Superhuman

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Superhuman qualities are qualities that exceed those found in humans.

In mythology and religion, superhuman abilities are ascribed to deities or other supernatural beings.[citation needed]

The Übermensch or "Superman" was postulated by Friedrich Nietzsche as a type of supreme, ultra-aristocratic achievement which becomes possible in the transcendence of modernity, morals or nihilism.[1]

In transhumanism and futurology, superhuman abilities are the technological aim either of human enhancement by genetic modification or cybernetic implants or of future superhuman artificial intelligence.

Speculation about human nature and the possibilities of both human enhancement and future human evolution have made superhumans a popular subject of science fiction.

In modern popular culture, superhuman abilities are associated with the genre of superheroes, especially in American comic books.

Human enhancement and advancement[edit]

Human enhancement is an attempt to temporarily or permanently overcome the current limitations of the human body through natural or artificial means. Human enhancement may be through the use of technological means to select or alter human characteristics and capacities, whether or not the alteration results in characteristics and capacities that lie beyond the existing human range.

Some bioethicists restrict the term to the non-therapeutic application of specific technologiesneuro-, cyber-, gene- and nano-technologies — to human biology.[2][3][page needed]

According to transhumanist thinkers, a posthuman is a hypothetical future being "whose basic capacities so radically exceed those of present humans as to be no longer unambiguously human by our current standards."[4]

Artificial beings[edit]

Superhuman is one of the stages in classification of progress in artificial intelligence where an entity of artificial intelligence performs better than most humans do in a specific task.[citation needed] Examples of where computers have achieved superhuman performance include Backgammon,[5] Bridge,[citation needed] Chess,[citation needed] Reversi,[citation needed] Scrabble,[6] Go[7] and Jeopardy!.[8]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Nietzsche, Friedrich (2007). "Why I Write Such Good Books". Ecce Homo: How One Becomes What One Is & The Antichrist: A Curse on Christianity. New York: Algora Publishing. p. 41. ISBN 9780875862835. Retrieved July 4, 2018. The word "Superman" as the designation for a type of the highest successfulness as opposed to "modern" men, to "good" men, to Christians and other nihilists. 
  2. ^ Hughes, James (October 2004). "Human Enhancement on the Agenda". Institute for Ethics and Emerging Technologies. Retrieved July 4, 2018. 
  3. ^ Moore, Pete (2008). Enhancing Me: The Hope and the Hype of Human Enhancement. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 047069999X. 
  4. ^ Nick Bostrom (October 2003). "The Transhumanist FAQ" (PDF). Humanity+. Archived from the original (PDF) on December 31, 2006. Retrieved August 27, 2006. 
  5. ^ Tesauro, Gerald (1 March 1995). "Temporal difference learning and TD-Gammon". Communications of the ACM. 38 (3): 58–68. doi:10.1145/203330.203343. 
  6. ^ Sheppard, Brian (January 2002). "World-Championship-Caliber Scrabble". Artificial Intelligence. 134 (1-2): 241–275. doi:10.1016/S0004-3702(01)00166-7. 
  7. ^ Metz, Cade (March 15, 2016). "Google's AI Wins Fifth And Final Game Against Go Genius Lee Sedol". WIRED. Retrieved July 4, 2018. 
  8. ^ Rashid, Fahmida Y. (February 14, 2011). "IBM's Watson Ties for Lead on Jeopardy but Makes Some Doozies". eWEEK. Retrieved July 4, 2018.