dedicated for weather and climate research, and follows machines in Japan, USA and the United Kingdom. It will also move a supercomputer in India from the 300s to the 30s in the TOP500 list, a respected international tracker of the world’s fastest supercomputers.[17]

Future supercomputers[edit]

The Indian Government has proposed to commit 2.5 billion USD to supercomputing research during the 12th Five-Year Plan period (2012–2017). The project will be handled by Indian Institute of Science (IISc), Bangalore.[18][19] Additionally, it was later revealed that India plans to develop a supercomputer with processing power in the exaflop range.[20] It will be developed by C-DAC within the subsequent five years of approval.[21]

In March 2015, the Indian government has approved a seven-year supercomputing program worth $730 million (Rs. 4,500 crore). The National Supercomputing grid will consist of 73 geographically-distributed high-performance computing centers linked over a high-speed network. The mission involves both capacity and capability machines and includes standing up three petascale supercomputers.[22][23]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "India orders review of US supercomputer deal". Indian Express. Press Trust of India. 25 March 2000. India started supercomputer development in the early eighties after it was denied the technology by the US.
  2. ^ Beary, Habib (1 April 2003). "India unveils huge supercomputer". BBC News. India began developing supercomputers in the late 1980s after being refused one by the US.
  3. ^ "C-DAC furthering ties with ICAD, Moscow: From PARAM 8000 to PARAM 10000". Center for Development of Advanced Computing (C-DAC). Retrieved 15 September 2011.
  4. ^ "Supercomputer being developed at Pune, Bangalore will be ready in 6 months". Center for Development of Advanced Computing (C-DAC). Retrieved 15 September 2011. India her first indigenous supercomputer in 1991 (PARAM 8000)
  5. ^ "Digital India Week".
  6. ^ "The Little Known Story of How India's First Indigenous Supercomputer Amazed the World in 1991". The Better India. 2017-01-13. Retrieved 2017-07-23.
  7. ^ "TOP500 List - June 2018". TOP500. Retrieved 25 June 2018.
  8. ^ "Top500 List". Retrieved 12 June 2017.
  9. ^ [ "SpaceTime IITB"] Check |url= value (help).
  10. ^ "Top Supercomputers in India (Dec 2012)". Indian Institute of Science (IISC). Retrieved 11 February 2013.
  11. ^ "C-DAC launches India's fastest supercomputer; becomes first R&D institution in India to cross 500 teraflops milestone". Information Week. 9 February 2013. Archived from the original on 13 February 2013. Retrieved 9 February 2013.
  12. ^ "C-DAC reaffirms India's position on supercomputing map with PARAM Yuva - II". CDAC. Retrieved 9 February 2013.
  13. ^ a b "C-DAC unveils India's fastest supercomputer". The Times of India. Retrieved 9 February 2013.
  14. ^ a b "India's fastest supercomputer 'Param Yuva II' unveiled". DNA India. 8 February 2013. Retrieved 9 February 2013.
  15. ^ "C-DAC unveils India's fastest supercomputer Param Yuva II". The Economic Times. 9 February 2013. Retrieved 9 February 2013.
  16. ^ "India's fastest supercomputer 'Pratyush' established at Pune's IITM". The Indian Express. 2018-01-09. Archived from the original on 2018-01-26. Retrieved 2018-01-26.
  17. ^ "India unveils Pratyush, its fastest supercomputer yet". The Hindu. 8 January 2018. Retrieved 8 January 2018.
  18. ^ "Making up lost ground: India pitches for $1bn leap in supercomputers". Daily Mail. 23 January 2012. Retrieved 29 January 2012.
  19. ^ "India Aims to Double R&D Spending for Science". HPC Wire. 4 January 2012. Retrieved 29 January 2012.
  20. ^ C-DAC and Supercomputers in India
  21. ^ "India plans 61 times faster supercomputer by 2017". Times of India. 27 September 2012. Retrieved 9 October 2012.
  22. ^ "India Greenlights $730 Million Supercomputing Grid". HPC Wire. 26 March 2015.
  23. ^ "Govt to install 73 supercomputers across the country". Zee News. 25 March 2015.