Supraesophageal ganglion

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The supraesophageal ganglion (arthropod brain) is the first part of the insect central nervous system. It receives and processes information from the first, second, and third metameres. The supraesophageal ganglion lies dorsal to the esophagus and consists of three parts, each a pair of ganglia:

  • The deutocerebrum processes sensory information from the antennae.[1][2] It consists of two parts, the antennal lobe that receives axons of olfactory receptor neurons from the antenna and the dorsal lobe that receives mechanosensory and gustatory receptor neurons from the antenna.[2][3][4] The dorsal lobe also contains motor neurons which controls the antennal muscles.[5]
  • The tritocerebrum integrates sensory inputs from the previous two pairs of ganglia.[1] The lobes of the tritocerebrum split to circumvent the esophagus and begin the subesophageal ganglion.
Supraesophageal ganglion(5), Subesophageal ganglion(31)

The subesophageal ganglion continues the nervous system and lies ventral to the esophagus. Finally, the segmental ganglia are found in each body segment as a fused ganglion and they provide the segments with some autonomous control.


  1. ^ a b c Meyer, John R. "The Nervous System". General Entomology course at North Carolina State University. Department of Entomology NC State University. Retrieved 11 November 2013. 
  2. ^ a b Homberg, U; Christensen, T A; Hildebrand, J G. "Structure and Function of the Deutocerebrum in Insects". Annual Review of Entomology 34. pp. 477–501. doi:10.1146/annurev.en.34.010189.002401. 
  3. ^ "Invertebrate Brain Platform". RIKEN BSI Neuroinformatics Japan Center. 
  4. ^ "Deutocerebrum". Flybrain. 
  5. ^ "Deutocerebrum". Invertebrate Brain Platform. 

Further reading[edit]

  • Erber, J., and R. Menzel. "Visual interneurons in the median protocerebrum of the bee." Journal of comparative physiology 121.1 (1977): 65-77.
  • Wong, Allan M., Jing W. Wang, and Richard Axel. "Spatial Representation of the Glomerular Map in the Drosophila Protocerebrum." Cell 109.2 (2002): 229-241.
  • Malun, D.; Waldow, U.; Kraus, D.; Boeckh, J. (1993). "Connections between the deutocerebrum and the protocerebrum, and neuroanatomy of several classes of deutocerebral projection neurons in the brain of male Periplaneta americana". J. Comp. Neurol. 329 (2): 143–162. PubMed 8454728. 
  • Homberg, Uwe, Thomas A. Christensen, and J. G. Hildebrand. "Structure and function of the deutocerebrum in insects." Annual review of entomology 34.1 (1989): 477-501.
  • "Morphology and response characteristics of neurones in the deutocerebrum of the brain in the honeybeeApis mellifera". Journal of Comparative Physiology A 164 (4): 483–494. 1989. 
  • Childress, Steven A.; B. McIver, Susan (1984). "Morphology of the deutocerebrum of female Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae)". Canadian Journal of Zoology 62 (7): 1320–1328. doi:10.1139/z84-190. 
  • Technau, Gerhard M. Brain Development in Drosophila melanogaster. Springer. 
  • Aubele, Elisabeth, and Nikolai Klemm. "Origin, destination and mapping of tritocerebral neurons of locust." Cell and Tissue Research 178.2 (1977): 199-219.
  • Chaudonneret, J. "Evolution of the insect brain with special reference to the so-called tritocerebrum." Arthropod brain. Wiley, New York (1987): 3-26.