Supercomputing in India

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India's Supercomputer Programme was started in late 1980s, precisely during 1988, in New Delhi for Software, in Bangalore for Hardware, and in Pune for Firmware, while Sam Pitroda, Advisor to C-DOT, and C-DOT's Indigenous Architecture and Design Team constituted by its Senior Member Technical Staff / Senior Programme Managers including Mohan Subramaniyam alias Mohan Rose Ali, Periasamy Muthiah, and Leslie D'Souza had all worked hard at the Centre for Development of Telematics (C-DOT) to create C-DOT's Indigenous Super-computing Machine called CHIPPS [C-DOT High-Performance Parallel Processing System], because the contracted Cray X-MP Supercomputers were denied for export to India which was under the Statesmanship and Stewardship of Mr. Rajiv Gandhi, the then Prime Minister of India, due to an arms embargo imposed by US on India during the Ronald Regan's Presidential Administration, for it was a dual-use technology and it could be used for developing indigenous Strategic Defense Systems by India.[1][2]

Indian Supercomputer design experience started first with C-DOT's CHIPPS [C-DOT High Performance Parallel Processing System]. It was designed to work with a maximum of 192 nodes and later the Technology, Architecture, Design, and the Product's Hardware, Software, and Firmware were transferred to a similarly formed autonomous organization in Pune which was then called 'C-DACT' in the first place to refer to 'Centre for Development of Advanced Computing Technology' as it was intended originally to sound synonymous with C-DOT, but it was later renamed to C-DAC with 5 characters similar to that of C-DOT. CHIPPS was the base platform of the Indian Supercomputer Revolution initiated in 1988 and pursued more vigorously during the start of the 1991. Then 'CHIPPS' Transputer Architecture and Design was augmented and was renamed to call it 'PARAM' by the policy makers of C-DAC though the original architects and the original designers of C-DOT opposed to the renaming process because 'PARAM' refers to GOD in Indian Root Language TAMIL and its ancient versions including Sanskrit. Indian Supercomputer 'PARAM 8000' named by the Centre for Development of Advanced Computing (C-DAC)) was launched on July 1, 1991. It was released in 1991 by C-DAC and was replicated and installed at ICAD Moscow in 1991 under Russian collaboration.[3][4][5][6] Muni suggested this link

Indian supercomputers in the TOP500[edit]

As of November 2018, India has 4 systems on the TOP500 list ranking.[7]

Rank Site Name Rmax
45 Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology Pratyush (Cray XC40) 3,763.9 4,006.2
73 National Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasting Mihir (Cray XC40) 2,570.4 2,808.7
337 Software Company InC1 - Lenovo C1040 1,123.2 1,413.1
488 Indian Institute of Science SERC - Cray XC40 901.5 1,244.2

Other supercomputers with smaller capacity[edit]

Rank Site Name Rmax
- Indian Institute of Technology (BHU)[8] Param Shivay 833 -
- Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology Aaditya (iDataPlex DX360M4) 719.2 790.7

India's rank in TOP500[edit]

As of November 2018, India was ranked 15th on the TOP500 list ranking based on Rmax.[9]

Country Total Rmax
Total Rpeak
Number of systems
in TOP500
China 438,228,339 806,368,243 227
United States 533,209,190 757,357,100 109
Japan 109,436,242 170,880,045 31
United Kingdom 41,729,303 52,509,525 20
France 43,580,345 66,598,837 18
Germany 60,502,637 86,333,952 17
Ireland 19,789,320 25,436,160 12
Canada 14,027,780 22,258,586 9
Italy 31,110,650 49,243,746 6
Korea, South 21,938,000 35,760,556 6
Netherlands 9,334,060 11,925,504 6
Australia 6,669,188 10,232,963 5
India 8,358,996 9,472,166 4
Poland 4,604,365 6,216,160 4
Sweden 4,653,054 6,565,116 4
Russia 4,580,250 7,940,005 3
Saudi Arabia 10,109,130 13,858,214 3
Singapore 4,308,220 5,525,299 3
Spain 7,488,800 11,781,642 2
Taiwan 10,325,150 17,297,190 2
Switzerland 23,126,750 29,347,305 2
South Africa 2,152,470 2,779,930 2
New Zealand 908,892 1,425,408 1
Norway 953,571 1,081,651 1
Brazil 1,123,150 1,413,120 1
Finland 1,250,000 1,689,293 1
Czech Republic 1,457,730 2,011,641 1


SpaceTime II[edit]

Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay, Mumbai has inaugurated a new super-computing system called the SpaceTime 2 replacing the earlier SpaceTime system. It has Cray XC50 architecture achieving ~1 PFLOPS of peak performance. It consists of 216 nodes with 2x Intel Skylake 6148, 2.4 GHz 20 Core, 1003 TFLOPS Total Peak Performance, 4 High Memory Nodes with total of 1.5 TB RAM and 64 CPU+GPU Nodes consisting of 1xIntel Broadwell + P100 NVIDIA GPU.[citation needed]

It also includes additional nodes as follows:

  • Login Nodes—2
  • System Nodes—2
  • External Server—1
  • System Management Workstation—1
Storage System Configuration[edit]
  • Parallel File System -- Lustre®
  • LNet Nodes—4
  • Storage Array—Cray ClusterStor L300
Home Storage[edit]
  • Usable Storage (/home) -- 480 TB @ 9 GB/s
  • Cray ClusterStor Configuration—One MMU + One SSU
  • Lustre I/O Nodes (Embedded) -- 2 MDS + 2 OSS (Active/Active config)
  • HDD Data 8 TB – 7.2K RPM on GridRAID (RAID 6)
  • HDD Metadata 900 GB – 10K RPM on RAID 10
Scratch Storage[edit]
  • Usable Storage (/scratch) -- 720 TB @ 18 GB/s
  • ClusterStor Configuration—One MMU + Two SSU
  • Lustre I/O Nodes (Embedded) -- 2 MDS + 4 OSS (Active/Active config)
  • HDD Data 6 TB – 7.2K RPM on GridRAID (RAID 6)
  • HDD Metadata 900 GB – 10K RPM on RAID 10
Software environment[edit]
  • Operating System—Cray Linux Environment Version - 6.x
  • Cray Programming Environment (CPE) -- Unlimited
  • Intel Parallel Studio XE—5 Seats
  • PGI Accelerator—2 Seats
  • Workload Manager—PBS Pro


Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology, Pune has a machine called Aaditya with a theoretical peak of 790.7 teraflop/s which is used for climate research and operational forecasting. It ranked 96th on the June 2013 list of the world's top 500 supercomputers.[10]

PARAM Yuva II[edit]

Unveiled on 8 February 2013, this supercomputer was made by Centre for Development of Advanced Computing in a period of three months, at a cost of 160 million (US$2 million). It performs at a peak of 524 TFLOPS, about 10 times faster than the present facility, and will consume 35% less energy as compared to the existing facility. According to CDAC, the supercomputer can deliver sustained performance of 360.8 TFLOPS on the community standard LINPACK benchmark, and would have been ranked 62 in the November 2012 ranking list of TOP500. In terms of power efficiency, it would have been ranked 33rd in the November 2012 List of Top Green 500 supercomputers of the world.[11][12] It is the first Indian supercomputer achieving more than 500 teraflops.[13][14]

Param Yuva II will be used for research in space, bioinformatics, weather forecasting, seismic data analysis, aeronautical engineering, scientific data processing and pharmaceutical development. Educational institutes like the Indian Institutes of Technology, National Institutes of Technology and Indian Institute of Information Technology can be linked to the computer through the national knowledge network. This computer is a stepping stone towards building the future petaflop-range supercomputers in India.[13][14][15]


Pratyush is a Cray XC40 system. Pratyush is an array of computers that can deliver a peak power of 6.8 petaflops. As of January 2018, Pratyush is the fastest supercomputer in India.[16] Pratyush is the fourth-fastest supercomputer in the world dedicated for weather and climate research, and follows machines in Japan, USA and the United Kingdom. It will also move a supercomputer in India from the 300s to the 30s in the TOP500 list, a respected international tracker of the world’s fastest supercomputers.[17]

Future supercomputers[edit]

The Indian Government has proposed to commit 2.5 billion USD to supercomputing research during the 12th Five-Year Plan period (2012–2017). The project will be handled by Indian Institute of Science (IISc), Bangalore.[18][19] Additionally, it was later revealed that India plans to develop a supercomputer with processing power in the exaflop range.[20] It will be developed by C-DAC within the subsequent five years of approval.[21]

In March 2015, the Indian government has approved a seven-year supercomputing program worth $730 million (Rs. 4,500 crore). The National Supercomputing grid will consist of 73 geographically-distributed high-performance computing centers linked over a high-speed network. The mission involves both capacity and capability machines and includes standing up three petascale supercomputers.[22][23]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "India orders review of US supercomputer deal". Indian Express. Press Trust of India. 25 March 2000. India started supercomputer development in the early eighties after it was denied the technology by the US.
  2. ^ Beary, Habib (1 April 2003). "India unveils huge supercomputer". BBC News. India began developing supercomputers in the late 1980s after being refused one by the US.
  3. ^ "C-DAC furthering ties with ICAD, Moscow: From PARAM 8000 to PARAM 10000". Center for Development of Advanced Computing (C-DAC). Retrieved 15 September 2011.
  4. ^ "Supercomputer being developed at Pune, Bangalore will be ready in 6 months". Center for Development of Advanced Computing (C-DAC). Retrieved 15 September 2011. India her first indigenous supercomputer in 1991 (PARAM 8000)
  5. ^ "Digital India Week".
  6. ^ "The Little Known Story of How India's First Indigenous Supercomputer Amazed the World in 1991". The Better India. 13 January 2017. Retrieved 23 July 2017.
  7. ^ "TOP500 List - November 2018". TOP500. Retrieved 21 May 2019.
  8. ^ "PM Modi inaugurates supercomputer 'Param Shivay' at IIT-BHU". The Indian Express. 19 February 2019. Retrieved 19 February 2019.
  9. ^ "Top500 List". Retrieved 12 June 2017.
  10. ^ "Top Supercomputers in India (Dec 2012)". Indian Institute of Science (IISC). Retrieved 11 February 2013.
  11. ^ "C-DAC launches India's fastest supercomputer; becomes first R&D institution in India to cross 500 teraflops milestone". Information Week. 9 February 2013. Archived from the original on 13 February 2013. Retrieved 9 February 2013.
  12. ^ "C-DAC reaffirms India's position on supercomputing map with PARAM Yuva - II". CDAC. Retrieved 9 February 2013.
  13. ^ a b "C-DAC unveils India's fastest supercomputer". The Times of India. Retrieved 9 February 2013.
  14. ^ a b "India's fastest supercomputer 'Param Yuva II' unveiled". DNA India. 8 February 2013. Retrieved 9 February 2013.
  15. ^ "C-DAC unveils India's fastest supercomputer Param Yuva II". The Economic Times. 9 February 2013. Retrieved 9 February 2013.
  16. ^ "India's fastest supercomputer 'Pratyush' established at Pune's IITM". The Indian Express. 9 January 2018. Archived from the original on 26 January 2018. Retrieved 26 January 2018.
  17. ^ "India unveils Pratyush, its fastest supercomputer yet". The Hindu. 8 January 2018. Retrieved 8 January 2018.
  18. ^ "Making up lost ground: India pitches for $1bn leap in supercomputers". Daily Mail. 23 January 2012. Retrieved 29 January 2012.
  19. ^ "India Aims to Double R&D Spending for Science". HPC Wire. 4 January 2012. Retrieved 29 January 2012.
  20. ^ C-DAC and Supercomputers in India
  21. ^ "India plans 61 times faster supercomputer by 2017". Times of India. 27 September 2012. Retrieved 9 October 2012.
  22. ^ "India Greenlights $730 Million Supercomputing Grid". HPC Wire. 26 March 2015.
  23. ^ "Govt to install 73 supercomputers across the country". Zee News. 25 March 2015.