Superior General of the Society of Jesus
|Society of Jesus|
History of the Jesuits
The Superior General of the Society of Jesus is the official title of the leader of the Society of Jesus—the Roman Catholic religious order, also known as the Jesuits. He is generally addressed as Father General. The position sometimes carries the nickname of the Black Pope, after his simple black priest's vestments, as contrasted to the white garb of the Pope. The thirtieth and current Superior General is the Reverend Father Adolfo Nicolás.
The formal title in Latin is Praepositus Generalis, which may fairly be rendered as "superior general" or even, "president general". The term is not of military origin (despite popular misconceptions and Ignatius of Loyola's own military background) but is derived from "general", as opposed to "particular" (as with many other Catholic religious orders, like the Dominicans' "master general", Franciscans' "minister general", Carthusians' "prior general", etc. and many civil posts, such as Postmaster General, Attorney General and Receiver General). The Jesuits are organized into provinces, each with a provincial superior, (usually referred to as the "Provincial Father" or just "Provincial"), with the head of the order being the "general superior", for the whole organization. As a major superior, the Superior General is styled "The Very Reverend".
"Black Pope" is a designation given to the Superior General. The name comes partly from the color of the plain black priest's cassock, worn by members of the Society, including the Superior General, partly from a past concern (most prominent around the 16th and 17th centuries) amongst Protestant European countries concerning the relative power of the Jesuits within the Roman Catholic Church, and partly because the Superior General is elected for life (although the last two, Fr. Pedro Arrupe and Fr. Peter-Hans Kolvenbach, resigned with permission from the pope).
The Superior General is invested with extraordinary power over the members of the Society, higher than the power given to a bishop over the clergy and lay people of a diocese.
Superiors General are elected by the General Congregation of the Society, summoned upon the resignation, retirement or death of an incumbent. Superiors General are elected for life and almost all have served life terms, the exceptions being Father Pedro Arrupe (resigned for reasons of failing health) and his successor, Father Peter Hans Kolvenbach. Kolvenbach's resignation was announced in February 2006, which led to the convocation of the 35th General Congregation. That General Congregation elected the current Superior General of the Society, Father Adolfo Nicolás.
List of Superiors General
|#||Superior General||Image||Took office||Left office||Birthplace||Length of term (in days)|
|1||Ignatius of Loyola||April 19, 1541||July 31, 1556||Azpeitia, Spain||5,582|
|2||Laynez, DiegoDiego Laynez||July 2, 1558||January 19, 1565||Almazán, Spain||2,393|
|3||Borgia, FrancisFrancis Borgia||July 2, 1565||October 1, 1572||Gandia, Spain||2,648|
|4||Mercurian, EverardEverard Mercurian||April 23, 1573||August 1, 1580||La Roche-en-Ardenne, Belgium||2,657|
|5||Acquaviva, ClaudioClaudio Acquaviva||February 19, 1581||January 31, 1615||Atri, Italy||12,399|
|6||Vitelleschi, MutioMutio Vitelleschi||November 15, 1615||February 9, 1645||Rome, Italy||10,679|
|7||Carafa, VincenzoVincenzo Carafa||January 7, 1646||June 8, 1649||Naples, Italy||1,248|
|8||Piccolomini, FrancescoFrancesco Piccolomini||December 21, 1649||June 17, 1651||Siena, Italy||543|
|9||Gottifredi, AloysiusAloysius Gottifredi||January 21, 1652||March 12, 1652||Rome, Italy||51|
|10||Nickel, GoschwinGoschwin Nickel||March 17, 1652||July 31, 1664||Jülich, Germany||4,519|
|11||Oliva, Giovanni PaoloGiovanni Paolo Oliva||July 31, 1664||November 26, 1681||Genoa, Italy||6,327|
|12||Noyelle, Charles deCharles de Noyelle||July 5, 1682||December 12, 1686||Brussels, Belgium||1,621|
|13||Santalla, Thyrsus González deThyrsus González de Santalla||July 6, 1687||October 27, 1705||Arganza, Spain||6,688|
|14||Tamburini, MichelangeloMichelangelo Tamburini||January 31, 1706||February 28, 1730||Modena, Italy||8,521|
|15||Retz, FranzFranz Retz||March 7, 1730||November 19, 1750||Prague, Bohemia||7,562|
|16||Visconti, IgnacioIgnacio Visconti||July 4, 1751||May 4, 1755||Milan, Italy||1,389|
|17||Centurione, AloysiusAloysius Centurione||November 30, 1755||October 2, 1757||Genoa, Italy||672|
|18||Ricci, LorenzoLorenzo Ricci||May 21, 1758||August 16, 1773||Florence, Italy||5,566|
|--||Czerniewicz, StanislausStanislaus Czerniewicz||October 17, 1782||October 21, 1785||Kaunas, Lithuania||1,100|
|--||Lenkiewicz, GabrielGabriel Lenkiewicz||October 8, 1785||October 21, 1798||Polotsk, Belarus||4,761|
|--||Kareu, FranciszekFranciszek Kareu||February 12, 1799||August 11, 1802||Orsha, Belarus||1,275|
|--||Gruber, GabrielGabriel Gruber||October 22, 1802||April 6, 1805||Vienna, Austria||897|
|19||Brzozowski, TadeuszTadeusz Brzozowski||August 7, 1814||February 5, 1820||Königsberg, Prussia||2,008|
|20||Fortis, LuigiLuigi Fortis||October 18, 1820||January 27, 1829||Verona, Italy||3,023|
|21||Roothaan, JanJan Roothaan||July 9, 1829||May 8, 1853||Amsterdam, Netherlands||8,704|
|22||Beckx, Peter JanPeter Jan Beckx||August 2, 1853||March 4, 1887||Scherpenheuvel-Zichem, Belgium||12,267|
|23||Anderledy, AntonAnton Anderledy||March 4, 1887||January 18, 1892||Berisal, Switzerland||1,781|
|24||Martín, LuisLuis Martín||October 2, 1892||April 18, 1906||Melgar de Fernamental, Spain||4,945|
|25||Wernz, Franz XavierFranz Xavier Wernz||September 8, 1906||August 20, 1914||Rottweil, Germany||2,903|
|26||Ledóchowski, WlodimirWlodimir Ledóchowski||February 11, 1915||December 13, 1942||Loosdorf, Austria||10,167|
|27||Janssens, Jean-BaptisteJean-Baptiste Janssens||September 15, 1946||October 5, 1964||Mechelen, Belgium||6,595|
|28||Arrupe, PedroPedro Arrupe||May 22, 1965||September 3, 1983||Bilbao, Spain||6,678|
|29||Kolvenbach, Peter HansPeter Hans Kolvenbach||September 13, 1983||January 14, 2008||Druten, Netherlands||8,889|
|30||Nicolás, AdolfoAdolfo Nicolás||January 19, 2008||—||Villamuriel de Cerrato, Spain||2,934|
Leadership during suppression
In 1773, the Jesuits were suppressed by Pope Clement XIV, through the Papal brief Dominus ac Redemptor on July 21, 1773, executed August 16. The leaders of the order, in the nations where the Papal suppression order was not enforced, were known as temporary Vicars General.
The temporary Vicars General were:
- Stanislaus Czerniewicz (October 17, 1782 – October 21, 1785)
- Gabriel Lenkiewicz (October 8, 1785 – October 21, 1798)
- Franciszek Kareu (February 12, 1799 – March 7, 1801)
On March 7, 1801, Pope Pius VII issued the brief Catholicae fidei, giving approval to the existence of the Society in Russia and allowing the Society there to elect a Superior General for Russia. This was the first step to the Society's eventual restoration.
The Superiors General in Russia were:
- Franciszek Kareu (March 7, 1801 – August 11, 1802)
- Gabriel Gruber (October 22, 1802 – April 6, 1805)
- Tadeusz Brzozowski (September 14, 1805 – August 7, 1814)
Notes and references
- David G. Schultenover (1993). A view from Rome: on the eve of the modernist crisis. Fordham University Press. p. Back cover. ISBN 0823213595.
- News on the elections of the new Superior General
- Lists the present-day name and nationality of the city in question.
- Vicar General
- Vicar General until March 7, 1801, Superior General for Russia thereafter.
- Superior General for Russia only.
- Superior General for Russia only from September 14, 1805 to August 7, 1814.