List of Justices of the Supreme Court of the United States

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The Supreme Court of the United States is the highest ranking judicial body in the United States. Its membership, as set by the Judiciary Act of 1869, consists of the Chief Justice of the United States and eight associate justices, any six of whom would constitute a quorum.[1][2] Justices are nominated by the President of the United States and appointed after confirmation by the United States Senate. Justices of the Supreme Court have life tenure[3] and receive a salary which is set at $255,500 per year for the chief justice and at $244,400 per year for each associate justice as of 2014.[4][5][6]

The current Chief Justice (since September 2005) is John Roberts. The newest Associate justice is Elena Kagan, who became the 112th person to serve on the Court in August, 2010.[7] One seat on the Court has been vacant since the February 13, 2016 death of Associate Justice Antonin Scalia.

The Supreme Court was created in 1789 by Article III of the United States Constitution, which stipulated that the "judicial Power of the United States, shall be vested in one supreme Court" together with any lower courts Congress may establish.[3] Congress organized the Court that year with the passage of the Judiciary Act of 1789. It specified the Court's original and appellate jurisdiction, created thirteen judicial districts, and fixed the number of justices at six (one chief justice and five associate justices).[8][9]

Since 1789, Congress has occasionally altered the size of the Supreme Court, historically in response to the country's own expansion in size. Membership was decreased in 1801 to five, then increased to seven members in 1807, to nine in 1837, and to ten in 1863. It was then reduced to seven in 1866. In 1869, Congress set the Court's size to nine members, where it has remained since.[10]

While the justices of the Supreme Court are appointed for life, many have retired or resigned. Beginning in the early 20th century, many justices who left the Court voluntarily did so by retiring from the Court without leaving the federal judiciary altogether. A retired justice, according to the United States Code, is no longer a member of the Supreme Court, but remains eligible to serve by designation as a judge of a U.S. Court of Appeals or District Court, and many retired justices have served in these capacities.

Historically, the average length of service on the Court has been less than 15 years. However, since 1970 the average length of service has increased to about 26 years.[11]

Current Justices of the Supreme Court[edit]

There are currently eight justices serving on the Supreme Court; one seat has been vacant since the February 13, 2016 death of Associate Justice Antonin Scalia. The court is composed of:

All Justices of the Supreme Court[edit]

Since the Supreme Court was established in 1789, 112 persons have served on the Court. Five individuals in this group were confirmed for associate justice, and later confirmed for chief justice separately. While listed twice, each of them has been assigned only one index number. The justices of the Supreme Court are:[12][13]

Justice State[a] Position Replacing Date confirmed
(Vote)
Tenure Tenure length Appointed by
1 John Jay
(1745–1829)
NY Chief
Justice
New seat September 26, 1789
(Acclamation)
September 26, 1789

June 29, 1795
(Resigned)
5 years, 276 days George Washington
2 John Rutledge
(1739–1800)
SC Associate
Justice
New seat September 26, 1789
(Acclamation)
September 26, 1789

March 4, 1791
(Resigned)
1 year, 159 days
3 William Cushing
(1732–1810)
MA Associate
Justice
New seat September 26, 1789
(Acclamation)
September 27, 1789

September 13, 1810
(Died)
20 years, 351 days
4 James Wilson
(1742–1798)
PA Associate
Justice
New seat September 26, 1789
(Acclamation)
September 29, 1789

August 21, 1798
(Died)
8 years, 326 days
5 John Blair
(1732–1800)
VA Associate
Justice
New seat September 26, 1789
(Acclamation)
September 30, 1789

October 25, 1795
(Resigned)
6 years, 25 days
6 James Iredell
(1751–1799)
NC Associate
Justice
New seat February 10, 1790
(Acclamation)
May 12, 1790

October 20, 1799
(Died)
9 years, 161 days
7 Thomas Johnson
(1732–1819)
MD Associate
Justice
J. Rutledge November 7, 1791
(Acclamation)
August 5, 1792[b][c]

January 16, 1793
(Resigned)
164 days
8 William Paterson
(1745–1806)
NJ Associate
Justice
T. Johnson March 4, 1793
(Acclamation)
March 4, 1793

September 8, 1806
(Died)
13 years, 188 days
2
[d]
John Rutledge
(1739–1800)
SC Chief
Justice
Jay December 15, 1795
(10–14)[e]
June 30, 1795[b]

December 28, 1795
(Resigned)
181 days
9 Samuel Chase[f]
(1741–1811)
MD Associate
Justice
Blair January 27, 1796
(Acclamation)
January 27, 1796

June 19, 1811
(Died)
15 years, 143 days
10 Oliver Ellsworth
(1745–1807)
CT Chief
Justice
J. Rutledge March 4, 1796
(21–1)
March 8, 1796

December 15, 1800
(Resigned)
4 years, 282 days
11 Bushrod Washington
(1762–1829)
VA Associate
Justice
Wilson December 20, 1798
(Acclamation)
December 20, 1798

November 26, 1829
(Died)
30 years, 341 days John Adams
12 Alfred Moore
(1755–1810)
NC Associate
Justice
Iredell December 9, 1799
(Acclamation)
December 10, 1799

January 26, 1804
(Resigned)
4 years, 47 days
13 John Marshall
(1755–1835)
VA Chief
Justice
Ellsworth January 27, 1801
(Acclamation)
February 4, 1801

July 6, 1835
(died)
34 years, 152 days
14 William Johnson
(1771–1834)
SC Associate
Justice
Moore March 24, 1804
(Acclamation)
May 7, 1804

August 4, 1834
(Died)
30 years, 89 days Thomas Jefferson
15 Henry Brockholst Livingston
(1757–1823)
NY Associate
Justice
Paterson December 17, 1806
(Acclamation)
January 20, 1807

March 18, 1823
(Died)
16 years, 57 days
16 Thomas Todd
(1765–1826)
KY Associate
Justice
New seat March 2, 1807
(Acclamation)
March 3, 1807

February 7, 1826
(Died)
18 years, 341 days
17 Gabriel Duvall
(1752–1844)
MD Associate
Justice
S. Chase November 18, 1811
(Acclamation)
November 23, 1811

January 12, 1835
(Resigned)
23 years, 50 days James Madison
18 Joseph Story
(1779–1845)
MA Associate
Justice
Cushing November 18, 1811
(Acclamation)
February 3, 1812

September 10, 1845
(Died)
33 years, 219 days
19 Smith Thompson
(1768–1843)
NY Associate
Justice
Livingston December 9, 1823
(Acclamation)
September 1, 1823[b]

December 18, 1843
(Died)
20 years, 108 days James Monroe
20 Robert Trimble
(1776–1828)
KY Associate
Justice
Todd May 9, 1826
(25-5)
May 9, 1826

August 25, 1828
(Died)
2 years, 108 days John Quincy Adams
21 John McLean
(1785–1861)
OH Associate
Justice
Trimble March 7, 1829
(Acclamation)
March 7, 1829

April 4, 1861
(Died)
32 years, 28 days Andrew Jackson
22 Henry Baldwin
(1780–1844)
PA Associate
Justice
Washington January 6, 1830
(41-2)
January 6, 1830

April 21, 1844
(Died)
14 years, 106 days
23 James Moore Wayne
(1790–1867)
GA Associate
Justice
W. Johnson January 9, 1835
(Acclamation)
January 14, 1835

July 5, 1867
(Died)
32 years, 172 days
24 Roger B. Taney
(1777–1864)
MD Chief
Justice
J. Marshall March 15, 1836
(29–15)
March 28, 1836

October 12, 1864
(Died)
28 years, 198 days
25 Philip Pendleton Barbour
(1783–1841)
VA Associate
Justice
Duvall March 15, 1836
(30-11)
March 15, 1836

February 25, 1841
(Died)
4 years, 347 days
26 John Catron
(1786–1865)
TN Associate
Justice
New seat March 8, 1837
(28-15)
March 8, 1837

May 30, 1865
(Died)
28 years, 83 days
27 John McKinley
(1780–1852)
AL Associate
Justice
New seat September 25, 1837
(Acclamation)
April 22, 1837

July 19, 1852
(Died)
15 years, 88 days Martin Van Buren
28 Peter Vivian Daniel
(1784–1860)
VA Associate
Justice
Barbour March 2, 1841
(25-5)
March 3, 1841

May 31, 1860
(Died)
19 years, 89 days
29 Samuel Nelson
(1792–1873)
NY Associate
Justice
Thompson February 14, 1845
(Acclamation)
February 14, 1845

November 28, 1872
(Retired)
27 years, 288 days John Tyler
30 Levi Woodbury
(1789–1851)
NH Associate
Justice
Story January 31, 1846
(Acclamation)
September 20, 1845[b]

September 4, 1851
(Died)
5 years, 349 days James K. Polk
31 Robert Cooper Grier
(1794–1870)
PA Associate
Justice
Baldwin August 4, 1846
(Acclamation)
August 4, 1846

January 31, 1870
(Retired)
23 years, 180 days
32 Benjamin Robbins Curtis
(1809–1874)
MA Associate
Justice
Woodbury December 20, 1851
(Acclamation)
September 22, 1851[b]

September 30, 1857
(Resigned)
6 years, 8 days Millard Fillmore
33 John Archibald Campbell
(1811–1889)
AL Associate
Justice
McKinley March 22, 1853
(Acclamation)
March 23, 1853

April 30, 1861
(Resigned)
8 years, 38 days Franklin Pierce
34 Nathan Clifford
(1803–1881)
ME Associate
Justice
Curtis January 12, 1858
(26-23)
January 12, 1858

July 25, 1881
(Died)
23 years, 194 days James Buchanan
35 Noah Haynes Swayne
(1804–1884)
OH Associate
Justice
McLean January 24, 1862
(38-1)
January 24, 1862

January 24, 1881
(Retired)
19 years, 0 days Abraham Lincoln
36 Samuel Freeman Miller
(1816–1890)
IA Associate
Justice
Daniel July 16, 1862
(Acclamation)
July 16, 1862

October 13, 1890
(Died)
28 years, 89 days
37 David Davis
(1815–1886)
IL Associate
Justice
Campbell December 8, 1862
(Acclamation)
October 17, 1862[b]

March 3, 1877
(Resigned)
14 years, 137 days
38 Stephen Johnson Field
(1816–1899)
CA Associate
Justice
New seat March 10, 1863
(Acclamation)
March 10, 1863

December 1, 1897
(Retired)
34 years, 266 days
39 Salmon P. Chase
(1808–1873)
OH Chief
Justice
Tanney December 6, 1864
(Acclamation)
December 15, 1864

May 7, 1873
(Died)
8 years, 152 days
40 William Strong
(1808–1895)
PA Associate
Justice
Grier February 18, 1870
(No vote recorded)
February 18, 1870

December 14, 1880
(Retired)
10 years, 300 days Ulysses S. Grant
41 Joseph Philo Bradley
(1813–1892)
NJ Associate
Justice
New seat March 21, 1870
(46-9)
March 21, 1870

January 22, 1892
(Died)
21 years, 307 days
42 Ward Hunt
(1810–1886)
NY Associate
Justice
Nelson December 11, 1872
(Acclamation)
December 11, 1872

January 27, 1882
(Retired)
9 years, 47 days
43 Morrison Waite
(1816–1888)
OH Chief
Justice
S. P. Chase January 21, 1874
(63–0)
March 4, 1874

March 23, 1888
(Died)
14 years, 19 days
44 John Marshall Harlan
(1833–1911)
KY Associate
Justice
Davis November 29, 1877
(Acclamation)
November 29, 1877

October 14, 1911
(Died)
33 years, 319 days Rutherford B. Hayes
45 William Burnham Woods
(1824–1887)
GA Associate
Justice
Strong December 21, 1880
(39-8)
December 21, 1880

May 14, 1887
(Died)
6 years, 144 days
46 Stanley Matthews
(1824–1889)
OH Associate
Justice
Swayne May 12, 1881
(24-23)
May 12, 1881

March 22, 1889
(Died)
7 years, 314 days James Garfield
47 Horace Gray
(1828–1902)
MA Associate
Justice
Clifford December 20, 1881
(51-5)
December 20, 1881

September 15, 1902
(Died)
20 years, 269 days Chester A. Arthur
48 Samuel Blatchford
(1820–1893)
NY Associate
Justice
Hunt March 22, 1882
(Acclamation)
March 22, 1882

July 7, 1893
(Died)
11 years, 107 days
49 Lucius Quintus
Cincinnatus Lamar II

(1825–1893)
MS Associate
Justice
Woods January 16, 1888
(32-28)
January 16, 1888

January 23, 1893
(Died)
5 years, 7 days Grover Cleveland
50 Melville Fuller
(1833–1910)
IL Chief
Justice
Waite July 20, 1888
(41–20)
October 8, 1888

July 4, 1910
(Died)
21 years, 269 days
51 David Josiah Brewer
(1837–1910)
KS Associate
Justice
Matthews December 18, 1889
(53-11)
December 18, 1889

March 28, 1910
(Died)
20 years, 100 days Benjamin Harrison
52 Henry Billings Brown
(1836–1913)
MI Associate
Justice
Miller December 29, 1890
(Acclamation)
December 29, 1890

May 28, 1906
(Retired)
15 years, 150 days
53 George Shiras, Jr.
(1832–1924)
PA Associate
Justice
Bradley July 26, 1892
(Acclamation)
July 26, 1892

February 23, 1903
(Retired)
10 years, 212 days
54 Howell Edmunds Jackson
(1832–1895)
TN Associate
Justice
L. Lamar February 18, 1893
(Acclamation)
February 18, 1893

August 8, 1895
(Died)
2 years, 171 days
55 Edward Douglass White
(1845–1921)
LA Associate
Justice
Blatchford February 19, 1894
(Acclamation)
February 19, 1894

December 18, 1910
(Continued as chief justice)
16 years, 302 days Grover Cleveland
56 Rufus Wheeler Peckham
(1838–1909)
NY Associate
Justice
H. Jackson December 9, 1895
(Acclamation)
December 9, 1895

October 24, 1909
(Died)
13 years, 319 days
57 Joseph McKenna
(1843–1926)
CA Associate
Justice[g]
Field January 21, 1898
(Acclamation)
January 21, 1898

January 5, 1925
(Retired)
26 years, 350 days William McKinley
58 Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr.
(1841–1935)
MA Associate
Justice[h]
Gray December 4, 1902
(Acclamation)
December 4, 1902

January 12, 1932
(Retired)
29 years, 39 days Theodore Roosevelt
59 William R. Day
(1849–1923)
OH Associate
Justice
Shiras February 23, 1903
(Acclamation)
February 23, 1903

November 13, 1922
(Retired)
19 years, 263 days
60 William Henry Moody
(1853–1917)
MA Associate
Justice
Brown December 12, 1906
(Acclamation)
December 12, 1906

November 20, 1910
(Retired)
3 years, 343 days
61 Horace Harmon Lurton
(1844–1914)
TN Associate
Justice
Peckham December 20, 1909
(Acclamation)
December 20, 1909

July 12, 1914
(Died)
4 years, 204 days William Howard Taft
62 Charles Evans Hughes
(1862–1948)
NY Associate
Justice
Brewer May 2, 1910
(Acclamation)
October 10, 1910

June 10, 1916
(Resigned)
5 years, 244 days
55
[i]
Edward Douglass White
(1845–1921)
LA Chief
Justice
Fuller December 12, 1910
(Acclamation)
December 19, 1910

May 19, 1921
(Died)
10 years, 151 days
63 Willis Van Devanter
(1859–1941)
WY Associate
Justice
E. D. White December 15, 1910
(Acclamation)
December 16, 1910

June 2, 1937
(Retired)
26 years, 168 days
64 Joseph Rucker Lamar
(1857–1916)
GA Associate
Justice
Moody December 15, 1910
(Acclamation)
December 17, 1910

January 2, 1916
(Died)
5 years, 16 days
65 Mahlon Pitney
(1858–1924)
NJ Associate
Justice
J. Harlan March 13, 1912
(50-26)
March 13, 1912

December 31, 1922
(Resigned)
10 years, 293 days
66 James Clark McReynolds
(1862–1946)
TN Associate
Justice
Lurton August 29, 1914
(44-6)
August 29, 1914

January 31, 1941
(Retired)
26 years, 155 days Woodrow Wilson
67 Louis Brandeis
(1856–1941)
MA Associate
Justice
J. Lamar June 1, 1916
(47-22)
June 1, 1916

February 13, 1939
(Retired)
22 years, 257 days
68 John Hessin Clarke
(1857–1945)
OH Associate
Justice
Hughes July 24, 1916
(Acclamation)
July 24, 1916

September 5, 1922
(Retired)
6 years, 43 days
69 William Howard Taft
(1857–1930)
CT Chief
Justice
E. D. White June 30, 1921
(Acclamation)
July 11, 1921

February 3, 1930
(Retired)
8 years, 207 days Warren G. Harding
70 George Sutherland
(1862–1942)
UT Associate
Justice
Clarke September 5, 1922
(Acclamation)
September 5, 1922

January 17, 1938
(Retired)
15 years, 134 days
71 Pierce Butler
(1866–1939)
MN Associate
Justice
Day December 21, 1922
(61-8)
December 21, 1922

November 16, 1939
(Died)
16 years, 330 days
72 Edward Terry Sanford
(1865–1930)
TN Associate
Justice
Pitney January 29, 1923
(Acclamation)
January 29, 1923

March 8, 1930
(Died)
7 years, 38 days
73 Harlan F. Stone
(1872–1946)
NY Associate
Justice[j]
McKenna February 5, 1925
(71-6)
February 5, 1925

July 3, 1941
(Continued as chief justice)
16 years, 148 days Calvin Coolidge
62
[d]
Charles Evans Hughes
(1862–1948)
NY Chief
Justice
Taft February 13, 1930
(52–26)
February 24, 1930

June 30, 1941
(Retired)
11 years, 126 days Herbert Hoover
74 Owen Josephus Roberts
(1875–1955)
PA Associate
Justice
Sanford May 20, 1930
(Acclamation)
May 20, 1930

July 31, 1945
(Resigned)
15 years, 72 days
75 Benjamin N. Cardozo
(1870–1938)
NY Associate
Justice
Holmes February 24, 1932
(Acclamation)
March 2, 1932

July 9, 1938
(Died)
6 years, 129 days
76 Hugo Black
(1886–1971)
AL Associate
Justice[k]
Van Devanter August 17, 1937
(63-16)
August 18, 1937

September 17, 1971
(Retired)
34 years, 30 days Franklin D. Roosevelt
77 Stanley Forman Reed
(1884–1980)
KY Associate
Justice
Sutherland January 25, 1938
(Acclamation)
January 27, 1938

February 25, 1957
(Retired)
19 years, 29 days
78 Felix Frankfurter
(1882–1965)
MA Associate
Justice
Cardozo January 17, 1939
(Acclamation)
January 20, 1939

August 28, 1962
(Retired)
23 years, 220 days
79 William O. Douglas
(1898–1980)
CT Associate
Justice
Brandeis April 4, 1939
(62-4)
April 15, 1939

November 12, 1975
(Retired)
36 years, 211 days
80 Frank Murphy
(1890–1949)
MI Associate
Justice
Butler January 16, 1940
(Acclamation)
January 18, 1940

July 19, 1949
(Died)
9 years, 182 days
73
[i]
Harlan F. Stone
(1872–1946)
NY Chief
Justice
Hughes June 27, 1941
(Acclamation)
July 3, 1941

April 22, 1946
(Died)
4 years, 293 days
81 James F. Byrnes
(1882–1972)
SC Associate
Justice
McReynolds June 12, 1941
(Acclamation)
July 8, 1941

October 3, 1942
(Resigned)
1 year, 87 days
82 Robert H. Jackson
(1892–1954)
NY Associate
Justice
Stone July 7, 1941
(Acclamation)
July 11, 1941

October 9, 1954
(Died)
13 years, 90 days
83 Wiley Blount Rutledge
(1894–1949)
IA Associate
Justice
Byrnes February 8, 1943
(Acclamation)
February 11, 1943

September 10, 1949
(Died)
6 years, 211 days
84 Harold Hitz Burton
(1888–1964)
OH Associate
Justice
O. Roberts September 19, 1945
(Acclamation)
September 22, 1945

October 13, 1958
(Retired)
13 years, 21 days Harry S. Truman
85 Fred M. Vinson
(1890–1953)
KY Chief
Justice
Stone June 20, 1946
(Acclamation)
June 24, 1946

September 8, 1953
(Died)
7 years, 76 days
86 Tom C. Clark
(1899–1977)
TX Associate
Justice
Murphy August 18, 1949
(73-8)
August 19, 1949

June 12, 1967
(Retired)
17 years, 297 days
87 Sherman Minton
(1890–1965)
IN Associate
Justice
W. Rutledge October 4, 1949
(48-16)
October 12, 1949

October 15, 1956
(Retired)
7 years, 3 days
88 Earl Warren
(1891–1974)
CA Chief
Justice
Vinson March 1, 1954
(Acclamtion)
October 5, 1953[b]

June 23, 1969
(Retired)
15 years, 261 days Dwight D. Eisenhower
89 John Marshall Harlan II
(1899–1971)
NY Associate
Justice
R. Jackson March 16, 1955
(71-11)
March 17, 1955

September 23, 1971
(Retired)
16 years, 190 days
90 William J. Brennan
(1906–1997)
NJ Associate
Justice
Minton March 19, 1957
(Acclamation)
October 15, 1956[b]

July 20, 1990
(Retired)
33 years, 278 days
91 Charles Evans Whittaker
(1901–1973)
MO Associate
Justice
Reed March 19, 1957
(Acclamation)
March 22, 1957

March 31, 1962
(Resigned)
5 years, 9 days
92 Potter Stewart
(1915–1985)
OH Associate
Justice
Burton May 5, 1959
(70-17)
October 14, 1958[b]

July 3, 1981
(Retired)
22 years, 262 days
93 Byron White
(1917–2002)
CO Associate
Justice
Whittaker April 11, 1962
(Acclamation)
April 16, 1962

June 28, 1993
(Retired)
31 years, 73 days John F. Kennedy
94 Arthur Goldberg
(1908–1990)
IL Associate
Justice
Frankfurter September 25, 1962
(Acclamation)
September 28, 1962

July 26, 1965
(Resigned)
2 years, 301 days
95 Abe Fortas
(1910–1982)
TN Associate
Justice
Goldberg August 11, 1965
(Acclamation)
October 4, 1965

May 14, 1969
(Resigned)
3 years, 222 days Lyndon B. Johnson
96 Thurgood Marshall
(1908–1993)
NY Associate
Justice
Clark August 30, 1967
(69-11)
October 2, 1967

October 1, 1991
(Retired)
23 years, 364 days
97 Warren E. Burger
(1907–1995)
VA Chief
Justice
Warren June 9, 1969
(74–3)
June 23, 1969

September 26, 1986
(Retired)
17 years, 95 days Richard Nixon
98 Harry Blackmun
(1908–1999)
MN Associate
Justice
Fortas May 12, 1970
(94-0)
June 9, 1970

August 3, 1994
(Retired)
24 years, 55 days
99 Lewis Franklin Powell, Jr.
(1907–1998)
VA Associate
Justice
Black December 6, 1971
(89-1)
January 7, 1972

June 26, 1987
(Retired)
15 years, 170 days
100 William Rehnquist
(1924–2005)
AZ Associate
Justice
J. Harlan II December 10, 1971
(68-26)
January 7, 1972

September 26, 1986
(Continued as chief justice)
14 years, 262 days
101 John Paul Stevens
(born 1920)
IL Associate
Justice[l]
Douglas December 17, 1975
(98-0)
December 19, 1975

June 29, 2010
(Retired)
35 years, 127 days Gerald Ford
102 Sandra Day O'Connor
(born 1930)
AZ Associate
Justice
Stewart September 21, 1981
(99-0)
September 25, 1981

January 31, 2006
(Retired)
24 years, 128 days Ronald Reagan
100
[i]
William Rehnquist
(1924–2005)
VA Chief
Justice
Burger September 17, 1986
(65–33)
September 26, 1986

September 3, 2005
(Died)
18 years, 342 days
103 Antonin Scalia
(1936–2016)
VA Associate
Justice
Rehnquist September 17, 1986
(98-0)
September 26, 1986

February 13, 2016
(Died)
29 years, 140 days
104 Anthony Kennedy
(born 1936)
CA Associate
Justice
Powell February 3, 1988
(97-0)
February 18, 1988

Incumbent
28 years, 288 days
105 David Souter
(born 1939)
NH Associate
Justice
Brennan October 2, 1990
(90-9)
October 9, 1990

June 29, 2009
(Retired)
18 years, 263 days George H. W. Bush
106 Clarence Thomas
(born 1948)
GA Associate
Justice
T. Marshall October 15, 1991
(52-48)
October 23, 1991

Incumbent
25 years, 40 days
107 Ruth Bader Ginsburg
(born 1933)
NY Associate
Justice
B. White August 3, 1993
(96-3)
August 10, 1993

Incumbent
23 years, 114 days Bill Clinton
108 Stephen Breyer
(born 1938)
MA Associate
Justice
Blackmun July 29, 1994
(87-9)
August 3, 1994

Incumbent
22 years, 121 days
109 John Roberts
(born 1955)
MD Chief
Justice
Rehnquist September 29, 2005
(78–22)
September 29, 2005

Incumbent
11 years, 64 days George W. Bush
110 Samuel Alito
(born 1950)
NJ Associate
Justice
O'Connor January 31, 2006
(58-42)
January 31, 2006

Incumbent
10 years, 306 days
111 Sonia Sotomayor
(born 1954)
NY Associate
Justice
Souter August 6, 2009
(68-31)
August 8, 2009

Incumbent
7 years, 116 days Barack Obama
112 Elena Kagan
(born 1960)
MA Associate
Justice
Stevens August 5, 2010
(63-37)
August 7, 2010

Incumbent
6 years, 117 days
Justice State[a] Position Replacing Date confirmed
(Vote)
Tenure Tenure length Appointed by

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b State of residence at the time of appointment. For example, In 1971, Rehnquist was appointed from Arizona, but in 1986, when elevated to chief justice, he was appointed from Virginia.[14]
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i Recess appointment
  3. ^ Received recess appointment on August 5, 1791, but was not sworn in until August 6, 1792.
  4. ^ a b Served on the Supreme Court twice, first as associate justice and then, after a period of years off the Court, as chief justice, which is why this justice is listed twice.
  5. ^ This was the first Supreme Court nomination to be rejected by the Senate. Rutledge remains the only "recess appointed" justice not to be subsequently confirmed by the Senate.
  6. ^ Was impeached, but not convicted, and remained in office.
  7. ^ Acted as chief justice under 36 Stat. 1152, May 19 – July 11, 1921.
  8. ^ Acted as chief justice under 36 Stat. 1152, February 3–24, 1930.
  9. ^ a b c Elevated from associate justice to chief justice while serving on the Supreme Court. The nomination of a sitting associate justice to be chief justice is subject to a separate confirmation process, which is why this justice is listed twice.
  10. ^ Acted as chief justice under 36 Stat. 1152, June 30 – July 3, 1941.
  11. ^ Acted as chief justice under 36 Stat. 1152, April 22 – June 24, 1946, and again, under 62 Stat. 869, September 8 – October 5, 1953.
  12. ^ Acted as chief justice under 28 U.S.C. § 3, September 3–29, 2005.

Timelines[edit]

All justices[edit]

The graphic below is a timeline depicting the progression of the justices in the United States Supreme Court. Information regarding their seat number, predecessors, successors and fellow justices, as well as their tenure on the court can be gleaned from the timeline. Additionally, the progression of presidents (with the number of justices they nominated) is shown at the top of the timeline to give a more detailed historical context. Three presidents (Taft, F. Roosevelt, and Reagan), in addition to successfully nominating several justices to the court, elevated an associate justice to chief justice. These elevations are counted as nominations, and are designated with a caret(^). Several justices began their terms on the bench after the inauguration of a new president.

This graphical representation of the progression of the High Court allows some otherwise obscure information to be easily noted. For example, Joseph Story (in the early 19th century) and Stephen Breyer (in the late 20th and early 21st centuries) are each noteworthy for serving over 11 years as the court's most junior member. Samuel Blatchford (in the 1880s) served the third longest as the court's most junior member at less than 6 years. Thomas Johnson (1790s), Robert Trimble (1820s) and Arthur Goldberg (1960s) are the only justices to leave the court while still being the court's most junior member. William Rehnquist is unique in that he is the only justice to witness all of his more senior justices leave the court, without witnessing any of his more junior justices leave the court. Hugo Black, in addition to witnessing all eight of his predecessors leave the court, saw 22 new members appointed to the court (his predecessors' eight replacements and 14 others), meaning he worked beside a record thirty justices.

Elena Kagan Sonia Sotomayor Samuel Alito John G. Roberts Stephen Breyer Ruth Bader Ginsburg Clarence Thomas David Souter Anthony Kennedy Antonin Scalia Sandra Day O'Connor John Paul Stevens William Rehnquist Lewis F. Powell, Jr. Harry Blackmun Warren E. Burger Thurgood Marshall Abe Fortas Arthur Goldberg Byron White Potter Stewart Charles Evans Whittaker William J. Brennan, Jr. John Marshall Harlan II Earl Warren Sherman Minton Tom C. Clark Fred M. Vinson Harold Hitz Burton Wiley Blount Rutledge Robert H. Jackson James F. Byrnes Frank Murphy William O. Douglas Felix Frankfurter Stanley Forman Reed Hugo Black Benjamin N. Cardozo Owen Josephus Roberts Harlan Fiske Stone Edward Terry Sanford Pierce Butler (justice) George Sutherland William Howard Taft John Hessin Clarke Louis Brandeis James Clark McReynolds Mahlon Pitney Joseph Rucker Lamar Willis Van Devanter Charles Evans Hughes Horace Harmon Lurton William Henry Moody William R. Day Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr. Joseph McKenna Rufus Wheeler Peckham Edward Douglass White Howell Edmunds Jackson George Shiras, Jr. Henry Billings Brown David Josiah Brewer Melville Weston Fuller Lucius Q. C. Lamar Samuel Blatchford Horace Gray Thomas Stanley Matthews William Burnham Woods John Marshall Harlan Morrison Remick Waite Ward Hunt Joseph Philo Bradley William Strong Salmon Portland Chase Stephen Johnson Field David Davis Samuel Freeman Miller Noah Haynes Swayne Nathan Clifford John Archibald Campbell Benjamin Robbins Curtis Robert Cooper Grier Levi Woodbury Samuel Nelson Peter Vivian Daniel John McKinley John Catron Philip Pendleton Barbour Roger Brooke Taney James Moore Wayne Henry Baldwin (judge) John McLean Robert Trimble Smith Thompson Joseph Story Gabriel Duvall Thomas Todd Henry Brockholst Livingston William Johnson (judge) John Marshall Alfred Moore Bushrod Washington Oliver Ellsworth Samuel Chase William Paterson (judge) Thomas Johnson (governor) James Iredell John Rutledge John Blair William Cushing John Jay (American statesman) James Wilson

Current justices[edit]

Elena Kagan Sonia Sotomayor Samuel Alito John G. Roberts Stephen Breyer Ruth Bader Ginsburg Clarence Thomas Anthony Kennedy

See also[edit]

Supreme Court of the United States
Other

References[edit]

  1. ^ Stathis, Stephen W. (2014). Landmark Legislation 1774-2012: Major U.S. Acts and Treaties. CQ Press. p. 122. 
  2. ^ Hall, Kermit L. (2005). "Judiciary Act of 1869". In Hall, Kermit L.; Ely, James W.; Grossman, Joel B. The Oxford Companion to the Supreme Court of the United States. Oxford University Press. p. 548. 
  3. ^ a b "Article III". Cornell University Law School. Retrieved February 17, 2010. 
  4. ^ Mears, Bill (January 1, 2010). "Chief Justice Roberts has little to say at year's end". CNN. Retrieved February 17, 2010. 
  5. ^ Barnes, Robert (January 1, 2010). "Supreme Court Chief Justice Roberts opts not to ask Congress to raise judicial salaries". The Washington Post. Retrieved February 17, 2010. 
  6. ^ Rowley, James (January 13, 2014). "Federal Judges in U.S. See $25,000 More as Salary Freeze Falls". Bloomberg. Retrieved May 28, 2014. 
  7. ^ "Elena Kagan sworn in by Roberts to become 112th Supreme Court Justice". Los Angeles Times. August 7, 2010. Retrieved August 7, 2010. 
  8. ^ "About The Supreme Court". Administrative Office of the U.S. Courts. Retrieved February 17, 2010. 
  9. ^ "Supreme Court Research Guide". Georgetown Law Library. Retrieved February 17, 2010. 
  10. ^ Smith, Jean Edward (July 26, 2007). "Stacking the Court". The New York Times. Retrieved February 17, 2010. 
  11. ^ Rosen, Jeffrey (February 26, 2008). "Dems' Choices For Bench Surprisingly Slim". CBS News. Retrieved February 17, 2010. 
  12. ^ "U.S. Senate: Supreme Court Nominations: 1789-Present". www.senate.gov. United States Senate. Retrieved November 11, 2016. 
  13. ^ "Timeline of the Justices". www.supremecourthistory.org. Supreme Court Historical Society. Retrieved November 11, 2016. 
  14. ^ "Members of the Supreme Court of the United States". www.supremecourt.gov. United States Supreme Court. Retrieved November 14, 2016. 

External links[edit]

[1]