Supreme Council of Antiquities
The Supreme Council of Antiquities (SCA) was the branch of the Egyptian Ministry of Culture responsible for the conservation, protection and regulation of all antiquities and archaeological excavations in Egypt. Established in 1859 as the Department of Antiquities, then renamed the Egyptian Antiquities Organisation in 1971, the SCA acquired its title in 1994 by presidential decree. The SCA was responsible for defining the boundaries around archaeological sites and was also the only agent permitted to restore or preserve Egyptian monuments. Foreign archaeologists working in Egypt were required to report all discoveries and finds to the SCA before publication, a somewhat controversial rule that led to the expulsion of some archaeologists from Egypt. The SCA also oversaw the recovery of antiquities either stolen or illegally exported from Egypt, and between 2002 and 2008 retrieved 3,000 artifacts. It is currently embroiled in a dispute with the Egyptian Museum of Berlin over the bust of Nefertiti, which it claims was removed from the country by deceit. Previously it has asked for the return of the Rosetta Stone from the British Museum and the Dendara Zodiac from the Louvre.
Since January 2011 the SCA became an independent ministry and the name was changed to Ministry of State for Antiquities (MSA).
- Auguste Mariette (1858–1881)
- Gaston Maspero (1881–1886)
- Eugène Grébaut (1886–1892)
- Jacques de Morgan (1892–1897)
- Victor Loret (1897–1899)
- Gaston Maspero (1899–1914)
- Pierre Lacau (1914–1936)
- Étienne Drioton (1936–1952)
- Mostafa Amer (1953–1956)
- Abbas Bayoumi (1956–1957)
- Moharram Kamal (1957–1959)
- Abd el-Fattah Hilmy (1959)
- Mohammed Anwar Shoukry (1960–1964)
- Mohammed Mahdi (1964–1966)
- Gamal Mokhtar (1967–1971)
Egyptian Antiquities Organization
- Gamal Mokhtar (1971–1977)
- Mohammed Abd el-Qader Mohammed (1977–1978)
- Shehata Adam (1978–1981)
- Fuad el-Oraby (1981)
- Ahmed Khadry (1982–1988)
- Mohammed Abdel Halim Nur el-Din (1988)
- Sayed Tawfik (1989–1990)
- Mohammed Ibrahim Bakr (1990–1993)
Supreme Council of Antiquities
- Mohammed Abdel Halim Nur el-Din (1993–1996)
- Ali Hassan (1996–1997)
- Gaballa Ali Gaballa (1997–2002)
- Zahi Hawass (2002–2011)
- Mohamed Abdel Fattah (July-September 2011)
- Moustapha Amine (29 September 2011–2013)
- Mohammad Ibrahim (since 2013)
Ministry of State for Antiquities
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