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Surface-water hydrology is a field that encompasses all surface waters of the globe (overland flows, rivers, lakes, wetlands, estuaries, oceans, etc.). This is a subset of the hydrologic cycle that does not include atmospheric, and ground waters. Surface-water hydrology relates the dynamics of flow in surface-water systems (rivers, canals, streams, lakes, ponds, wetlands, marshes, arroyos, oceans, etc.). This includes the field measurement of flow (discharge); the statistical variability at each setting; floods; drought susceptibility and the development of the levels of risk; and the fluid mechanics of surface waters.
In-depth analysis of surface-water components of the hydrologic cycle: hydrometeorology, evaporation/transpiration, rainfall-runoff relationships, open-channel flow, flood hydrology, fluid mechanics, and statistical and probabilistic methods in hydrology. Surface-water hydrology includes the relation between rainfall and surface runoff; this relationship is an important aspect of water resources for sewerage (wastewater) or (sewage), drinking water, agriculture (irrigation) environmental protection, and for flood control.
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