Supreme Council of Antiquities
The Supreme Council of Antiquities (SCA) was the official name of the Egyptian Ministry of Culture, the government body responsible for the conservation, protection and regulation of all antiquities and archaeological excavations in Egypt. Supreme Council of Antiquities is still the unofficial name of same government body.
Established in 1859 as the Department of Antiquities, then renamed the Egyptian Antiquities Organisation in 1971, the SCA acquired its title in 1994 by presidential decree #82. In January 2011 the SCA became an independent ministry and the name was changed to Ministry of State for Antiquities (MSA).
The SCA was responsible for defining the boundaries around archaeological sites and was also the only agent permitted to restore or preserve Egyptian monuments. Foreign archaeologists working in Egypt were required to report all discoveries and finds to the SCA before publication, a somewhat controversial rule that led to the expulsion of some archaeologists from Egypt. The SCA also oversaw the recovery of antiquities either stolen or illegally exported from Egypt, and between 2002 and 2008 retrieved 3,000 artifacts. It is currently embroiled in a dispute with the Egyptian Museum of Berlin over the bust of Nefertiti, which it claims was removed from the country by deceit. Previously it has asked for the return of the Rosetta Stone from the British Museum and the Dendara Zodiac from the Louvre.
The SCA was governed by an Administrative Council, headed by the Minister of Culture, and a Secretary General.
Those who serve to preserve antiquities are in charge of the conservation and preservation of antiquities, as well as research and often give interviews and report on discoveries and work being done. In the 21st century they also face the difficult task of keeping monuments safe from a fringe of Islamist radicals who want the destruction of pharanoic monuments. Their official titles, depending on the years they served, have ranged from Director, to Director-General, to Chairman to Minister.  The position may entail also, as was done by Zahi Hawass for many years, to stimulate tourism to Egypt, with charm and charisma.
Sayed Tawfik (1989–1990) was an Egyptologist who served when the body was called the Egyptian Antiquities Organization.  Among those who directed it when its official name was Supreme Council of Antiquities are Zahi Hawass (2002–2011), Mohamed Abdel Fattah (July–September 2011) and Moustapha Amine (29 September 2011–2013) Under its new official name Ministry of State for Antiquities Abdel Fattah al-Banna was nominated but he withdrew his nomination and  Zahi Hawass returned for a short time as minister but then resigned. (2011) In December, 2011 Dr. Mohamed Ibrahim Aly was named antiquities minister and he promised to give new life to the SCA / MSA, by bringing in young archeologists and restarting projects which had been put on hold.
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