Supine

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In grammar, a supine is a form of verbal noun used in some languages. The term is most often used for Latin, where it is one of the four principal parts of a verb. The word is refers to a position of lying on one's back (as opposed to 'prone', lying face downward), but there exists no widely-accepted etymology that explains why or how the term came to be used to also describe this form of a verb.

Latin[edit]

There are two supines, I (first) and II (second). They are originally the accusative and ablative forms of a verbal noun in the fourth declension, respectively. The first supine ends in -um. It has two uses.

The first supine comes with verbs of motion and indicates purpose. For example, "mater pompam me spectatum duxit" is Latin for "Mother took me to watch the procession", and "legati ad Caesarem gratulatum convenerunt" is Latin for "Ambassadors came to Caesar to congratulate him". The translation of the first usage of the first supine is similar to, if not identical to, the Latin clause of purpose. The second usage is in the future passive infinitive, for example "occisum iri" means "to be going to be killed". It mostly appears in indirect statements, for example "occisum iri a Milone video", meaning "I foresee that he is going to be killed by Milo".

The second supine can be used with adjectives but it is rarely used, and only a few verbs have been seen to commonly adopt the form. It is derived from the dative of purpose, which expresses the purpose of a thing or action, or the ablative of respect, which can translate as "with regard/respect to" and is used to indicate to what extent or in what way the main clause is true. It is the same as the first supine without the final -m and with lengthened "u". "Mirabile dictū", for example, translates as "amazing to say", where dictū is the supine form.

Germanic languages[edit]

In English grammar, the term "supine" is sometimes used to refer to the to-infinitive. The to-infinitive is seen in sentences like "To err is human; to forgive divine."

In Swedish, the supine is used with an auxiliary verb to produce some compound verb forms (perfect forms). See Swedish grammar.

In Icelandic grammar, sagnbót (usually translated as "supine") is a verbal form identical to the neuter participle, used to form certain verb tenses.

Finnic languages[edit]

In Estonian, the supine is called "ma-tegevusnimi" (lit. "ma-action name") because all the words in supine have "ma" in the end (as in "tegema", "jooksma", "kõndima"), and they act similarly to the Latin example. The supine is also the common dictionary form for verbs.

Romance languages[edit]

In Romanian, the supine generally corresponds to an English construction like for doing: "Această carte este de citit" means "This book is for reading".

Slavic languages[edit]

The Slovene and the Lower Sorbian supine is used after verbs of movement; see Slovenian verbs. The supine was used in Proto-Slavic but it was replaced in most Slavic languages by the infinitive in later periods.

Baltic languages[edit]

In some dialects of Lithuanian, the supine is used with verbs of motion to indicate purpose: Moterys eina miestan duonos pirktų , which means "The women are going to the town to buy some bread" (more archaic forms are pirktun and pirktum). The standard language uses the infinitive, pirkti, instead of the supine. In the past, the supine was much more widespread form than now.

See also[edit]