Superliner (railcar)

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AMTK 322 with the San Francisco Zephyr at Cape Horn, CA in November 1980 - 2 Photos (30567817685).jpg
Superliner I cars on the San Francisco Zephyr in November 1980
Superliner I Lounge upper.jpg
Interior of a Superliner I Sightseer lounge
  • 1975–1981 (Superliner I)
  • 1991–1996 (Superliner II)
Entered service 1979
Number built 479
Operator(s) Amtrak
Line(s) served Auto Train, California Zephyr, Capitol Limited, City of New Orleans, Coast Starlight, Empire Builder, Heartland Flyer, Pere Marquette, Southwest Chief, Sunset Limited, and Texas Eagle
Car length 85 ft 0 in (25.91 m)
Width 10 ft 2 in (3.10 m)
Height 16 ft 2 in (4.93 m)
Entry Step
Doors 1
Maximum speed 100 mph (160 km/h)
Weight 157,000–174,000 lb (71,214–78,925 kg)
Power supply Head-end power
Braking system(s) Air
Track gauge 4 ft 8 12 in (1,435 mm)

The Superliner is a type of bilevel intercity railroad passenger car used by Amtrak. Pullman-Standard built the first cars, known as Superliner I, in 1975–1981; Bombardier Transportation built a second batch, the Superliner II, in 1991–1996. The design descends from the Budd Hi-Level, employed by the Santa Fe on its El Capitan. Car types include coaches, dining cars, lounges, and sleeping cars.

The first Superliners entered service in February 1979. Amtrak employs the Superliners on all its Western and some Eastern long-distance routes; tunnel clearances prevent their use on the Northeast Corridor. Superliner coaches can also be found on short-distance corridor services. Derivative designs such as the California Car and Surfliner are used in California.


The exterior of a Hi-Level lounge on the El Capitan soon after completion in 1956.
See also: Hi-Level

Amtrak assumed control of almost all private sector intercity passenger rail service in the United States on May 1, 1971, with a mandate to reverse decades of decline. Amtrak retained approximately 184 of the 440 trains which had run the day before.[1] To operate these trains, Amtrak inherited a fleet of 300 locomotives (electric and diesel) and 1190 passenger cars, most of which dated from the 1940s–1950s.[2] No new sleeping cars had been built for service in the United States since 1955.[3]

Amtrak employed a mix of inherited cars on its long-distance trains in the Western United States. Most these were conventional single-level, but Amtrak had also inherited 73 Hi-Levels from the Santa Fe.[4] The Budd Company built these between 1954–1964; the bilevel design was well-suited to the long distances in the west. When Amtrak issued a request for proposal (RFP) in 1973 for a "totally new" passenger car it "was assumed" that the design would be bilevel.[5] Thirteen companies responded to the RFP; Amtrak selected the proposal by Louis T. Klauder & Associates. The design was finished by mid-1974 and Amtrak invited four companies to bid on its construction: Boeing, Budd, Pullman-Standard, and Rohr, with Pullman-Standard winning the contract.[6]


Top: Waggon Union truck from Superliner I car. Bottom: GSI truck from Superliner II car.

The Superliners resembled the Hi-Levels but differed in several ways. The most obvious difference was the height: at 16 feet 2 inches (4.9 m) the Superliners are 8 inches (20 cm) taller. The Superliners also used 480 volt head end power (HEP), which Amtrak had just adopted as its standard. The Hi-Levels, which used steam heating and diesel generators, would be converted to match this standard.[7]

The Superliner I cars ride on Waggon Union MD-76 trucks.[8] The trucks required more frequent overhauls than comparable domestic designs and were "were notorious for their rough riding characteristics."[9][10] The Superliner IIs ride on GSI-G70 outboard bearing trucks, also found on the Horizon.[11] The Superliner has a maximum speed of 100 mph (161 km/h).[12]

The Superliner I cars stored waste in onboard retention tanks, but then macerated and dumped it along the tracks once the train had attained a preset speed. This was an improvement on the Hi-Levels, which dumped directly to the tracks.[13] Growing public concern about such dumping led to the adoption of a full-retention system in the Superliner IIs. They were the first long-distance cars with such a system.[9][14] Additionally, the Superliner I cars were retrofitted with a full-retention system in the early 1990s.[15]

Initially the cars could not be worked east of Chicago because of limited overhead clearances, but by the 1980s many eastern railroads had raised clearances on their tracks to permit tri-level auto carriers and double-stack container trains, which also permitted the operation of the Superliners.[16]

The New York Times described the Superliner I interior color scheme as "soft hues of beige, rust, brown and green."[17] For the Superliner IIs Amtrak introduced a new scheme incorporating gray, aquamarine, and salmon.[18]


The interior of the upper level of a Superliner I coach. The staircase is at right, medium distance.
The exterior of a Superliner I coach. Note the full row of windows along the upper level seating area.

Pullman-Standard built 102 Superliner I coaches and 48 coach-baggage combination cars. Bombardier built 38 Superliner II coaches.[19] As built, Superliner coaches could carry 62 passengers in the upper level and 15 passengers on the lower level (later reduced to 12). The coach-baggage cars had a baggage compartment in lieu of the lower level seating area,[20] and squeezed 78 seats into the upper level.[21] The total capacity of 75–78 represented a small increase over the 68–72 on the Hi-Level coaches, which did not have seating on the lower level.[22] The Superliner I coach weighs 157,000 pounds (71,214 kg).[21]

Seating on the upper and lower levels is 2×2 with reclining seats. The seats are 23 inches (58 cm) wide with a pitch of 50–52 inches (127–132 cm). Included are adjustable footrests and retractable legrests, but no center armrest.[23] There are overhead luggage racks on the upper level and a luggage storage area on the lower level across from the stairs. There are four unisex toilets per coach, all on the lower level.[24] A shower was included in the original design, with the proviso that it be locked when the coaches were used in short-haul service. It was deleted from the final design.[25] After a grade crossing accident in 1999 the Transportation Safety Board of Canada faulted the layout on the lower level; the exterior door, when opened and locked in position, prevented egress from the wheelchair-accessible bathroom.[26]

Two-piece windows are located at each seat row.[27] Each window is 24 by 66 inches (61.0 by 167.6 cm).[21] Integral blinds were rejected in favor of curtains on maintenance grounds. An upper level of "skylight" windows, similar to those on the Sun Lounges, were rejected as too expensive but incorporated into the Sightseer lounges.[25]

Eleven Superliner I coaches were rebuilt as "snack coaches". These retained the 62 seats on the upper level but removed the lower level seating in favor of a snack bar and lounge seats.[28][29]

Amtrak rebuilt 34 of the coach-baggage cars as "smoking coaches" in 1996–1997.[30] The baggage room was converted to a self-contained specially-ventilated smoking lounge.[31] After Amtrak banned smoking on long-distance trains in 2004, the cars were reconverted.[32][33]

Five Superliner II coaches were rebuilt in 1996–1997 as "family coaches" or "Kiddie Cars."[34] These cars featured a children's play area on the lower level instead of seating and were assigned to the Coast Starlight.[35] Amtrak rebuilt these five cars again in 2008–2009 as "arcade cars" with video game machines in the lower level.[36] The cars were converted once more in 2015 to provide business class service on the Coast Starlight. The service began in June 2015.[37]

Caltrans paid to rebuild six wrecked Superliner I coaches and one baggage-coach for use in Amtrak California service.[38] The seating capacity was increased to 76 on the upper level and 20 on the lower level.[39]

Sleeping cars[edit]

A Superliner bedroom in nighttime configuration.
A Superliner roomette in daytime configuration.

Pullman-Standard built 70 Superliner I sleeping cars; Bombardier built 49 "standard" Superliner II sleepers and six "deluxe" sleepers.[19] The standard Superliner sleeping car contains 14 roomettes, five bedrooms, a family bedroom, and an accessible bedroom. The deluxe sleeping car contains ten bedrooms, four roomettes, a family bedroom, and an accessible bedroom.[24] As built the standard sleeping car could hold a maximum of 44 passengers. The Superliner I sleeping car weighs 167,000 pounds (75,750 kg).[40]

Roomettes measure 3 feet 6 inches (107 cm) × 6 feet 6 inches (198 cm). In daytime configuration each features two facing seats; these are combined to form a bed. A second bed is folded down from the ceiling.[41] Bedrooms measure 6 feet 6 inches (198 cm) × 7 feet 6 inches (229 cm). Like the roomette, there are two berths; during the day the lower berth acts as a sofa. The room also contains a chair which faces the beds. Unlike the roomette, a bedroom includes a private toilet, shower, and sink.[42]

The family bedroom is found at one end of the lower level of the car and measures 5 feet 2 inches (157 cm) × 9 feet 5 inches (287 cm). It can hold up to two adults and two children in four berths. During the day the berths form a sofa and two seats.[43] At the opposite end of the car from the family bedroom is the accessible bedroom, which measures 6 feet 9 inches (206 cm) × 9 feet 5 inches (287 cm). It sleeps two people in two berths and includes a wheelchair-accessible toilet, but no shower.[44]

The standard sleeping car has five bedrooms and ten roomettes on the upper level. The bedrooms are set against one side of the car with a hallway along the edge, while the roomettes are located to each side with the hallway running down the centerline. At the center of the car are the stairs to the lower level and a bathroom. A hallway runs through the centerline of the lower level with the accessible bedroom at one end and the family bedroom at the other. To one side of the stairs are three bathrooms and shower. To the other are four more roomettes. Luggage racks are located opposite the stairs. The layout of the deluxe sleeping car is similar. There are ten bedrooms on the upper level with a continuous hallway along one edge. The lower level contains opposed family and accessible bedrooms, four toilets, four roomettes, and a luggage rack.[24] Two bedrooms may be combined to form a "bedroom suite."[45]

As delivered, the Superliner I sleeping cars had five bathrooms, all on the lower level, and no public shower. Roomettes were termed "economy bedrooms" and bedrooms "deluxe bedrooms."[46] During the 1980s Amtrak retrofitted the cars to add a bathroom on the upper level and a public shower on the lower level, at the expense of one bathroom.[28] The Superliner II cars incorporated these improvements into their design.[47]


Superliner I lounge No. 33014. Note the curved windows.

Pullman-Standard and Bombardier each built 25 dedicated lounge cars, dubbed "Sightseer" lounges.[19] Windows wrap upward into the ceiling, providing lateral views of scenery along the train's route. This design element was drawn from the Hi-Level lounges and the Seaboard Air Line's Sun Lounges.[48] The Superliner I lounge weighs 160,000 pounds (72,575 kg).[21]

The upper level contains a mix of seating options. At one end are eight tables, four to each side, each seating four passengers. In the center is a lounge area with a wet bar and several groups of seats. The stairs to the lower level are located here as well. At the other end are swivel chairs. The lower level contains a bathroom, additional tables, and a snack bar.[24] As built the lounges had seating for 73.[49] The cars were built with an electric piano in the lower level, which has since been removed.[50]

In addition to the Sightseer lounges, Amtrak converted five Superliner I dining cars to lounge cars in 1998 for use on the Auto Train. These cars may be distinguished from the Sightseer lounges by their conventional windows.[38]

Dining cars[edit]

A Superliner dining car on the California Zephyr in 2005.

Pullman-Standard built 30 dining cars; Bombardier built another 39.[19] The dining cars can seat a maximum of 72 people on the upper level in tables of four. The kitchen occupies the entire lower level. At the center of the car are stairs down to the kitchen. A dumbwaiter is used to bring food and drink to the dining level, as well as to return dishes, glasses, and cutlery for washing.[24] The Superliner I dining car weighs 174,000 pounds (78,925 kg).[21]

Amtrak rebuilt 17 Superliner I dining cars as diner-lounges in the late 2000s.[51] Dubbed the "Cross-Country Cafe," they were intended to reduce food service losses by replacing both a traditional dining car and the Sightseer lounge on long-distance trains. One end of the car was converted into a cafe area, with tables and a small serving area near the stairs to the kitchen. The other side remained dedicated to traditional diner seating, but the standard two-by-two tables were replaced by booths.[52]

Transition sleepers[edit]

A Superliner transition sleeper with the lower-level connection to a baggage car.

Bombardier built 47 "transition sleeper" or dormitory cars. The car had two purposes: to provide sleeping accommodations for train personnel, and to provide access from the bilevel Superliner and Hi-Level cars to single-level equipment. Hi-Level "step-down" coaches had previously performed the latter role.[19] Most transition dormitory ("transdorm") cars have 16 roomettes on the upper level for crew accommodations, plus an accessible bedroom and small crew lounge on the lower level. Bathrooms and showers are located on both levels. At one end of the car is a high-level end door and diaphragm; at the other is a short staircase from the upper level leading to an end door at the height of standard single-level car.[24] On some trains, Amtrak will make the roomettes closest to the high-level end door available for sale to passengers.[53]


Between them Pullman-Standard and Bombardier manufactured 479 cars:[54]

Builder Class Type Quantity Original road numbers
Pullman-Standard Superliner I Coach-baggage 48 31000–31047
Pullman-Standard Superliner I Sleeper 70 32000–32069
Bombardier Superliner II Sleeper 49 32070–32118
Bombardier Superliner II Deluxe sleeper 6 32500–32505
Pullman-Standard Superliner I Sightseer lounge 25 33000–33024
Bombardier Superliner II Sightseer lounge 25 33025–33049
Pullman-Standard Superliner I Coach 102 34000–34101
Bombardier Superliner II Coach 38 34102–34139
Pullman-Standard Superliner I Diner 39 38000–38038
Bombardier Superliner II Diner 30 38039–38068
Bombardier Superliner II Transition dorm 47 39000–39046


Superliner I[edit]

Superliners under construction at the Pullman plant in Hammond, Indiana

Amtrak ordered 235 Superliner I cars from Pullman-Standard on April 2, 1975, with deliveries scheduled for January 1977–June 1978. The order then consisted of 120 coaches, 55 sleepers, 34 diners, and 26 cafes. Amtrak soon increased the order to 284 cars.[55][56] The initial order cost $143.6 million;[57] with the additional cars and other payments the cost rose to $250 million.[58]

The name "Superliner" was chosen by Needham, Harper & Steers (then Amtrak's advertising agency) and announced in 1977. Prior to the announcement Amtrak had run an employee contest to determine the name but the winning entry, "Vistaliner" (harkening back to the "Vista-Domes" of the Chicago, Burlington and Quincy Railroad), was already under copyright by another company.[59]

As the cars arrived in 1978–1979 Amtrak employed them on short-haul routes radiating from Chicago. The first coaches entered revenue service on February 26, 1979, running from ChicagoMilwaukee. The coaches, led by an EMD F40PH, displaced the regular Turboliner equipment on No. 337.[60] The equipment continued to operate on the run for several weeks.[61] The Illini (April) and Shawnee (June) received Superliner coaches soon after; the first Superliner dining car ran on the Shawnee as a lounge.[62]

Equipping the fleet[edit]

An Amtrak publicity train with Superliners at Lisle, Illinois on October 11, 1979
The Southwest Limited with a mix of Superliners and Hi-Level cars in March 1981

A public unveiling took place at Union Station in Chicago on October 11, 1979, followed by a short trip over the Burlington Northern Railroad to Lisle.[17] The following day, the Shawnee had the dubious distinction of the first accident with Superliners after a minor collision with an Illinois Central Gulf Railroad freight train.[63]

Amtrak's first choice for Superliner assignments had been the financially-troubled Floridian, but the two years' delay in delivery scuppered these plans.[64] Amtrak turned next to the Empire Builder. This train encountered harsh weather conditions which frequently sidelined traditional steam-heated equipment and would benefit from modern head-end power.[65] The Empire Builder became the first long-distance train to use Superliners, and the first train permanently assigned them, on October 28, 1979.[66] Amtrak's new national timetable depicted a Superliner coach on the front cover, and the listing for the Empire Builder carried a heading which read "Amtrak's Superliner is Somethin' Special."[67] At the same time Superliners entered service on the short-haul Pacific International and Mount Rainier in the Pacific Northwest.[68]

With the Empire Builder in operation, Amtrak began reequipping the remaining long-distance trains in the west. The second permanent Superliner train was the Desert Wind, which gained coaches on June 30, 1980. The San Francisco Zephyr followed on July 7, 1980; it received the first of the Sightseer lounges on January 6, 1981.[69] Amtrak assigned Superliners to the Southwest Limited in October 1980. The Southwest Limited, formerly the Super Chief, traveled the same route as the El Capitan, whose Hi-Levels had inspired the design.[70] The design impressed the management of the Santa Fe sufficiently that they permitted Amtrak to restore the name Chief to the train, and Amtrak renamed it the Southwest Chief on October 28, 1984.[71] The Chief was the first train to receive Superliner II sleeping cars in September 1993.[72]

The Coast Starlight began operating with Superliners in January 1981.[73] The Sunset Limited gained them in February, resulting in a commendation from the Texas State Legislature.[74] The Pioneer gained Superliner coaches on April 26.[75] The Eagle began carrying Superliners in October on those days it connected with the Sunset Limited in San Antonio. Superliner assignments became permanent in the 1990s.[76] The last car of the order, a sleeper delivered in July 1981, was also the last car ever built by Pullman, and was named in honor of the company's founder, George Mortimer Pullman.[4] Amtrak estimated that reequipping a train with Superliners boosted ridership on it by 25%.[77]

In the mid-1980s Canada's Via Rail contemplated replacing its aging Budd-built steam-heated cars with Superliners. The order would have consisted of 130 cars, valued at CA$450 million, to be built by a consortium of Bombardier Transportation and the Urban Transportation Development Corporation.[78] Via tested several Amtrak Superliners in revenue service between Edmonton and Winnipeg in 1984–85.[79] Ultimately Via chose to rebuild its Budd cars to use HEP instead of ordering new equipment.[77]

Superliner II[edit]

Superliner II sleeping cars on the Capitol Limited in 2014.

Amtrak ordered 140 Superliner II cars from Bombardier Transportation in 1991; Bombardier had acquired the Superliner patents after Pullman-Standard's closure.[80] The order consisted of 55 sleeping cars, 38 coaches, 20 dining cars, 15 lounges, and 12 transition-dormitory cars. The initial order cost $340 million, and included an option for 39 cars.[81] In late 1993 Amtrak exercised the option for 55 additional cars at a cost of $110 million, bringing the total order of Superliner II cars to 195.[82] The option included ten dining cars, ten lounges, and 35 transdorms. Bombardier built the order in Barre, Vermont.[80]

The new order allowed the displacement of the remaining Hi-Level cars as well as the employment of Superliners on trains running with single-level cars. Trains gaining Superliners included the City of New Orleans (March 1994);[83] Capitol Limited (October);[84] and Auto Train (March 1, 1995).[85] A project to enlarge the First Street Tunnel enabled the Cardinal to begin using Superliners in September 1995; these would be withdrawn in 2002 because of equipment shortages.[86] Superliners were used on the International from November 1995 until early 2000.[a]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Sanders cites an equipment shortage for the withdrawal.[87] A report published by the Transportation Safety Board of Canada in 2002 faulted design aspects of the Superliner and indicated that they were withdrawn for that reason.[26]


  1. ^ Kelly, John (June 5, 2001). "Amtrak's beginnings". Classic Trains. Retrieved September 13, 2016. 
  2. ^ Simon & Warner 2011, p. 108
  3. ^ "Railroad Sleeping, Passenger Cars Are Ordered By Amtrak". Valley Morning Star. April 2, 1975. p. 39. Retrieved February 7, 2017 – via  free to read
  4. ^ a b Solomon 2004, p. 129
  5. ^ Zimmermann 2016, p. 55
  6. ^ Weinman & Cavanaugh 1982, p. 30
  7. ^ Weinman & Cavanaugh 1982, p. 29
  8. ^ Bing, Berry & Henderson 1996, p. A1-55
  9. ^ a b Johnston 1993, p. 37
  10. ^ Bing, Berry & Henderson 1996, p. A1-65
  11. ^ Bing, Berry & Henderson 1996, pp. 3–11
  12. ^ Amtrak 2015, p. 43
  13. ^ National RR Passenger Corp. v. State of Nev., 776 F.Supp. 528 (D. Nev. 1991).
  14. ^ Campbell, Joel (August 21, 1988). "Amtrak Accused of Dumping at Helper". Deseret News. 
  15. ^ "...And Congress Puts a Lid on It" (PDF). The Trainmaster. May 1991. 
  16. ^ Solomon 2004, p. 132
  17. ^ a b Sheppard, Nathaniel, Jr. (October 12, 1979). "Amtrak Unveils a 'superliner' Fleet Of Rail Cars for Its Western Routes". The New York Times. 
  18. ^ Johnston 1992, pp. 35–36
  19. ^ a b c d e Simon & Warner 2011, p. 210
  20. ^ ""Somethin' Special": A Superliner History". History Blog. Amtrak. September 30, 2013. 
  21. ^ a b c d e PTJ 1979b, p. 8
  22. ^ Griswold 1957, pp. 138–241
  23. ^ McGee, Bill (November 5, 2014). "Tale of the tape: Amtrak is more comfortable than airlines". USA Today. 
  24. ^ a b c d e f Mashburn, Craig. "Superliner Equipment". Amtrak Car Diagrams. 
  25. ^ a b Weinman & Cavanaugh 1982, p. 28
  26. ^ a b "Crossing Collision/Derailment Via Rail Canada Inc. Passenger Train No 85 Mile 33.54, Goderich-Exeter Railway (GEXR) Guelph Subdivision Limehouse, Ontario". Transportation Safety Board of Canada. December 17, 2002. Retrieved January 15, 2017. 
  27. ^ Foster 1996, p. 120
  28. ^ a b "Amtrak's Passenger Trains" (PDF). Amtrak. August 1990. p. 13. 
  29. ^ Simon & Warner 2011, p. 218
  30. ^ "Smoking Cars". RailNews (401): 27. April 1997. 
  31. ^ "ANALYSIS OF COST SAVINGS ON AMTRAK'S LONG-DISTANCE SERVICES" (PDF). Office of Inspector General for the Department of Transportation. July 22, 2005. 
  32. ^ Sachs, Ben (May 21, 2012). "A memory of the smoking car". Chicago Reader. 
  33. ^ Simon & Warner 2011, pp. 212–213
  34. ^ Simon & Warner 2011, p. 221
  35. ^ Bandrapalli, Suman (October 19, 1997). "More travelers opting for the rails". Chicago Sun-Times. Retrieved January 7, 2017 – via HighBeam Research. (subscription required (help)). 
  36. ^ Simon & Warner 2011, p. 222
  37. ^ "AMTRAK COAST STARLIGHT TO OFFER BUSINESS CLASS SERVICE" (PDF) (Press release). Amtrak. July 2, 2015. 
  38. ^ a b Simon & Warner 2011, p. 219
  39. ^ "Rolling Stock Roster". On Track On Line. December 31, 2016. Retrieved January 7, 2017. 
  40. ^ PTJ 1979b, p. 9
  41. ^ "Superliner Roomette". Amtrak. Archived from the original on January 5, 2017. Retrieved January 15, 2017. 
  42. ^ "Superliner Bedroom". Amtrak. Archived from the original on August 19, 2016. Retrieved January 15, 2017. 
  43. ^ "Superliner Family Bedroom". Amtrak. Archived from the original on August 19, 2016. Retrieved January 15, 2017. 
  44. ^ "Superliner Accessible Bedroom". Amtrak. Archived from the original on August 19, 2016. Retrieved January 15, 2017. 
  45. ^ "Superliner Bedroom Suite". Amtrak. Archived from the original on August 4, 2016. Retrieved January 15, 2017. 
  46. ^ Ingles 1979b, p. 16
  47. ^ Johnston 1993, p. 38
  48. ^ Simon & Warner 2011, p. 216
  49. ^ Young, David (January 25, 1981). "Amtrak upgrading its western trains". Chicago Tribune. 
  50. ^ "Piano lounge in a Sightseer Lounge car, 1980s". Amtrak: History of America's Railroad. March 7, 2014. 
  51. ^ Simon & Warner 2011, pp. 218–219
  52. ^ Johnston 2008a, p. 22
  53. ^ Johnston 2008b, p. 27
  54. ^ Simon & Warner 2011, pp. 212–223
  55. ^ Amtrak Annual Report. 1975. p. 16. 
  56. ^ "From Ugly Duckling To Graceful Swan". On Track. 1 (1): 13. June 1981. 
  57. ^ Gruber, William (December 14, 1975). "No longer a sleeping giant, Pullman growing overseas". Chicago Tribune. 
  58. ^ Shifrin, Carole (October 12, 1979). "Supertrain Coming on 7 Amtrak Routes". The Washington Post. 
  59. ^ "Name The Bi-Level Contest Winners Picked". Amtrak NEWS. 4 (10): 2. June 1977. 
  60. ^ Ingles 1979a, p. 14
  61. ^ Sanders 2006, p. 181
  62. ^ Sanders 2006, p. 103
  63. ^ NTSB 1980, p. 10
  64. ^ Sanders 2006, p. 90
  65. ^ Sanders 2006, p. 162
  66. ^ Sanders 2006, p. 171
  67. ^ "National Train Timetables". Amtrak. October 28, 1979. 
  68. ^ PTJ 1979, p. 6
  69. ^ Sanders 2006, p. 154
  70. ^ Sanders 2006, p. 133
  71. ^ Sanders 2006, p. 128
  72. ^ Sanders 2006, p. 134
  73. ^ "Untitled" (PDF). The Trainmaster (237): 3. February 1981. 
  74. ^ H.C.R. 64 (4061), Commendation–National Railroad Passenger Corporation, February 20, 1981
  75. ^ Sanders 2006, p. 155
  76. ^ Sanders 2006, p. 120
  77. ^ a b Gormick, Greg (June 6, 1987). "How to beat the railway blues: Amtrak given new car boost but VIA stuck with old stock". The Toronto Star. p. B4. 
  78. ^ Stewart-Patterson, David (June 11, 1986). "Via Rail close to deal on double-decker cars". The Globe and Mail. p. B7. 
  79. ^ Brunt, Stephen (February 20, 1985). "Via Rail seeking two-tier coaches". The Globe and Mail. 
  80. ^ a b Johnston 1993, p. 36
  81. ^ Phillips, Don (April 23, 1991). "AMTRAK TO BRING DOUBLE-DECKER TRAINS TO D.C.". Washington Post. 
  82. ^ "Amtrak Orders 55 Cars". The New York Times. December 9, 1993. 
  83. ^ Sanders 2006, p. 98
  84. ^ Sanders 2006, p. 48
  85. ^ "Bi-level Superliner". Railway Age. 196 (3): 26. March 1995. Retrieved January 14, 2017.   – via EBSCO's Academic Search Complete (subscription required)
  86. ^ Sanders 2006, p. 51
  87. ^ Sanders 2006, p. 208


External links[edit]