Supporters of Santos FC

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Santos FC is a football club based in Santos,[1] that competes in the Campeonato Paulista, [2] São Paulo's state league, and the Campeonato Brasileiro Série A or Brasileirão,[3] Brazil's national league. The club was founded in 1912 by the initiative of three sports enthusiasts from Santos by the names of Raimundo Marques, Mário Ferraz de Campos, and Argemiro de Souza Júnior, and played its first friendly match on June 23, 1914.[4] Initially Santos played against other local clubs in the city and state championships, but in 1959 the club became one of the founding members of the Taça Brasil, Brazil's first truly national league.[5] As of 2010, Santos is one of only five clubs never to have been relegated from the top level of Brazilian football, the others being São Paulo, Flamengo, Internacional and Cruzeiro. [6]

The supporters of Santos have played an important part in the formation of the club's cultural association with Joga Bonito (English: The Beautiful Game) in football culture during the club's 99-year existence, numbering at 18,491 in 2009.[7] This was largely thanks to the Peixe's Golden Generation of the 1960s which contained figures such as Gilmar, Mauro, Mengálvio, Coutinho, Pepe and the iconic Pelé.[8] Os Santásticos, considered by some the best club team of all times,[9] won a total of 22 titles during that decade, including two Copa Libertadores, the most prestigious laurel in South American football.

The core strength of Santos's global brand is often attributed to Lula's success in leading Os Santasticos, which drew worldwide acclaim.[10][11] This attention often generates greater interest in on-the-field activities as well as off-the-field, with the popularity of the club and brand spanning five continents across the globe. Santos is one of Brazil's most economically powerful clubs. It is one of Brazil's richest football club in terms of revenue, with an annual turnover of US$45.1m (€31.5m), and one of the most valuable clubs, worth over $86.7m (€60.6m) in 2011.[12] That same year, Santos' squad became the most valued in South America, being worth over €82m. The flamboyant, attacking style of play adopted by this team (in contrast to the physical-minded approach favoured by European, Uruguayan and Argentinian teams of the era) was a constant, world-wide exhibition that saw Santos travel in over 50 countries at every continent (except Antarctica).[13] The club's focus on commercial and sporting success brought significant profits in an industry often characterised by chronic losses.[14] The strength of the Santos' brand was bolstered by its FIFA World Cup winners, especially Pelé.[15]

Torcidas[edit]

Torcidas organizadas are formal (or informal) associations of football fans in Brazil in the same vein as Argentine hinchadas, English supporters groups and European ultras.[16] The name is based on the verb torcer, which means "to root for" but also "to wring" and "to turn".[16] The supposition is that the behaviour of the fans present at the stadium could help the team gather strength to beat the opponent.[17] In the beginning, and until the 1960s, torcidas organizadas were informal associations of fans who gathered to buy fireworks, cloth for large flags, and other stuff to be used during celebrations.[17] Later, such associations became permanent and were formalised legally as non-profit recreational associations, still with the primary goal of providing a better spectacle at the stadium and surroundings.[16]

In the beginning the torcida organizada movement was fragmentary, but would later consolidate in larger bodies or leagues.[16] Some torcidas would open branches throughout the country to support their teams playing away, given the national range of their supporters.[16] Many of Santos' firms were created through such methods.[18] Although the club has had many supporter groups, only three has carried more than 1,000 member each: Força Jovem, Jovem New York and Torcida Jovem, the latter being the most famous Santista supporters.[18]

Força Jovem[edit]

Força Jovem was founded in April 11, 1977 on the initiative of some former members of the Torcida Jovem, principally Wilson Xavier Buriu.[19][20] [21] After a game played in Vila Belmiro, the fans who decided to set up the new movement painted a few tracks with the name of Força Jovem.[21] Today, Força Jovem is considered the third largest crowd of the club, with its profile increased by the fact that in recent times the firm have cooperated extensively with the military police against hooligans and stadium violence.[20][21] In its beginning, the new firm had generated controversy, an innovator of it being the firm's colors.[21] Because the uniform of Santos FC was generally a combination of black and white, other firms openly questioned Força Jovem heavy usage of black.[21] Since then, is what draws the most attention in the crowd, black symbolizing the Alvinegro Praiano.[21] The club has 12 tracks, 2 flag holders and a battalion with more than 20 instruments.[21] The current president is Pedro.[20][22] The firm's headquarters are located in the city of Santos at Rua Benedito Ernesto Guimarães, bairro Marapé with the building being named after its founder.[20] The group currently has over 2,500 members.[23]

Jovem New York[edit]

Força Jovem

Jovem New York was founded in 1984 by Brazilian cultural director and percussionist Vavá Maravilha and Adalberto "Alemão".[24][25][26] Adalberto is one of the primary founders of the initial, "Torcida Jovem do Santos" of Brazil.[24][25][26] The two fans decided to represent the most famous soccer fan organization of Brazil, Torcida Jovem, and consequently the team of the century, Santos FC, here in the United States.[24][25][26] Jovem New York became a pioneer among all of the Brazilian Torcida organizations forged outside of Brazil.[24][25][26] With much drive, dedication, dignity and passion, these two young fans decided to represent.[24][25][26] The most famous soccer fans organization of Brazil "Torcida Jovem do Santos" and consequently the team of the century, "Santos Futebol Clube", here in the United States.[24][25][26] Together with various associations they have participated and continue to participate in many historical, cultural and sporting events both in the United States and Abroad.[24][25][26] Since its inception, Jovem New York has entered the worldwide scene it has not only stood out in the United States and Japan but it has also flourished in other continents as well.[24][25][26] The firm's location is over at Tuxedo Avenue in New Hyde Park, New York.[26]

Torcida Jovem[edit]

Main article: Torcida Jovem

The Torcida Jovem are a torcida organizada founded in 1969 by a group of fans from São Paulo, the group set out to make it a goal in attending every match that the club played in the capital of São Paulo.[27] With over 30,000 members, it is one of the largest supporting groups in Brazil.[28] The current president is Marcos Gordinho.[29] Thirteen individuals were the driving force behind the creation of Torcida Jovem, with Cosmo Damiano, German, toboggan, Menezes, Celso Jatene and Ze Miguel being the principal de facto leaders.[27] On September 26, 1969, when the club returned from another successful tour, unbeaten in a series of seven matches in Europe, the group gathered in an old house in the traditional bairro of Brás in São Paulo.[27] It was decided to name the group Torcida Jovem since the founders were no older than 21 years of age. Cosmo's house became the first official seat of the first organized supporters group for Santos.[27] The firm's first witness of the club's success came on November 19 of that same year in Rio de Janeiro in a match against Vasco da Gama as Pelé scored his 1,000th goal in the Maracanã.[27]

Celebrities[edit]

...I was 13 when I came to the stadium for the first time, it was when I attended a skating championship which was held here in Vila [Belmiro]. But it was only the second time I could walk on the lawn. It was exciting!...

—Juliana Goes, Playboy model, journalist and a fan of Santos.[30]

Given the team's proximity to Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo, as well as the popularity gained by the Peixe's Golden Generation of the 1960s, Os Santásticos, the Santos fanbase includes local celebrities in its fan group. Dr. Eduardo Ribeiro Filetti is a city celebrity famous for his work with animal care at the Clínica Veterinária Filetti.[31][32] National celebrities also include Playboy model and journalist Juliana Goes.[33][34] She has also modeled for VIP, an Irish magazine that has a circulation of over 35,000 magazines per year and hosts the annual VIP Style Awards held each year at the Shelbourne Hotel in Dublin.,[35][36][37] and Noivas & Noivos.[30]

Pelé, former Santos player, named the "Athlete of the Century" by the International Olympic Committee,[38] and widely regarded among football historians, former players and fans to be one of the best and most accomplished footballers in the game's history,[39][40][41][42][43][44][45][46][47] is also a dedicated fan, inverting towards the club's youth academies.[30] Another former player that habitually attends games at the Vila Belmiro with his family is Robinho.[30][48] Mônica Waldvogel, hostess and journalist for GNT, is another dedicated fan.[30][49] Vice-president of Rede Record Walter Zagari is a fan that attended every match of Santos at the 2011 Copa Libertadores.[30]

Other Brazilian celebrities include singer Mariana Belém, prosecutor Luiz Antônio Marrey, director, writer, actor and television hoster Marcelo Tas and Danielle Zangrando, gold and bronze judo medalist at the 2007 Pan American Games and 1995 World Judo Championships, respectively.[50] The film Santos: Especial by Mercado Livre was published in 2011, which talks about the most successful moments of the club during its coming centenary.[51] Paulo Miklos, a multi-instrumentalist, musician and actor best known for his works for the band Titãs,[52][53] Mário Covas, a Brazilian politician who studied engineering at the Polytechnic School of the University of São Paulo, was also a fan. He entered politics in his native city of Santos.[54] Another political fan is Eduardo Suplicy, left-wing politician, economist and professor and one of the founders and main political figures on the Workers Party of Brazil (PT).[54][55]

The club also has famous internationals in its ranks; Bob Marley, a famous Jamaican singer-songwriter and musician and the most widely known and revered performer of reggae music, played a practice match with Santos in 1980 along with the ska, rocksteady and reggae band Bob Marley & The Wailers.[56][57] Bob Marley even wore the Santos uniform.[58] Felinto Melro, vice-president of the world's largest cosmetics and beauty company, L'Oréal Group,[59] habitually attends club matches at the Vila Belmiro.[30][59]

List of famous supporters of Santos FC[50]
Name Nationality Occupation Employer/Group/Title
Paulo Miklos  Brazil Multi-instrumentalist, musician, actor Titãs
MC Doca  Brazil Proibidão rapper Cidinho and Doca
Mário Covas  Brazil Politician Partido da Social Democracia Brasileira
Chris Carrabba  Brazil Singer, guitarist Dashboard Confessional
Eduardo Suplicy  Brazil Politician Partido dos Trabalhadores
Eduardo Ribeiro Filetti  Brazil Doctor, veterinarian Clínica Veterinária Filetti
Supla  Brazil Musician, presenter Rock in Rio
Faustão  Brazil Radio presenter, film director Rede Globo
Juliana Goes  Brazil model, journalist Playboy, VIP
Zeca Baleiro  Brazil MPB artist
Paulo Henrique Amorim  Brazil Blogger, journalist Rede Globo
Geraldo Alckmin  Brazil Politician Governor of São Paulo
Tony Bellotto  Brazil Musician, writer
Marcos Frota  Brazil Actor
Walter Zagari  Brazil Commercial director Vice-president of Rede Record
Otaviano Costa  Brazil
Kiko Zambianchi  Brazil
Milton Neves  Brazil
Sergio Brito  Brazil
Mônica Waldvogel  Brazil Hostess, journalist GNT
Robert Scheidt  Brazil
Pelé  Brazil Former Santos footballer
Robinho  Brazil Former Santos footballer A.C. Milan
Mariana Belém  Brazil
Luiz Antônio Marrey  Brazil
Marcelo Tas  Brazil
Danielle Zangrando  Brazil
Felinto Melro  Brazil

Sponsors[edit]

Since 1979, Santos has had 38 different sponsors, with Rainha being the club's first kit manufacturer.[60] Casas Bahia, a Brazilian retail chain which specializes in furniture and home appliances, became the first sponsor for the Peixe.[61] The current main sponsors are: Nike, Netshoes, Seara, CSU, Corr Plastik and Minds Idiomas.[62]

The club has had several famous sponsors such as Adidas (a German sports apparel manufacturer and parent company of the Adidas Group, which consists of the Reebok sportswear company, golf company (including Ashworth), and Rockport),[63][64][65] Coca-Cola (a carbonated soft drink sold in stores, restaurants, and vending machines in more than 200 countries),[66] TAM Airlines (Brazil and Latin America's largest airline)[67][68] and Panasonic, a Japanese multinational consumer electronics corporation headquartered in Kadoma, Osaka, Japan.[69]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Santos Futebol Clube" (in Portuguese). Federação Paulista de Futebol. Retrieved March 16, 2010. 
  2. ^ "F.P.F.: Série A1" (in Portuguese). Federação Paulista de Futebol. Retrieved March 16, 2010. 
  3. ^ "Campeonato Brasileiro Série A" (in Portuguese). Confederação Brasileira de Futebol. Retrieved March 16, 2010. 
  4. ^ "Santos FC: A Trajetória" (in Portuguese). Santos FC. Retrieved March 16, 2010. 
  5. ^ "Brazil Cup 1959". RSSSF. Retrieved March 16, 2010. 
  6. ^ "Brazilian Championship Participations". RSSSF. Retrieved March 16, 2010. 
  7. ^ "Santos dobra número de sócios em um ano e meio e reestrutura Secretaria Social". Santos Futebol Clube. Retrieved March 16, 2010. 
  8. ^ "THE LIST: The greatest players in the history of football, Nos 10–1". Daily Mail. August 22, 2011. Retrieved August 22, 2011. 
  9. ^ Cunha, Odir (2003). Time dos Sonhos [Dream Teams] (in Portuguese). ISBN 85-7594-020-1. 
  10. ^ Arnaud, Pierre; Riordan, James (1998). Sport and international politics. Taylor & Francis. ISBN 978-0-419-21440-3. 
  11. ^ Calazans, Fernando (1998). O Nosso Futebol [Our Football] (in Portuguese). Mauad Editora Ltda. ISBN 85-85756-66-7. 
  12. ^ "Clubes mais ricos do Brasil 2011" (in Portuguese). Area de Treino. August 22, 2011. Retrieved August 22, 2011. 
  13. ^ Farred, Grant (2008). Long distance love: a passion for football. Temple University Press. ISBN 1-59213-374-6. 
  14. ^ Dobson, Stephen; Goddard, John A. (2001). The economics of football. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-66158-7. 
  15. ^ Harris, Harry (2002), Pelé: his life and times. p.190. Welcome Rain Publishers, Retrieved June 27, 2011
  16. ^ a b c d e "ORIGEM, EVOLUÇÃO E COMPOSIÇÃO DAS TORCIDAS" (in Portuguese). Cooperativa do Fitness. August 9, 2011. Retrieved August 9, 2011. 
  17. ^ a b "Torcendo pala paz" (in Portuguese). Organizadas Brasil. August 9, 2011. Retrieved August 9, 2011. 
  18. ^ a b "Torcidas" (in Portuguese). Santos Futebol Clube. August 9, 2011. Retrieved August 9, 2011. 
  19. ^ "Official Site" (in Portuguese). Força Jovem. August 9, 2011. Retrieved August 9, 2011. 
  20. ^ a b c d "Força Jovem" (in Portuguese). Santos Futebol Clube. August 9, 2011. Retrieved August 9, 2011. 
  21. ^ a b c d e f g "História" (in Portuguese). Força Jovem. August 9, 2011. Retrieved August 9, 2011. 
  22. ^ "Diretoria" (in Portuguese). Força Jovem. August 9, 2011. Retrieved August 9, 2011. 
  23. ^ "Torcida entrevistada: FORÇA JOVEM SANTOS" (in Portuguese). Organizadas Brasil. August 9, 2011. Retrieved August 9, 2011. 
  24. ^ a b c d e f g h "Official Site". Jovem New York. August 9, 2011. Retrieved August 9, 2011. 
  25. ^ a b c d e f g h "History". Jovem New York. August 9, 2011. Retrieved August 9, 2011. 
  26. ^ a b c d e f g h i "Jovem New York" (in Portuguese). Santos Futebol Clube. August 9, 2011. Retrieved August 9, 2011. 
  27. ^ a b c d e "História da Torcida Jovem" (in Portuguese). Torcida Jovem. August 9, 2011. Retrieved August 9, 2011. 
  28. ^ "Brasileiros querem fundar torcida organizada do Santos no Japão" (in Portuguese). Brazil Futsal Center. August 9, 2011. Retrieved August 9, 2011. 
  29. ^ "Diretoria TJ" (in Portuguese). Torcida Jovem. August 9, 2011. Retrieved August 9, 2011. 
  30. ^ a b c d e f g "Que pena!". Santos Futebol Clube. August 22, 2011. Retrieved August 22, 2011. 
  31. ^ "Official Site". Clínica Veterinária Filetti. 2011. 
  32. ^ "Dr. Eduardo Ribeiro Filetti, Diretor do Departamento Social e Cultural do Santos FC comemora a conquista o bicampeonato paulista". Clínica Veterinária Filetti. 2011. 
  33. ^ "Official Site". Playboy. 2011. 
  34. ^ "Official blog". Juliana Goes. 2011. 
  35. ^ "Hoping for a Stellar start in the tough magazine market". The Irish Times. November 27, 2008. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  36. ^ "TV celebrities shine at VIP awards bash". Irish Independent. March 30, 2007. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  37. ^ "Keane to make mark at VIP style awards". Irish Independent. March 2, 2008. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  38. ^ "Pelé still in global demand". CNN Sports Illustrated. May 29, 2002. Retrieved May 30, 2008. 
  39. ^ "The Best of The Best". Rsssf.com. June 19, 2009. Retrieved June 12, 2010. 
  40. ^ "IFFHS' Century Elections". Rsssf.com. January 30, 2000. Retrieved June 12, 2010. 
  41. ^ "The Best x Players of the Century/All-Time". Rsssf.com. February 5, 2001. Retrieved June 12, 2010. 
  42. ^ "Pele tops World Cup legends poll". BBC Sport. August 22, 2011. Retrieved August 22, 2011. 
  43. ^ "Pelé "es el mejor"" (in Spanish). BBC Mundo. August 22, 2011. Retrieved August 22, 2011. 
  44. ^ "Acerca de ... Pelé" (in Spanish). FIFA. August 22, 2011. Retrieved August 22, 2011. 
  45. ^ "Over 50 per cent of Goal.com UK readers believe Brazilian legend Pele was a greater player than Diego Maradona". Goal.com. August 22, 2011. Retrieved August 22, 2011. 
  46. ^ "Beckenbauer: "Pelé es el mejor del mundo"" (in Spanish). La Cuarta. August 22, 2011. Retrieved August 22, 2011. 
  47. ^ "World Soccer 100 Players of the Century". England Football Online. August 22, 2011. Retrieved August 22, 2011. 
  48. ^ "Nasce segundo filho de Robinho". ListOwn. Retrieved August 17, 2011. 
  49. ^ "Mônica Waldvogel". GNT. Retrieved August 17, 2011. 
  50. ^ a b "Peixes Famosos". Santos Futebol Clube. 2011. 
  51. ^ Mercado Livre, Santos, Especial, 2011.
  52. ^ "Official Site". Paulo Miklos. Retrieved August 17, 2011. 
  53. ^ "Official Site". Titãs. Retrieved August 17, 2011. 
  54. ^ a b "Torcedores em Destaque". Santos Futebol Clube. May 29, 2002. Retrieved May 30, 2008. 
  55. ^ "Eduardo Suplicy". Senado. May 29, 2002. Retrieved May 30, 2008. 
  56. ^ "2007 Pop Conference Bios/Abstracts". Experience Music Project and Science Fiction Museum and Hall of Fame. 2007. 
  57. ^ "O dia em que Bob Marley jogou bola no Brasil". Futepoca. 2007. 
  58. ^ "Bob Marley wearing Santos' jersey". Image Shack. August 22, 2011. Retrieved August 22, 2011. 
  59. ^ a b Jones, David (January 26, 2010). "Nestle waits for market pressures to soften Hershey". Reuters. Retrieved January 31, 2010. 
  60. ^ "Official Site of Rainha". Rainha. Retrieved March 16, 2010. 
  61. ^ "Official Site of Casas Bahia". Casas Bahia. Retrieved March 16, 2010. 
  62. ^ "Official Site of Santos Futebol Clube". Santos Futebol Clube. Retrieved March 16, 2010. 
  63. ^ "Adidas Group History". Adidas-group.com. Retrieved September 26, 2010. 
  64. ^ "Annual Report 2010" (PDF). Adidas. Retrieved March 31, 2011. 
  65. ^ "Adidas, Deutsche Telekom, Infineon: German Equity Preview". Bloomberg L.P. January 16, 2008. Retrieved January 26, 2008. 
  66. ^ "Brand Fact Sheet". Coca-Cola official website. December 1, 2008. 
  67. ^ TAM bill of US$ 5.5 million, 2 million more than LAN.
  68. ^ Press Release TAM(PDF)
  69. ^ "Corporate Profile." Panasonic Corporation. Retrieved on February 15, 2011. "Head Office Location 1006, Oaza Kadoma, Kadoma-shi, Osaka 571-8501, Japan" (PDF Map, GIF Map (Direct link))

Further reading[edit]

  • Arnaud, Pierre; Riordan, James (1998). Sport and international politics. Taylor & Francis. ISBN 978-0-419-21440-3. 
  • Calazans, Fernando (1998). O Nosso Futebol [Our Football] (in Portuguese). Mauad Editora Ltda. ISBN 85-85756-66-7. 
  • Carravetta, Elio (2006). Modernização da Gestão no Futebol Brasileiro [Modernization in Brazilian Football Management] (in Portuguese). ISBN 85-7497-287-8. 
  • Cruz, Antonio (2003). Futebol Brasileiro [Brazilian Football] (in Portuguese). ISBN 85-87293-31-1. 
  • Cunha, Odir (2006). Donos da Terra – A História do Primeiro Título Intercontinental do Santos. Realejo Edições. 
  • Cunha, Odir (2008). Na Raça! – Como o Santos Se Tornou o Primeiro Bicampeão Mundial [97-8859990-517-3] (in Portuguese). 
  • Cunha, Odir; Unzelte, Celso (2009). O Grande Jogo – Corinthians X Santos – O maior duelo alvinegro do futebol contado por dois historiadores fanáticos (in Portuguese). ISBN 8576792222. 
  • Cunha, Odir (2003). Pedrinho Escolheu um Time (in Portuguese). ISBN 978-85-87306-19-7. 
  • Cunha, Odir (2003). Time dos Sonhos [Dream Teams] (in Portuguese). ISBN 85-7594-020-1. 
  • Chadwick, Simon; Arthur, Dave (2007). International cases in the business of sport. Butterworth-Heinemann. ISBN 0-7506-8543-3. 
  • Desbordes, Michael (2007). Marketing and football: an international perspective. Butterworth-Heinemann. ISBN 0-7506-8204-3. 
  • Dobson, Stephen; Goddard, John A. (2001). The economics of football. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-66158-7. 
  • Farred, Grant (2008). Long distance love: a passion for football. Temple University Press. ISBN 1-59213-374-6. 
  • Ferrand, Alain; McCarthy, Scott (2008). Marketing the Sports Organisation: Building Networks and Relationships. Taylor & Francis. ISBN 0-415-45329-1. 
  • Fisk, Peter (2008). Business Genius: A More Inspired Approach to Business Growth. John Wiley and Sons. ISBN 1-84112-790-6. 
  • Ghemawat, Pankaj (2007). Redefining global strategy: crossing borders in a world where differences still matter. Harvard Business Press. p. 2. ISBN 1-59139-866-5. 
  • Guarche, Guilherme Gomez (2003). Santos FC – O Melhor do Século nas Américas (in Portuguese). ISBN 85-901925-1-2. 
  • Helal, Ronaldo; Jorge, Antônio; Soares, Gonçalves; Lovisolo, Hugo (2001). Invenção do país futebol [The invention of a football nation] (in Portuguese). Mauad Editora Ltda. ISBN 85-7478-046-4. 
  • Enciclopédia do Futebol Brasileiro. Lance!. 2001. 
  • Lemos, Vladir (2007). O Dia Em Que Me Tornei Santista (in Portuguese). ISBN 85-87537-84-9. 
  • Luxemburgo, Vanderlei; Ostrovsky, Ingo (2003). Profissão Campeão – Como o Santos ganhou o Campeonato Brasileiro de 2004 (in Portuguese). 
  • Macia (Pepe), José (2006). Bombas de Alegria. Realejo Edições. ISBN 85-99905-01-5. 
  • Moreira da Silva, Norberto (2007). Santos FC 95 anos – Passado de Glórias [Santos FC 95 years – Glorious past] (in Portuguese). Santos FC. 
  • Murray, Bill; Murray, William J. (1998). The world's game: a history of soccer. University of Illinois Press. ISBN 0-252-06718-5. 
  • Napoleão, Antonio Carlos (1999). O Brasil na Taça Libertadores da América [Brazil in the Copa Libertadores] (in Portuguese). ISBN 85-7478-001-4. 
  • Pelé (2006). Pelé – A Autobiografia (in Portuguese). ISBN 85-7542-224-3. 
  • Revan, Editora (1994). Futebol brasileiro: o gigante a despertar [Brazilian Football: a giant awakens] (in Portuguese). ISBN 85-7106-059-2. 
  • Snyder, John (2001). Soccer's most wanted: the top 10 book of clumsy keepers, clever crosses, and outlandish oddities. Brassey's. ISBN 1-57488-365-8. 
  • Torero, José Roberto. Santos: Dicionário Santista [Santos: Santista Dictionary] (in Portuguese). ISBN 85-00-01601-9. 
  • Torero, José Roberto; Pimenta, Marcus Aurelius (1998). Santos: um time dos céus [Santos, a team from heaven] (in Portuguese). ISBN 85-06-02745-4. 
  • Witzig, Richard (2006). The Global Art of Soccer. CusiBoy Publishing. ISBN 0-9776688-0-0. 

External links[edit]