Surgeon General (Canada)

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The Surgeon General is the professional head of the Canadian military health jurisdiction, the adviser to the Minister of National Defence and the Chief of Defence Staff on all matters related to health, and head of the Royal Canadian Medical Service. The Surgeon General is also the Commander of Canadian Forces Health Services Group, which fulfils all military health system functions from education and clinical services to research and public health. It consists of the Royal Canadian Medical Service, the Royal Canadian Dental Corps, personnel from other branches of the armed forces, and civilians, with health professionals from over 45 occupations and specialties in over 125 units and detachments across Canada and abroad. As Director General Health Services, the Surgeon General is also the senior health services staff officer in the Department of National Defence. The Surgeon General is normally the only Canadian appointed to the Medical Household as Honorary Physician (QHP) or Honorary Surgeon (QHS) to Her Majesty the Queen.[1][2]

History[edit]

Canada’s first Surgeon General was Colonel Darby Bergin, a prominent surgeon who was also Member of Parliament for Cornwall, president of the College of Physicians and Surgeons of Ontario, founder of the 1st Volunteer Militia Rifle Company of Cornwall, and first Commanding Officer of the 59th Stormont and Glengarry Battalion of Infantry (now the Stormont, Dundas and Glengarry Highlanders). Selected by the Minister of Militia and Defence, the Honourable Sir Adolphe Caron, to organize the Northwest Field Force medical services during the Northwest Rebellion of 1885, Colonel Darby’s own proposed appointment as medical Director General, was overruled by the Minister in favour of Surgeon General.[3][4][5][6]

Major-General the Honourable Sir Eugène Fiset KT, CMG, DSO, ED, GGHS, BA, MB, MD, MS was the first Surgeon General after the establishment of the Canadian Army Medical Corps in 1904 (renamed the Royal Canadian Army Medical Corps in 1919) to bring all military health personnel under unified command. Appointed Director General Medical Services as a Colonel in 1903, he was appointed Deputy Minister of Militia and Defence in 1906 and promoted to Surgeon General in 1914. After retirement in 1923, he was elected Member of Parliament for Rimouski and appointed Lieutenant-Governor of Quebec in 1939.[7][8][9][10][11]

Major-General GB Chisholm CC, MC & Bar, CBE, ED, MD was Surgeon General during the Second World War when the Canadian military health services reached their largest size in history. He was appointed the first federal Deputy Minister of Health in late 1944 and was elected as the first Director General of the World Health Organization in 1948.[12][13]

Major-General KA Hunter OBE, CStJ, CD, QHP, MD was the first Surgeon General following the 1959 integration of the Royal Canadian Army Medical Corps with the smaller medical services of the Royal Canadian Navy and Royal Canadian Air Force to form the unified Canadian Forces Medical Service, renamed the Royal Canadian Medical Service in 2013.[14][15]

List of Surgeons General or Equivalent Appointments[edit]

Surgeon General of the Militia Medical Services[16]

1. Lieutenant-Colonel (later Colonel) Darby Bergin Apr 1885

Director General of the Medical Staff[17]

2. Colonel JLH Neilson Feb 1898

Director General of Medical Services[18][19][20][21]

3. Colonel Sir MJC Eugène Fiset KCMG Jul 1903, promoted to Surgeon General (Major-General) Dec 1914 while Deputy Minister of Militia

4. Colonel GC Jones KStJ, CMG, MD Dec 1906, promoted to Surgeon General (Major-General) Sep 1915

5. Major-General JT Fotheringham KStJ, CMG, VD, MD Nov 1917

6. Major-General GL Foster KStJ, CB, MD Dec 1920

7. Colonel JW Bridges CBE Jun 1921

8. Colonel HM Jacques DSO, MD Apr 1925

9. Colonel JT Clarke CBE, CStJ, MD Jun 1930

10. Colonel AE Snell CMG, OStJ, DSO Sep 1933

11. Colonel JL Potter BStJ, MD Jul 1936

12. Brigadier RM Gorssline OStJ, DSO, MD Nov 1939

13. Major-General GB Chisholm CC, MC & Bar, CBE, ED, MD Sep 1942 (Note 1)

14. Major-General CP Fenwick CB, CBE, MC, ED, MD Jan 1945 (Note 1)

15. Brigadier CS Thompson OBE, ED, MD Mar 1946 (Note 1)

16. Brigadier WL Coke OBE, CD, MD Oct 1947 (Note 1)

17. Brigadier KA Hunter OBE, CStJ, CD, QHP, MD Nov 1952 (Note 1)

18. Brigadier SGU Shier OBE, CD, MD Mar 1956 (Note 1)

19. Brigadier P Tremblay OBE, MD Oct 1958 (Note 1)

Note 1: DGMS Canadian Army. The medical services of the Royal Canadian Navy and Royal Canadian Air Force were led by separate Directors General from 1940 to 1959.[22][23]

Surgeon General of the Canadian Forces[24][25]

20. Major-General KA Hunter OBE, CStJ, CD, QHP, MD Jan 1959

21. Surgeon Rear-Admiral TB McLean CStJ, CD, QHS, MD Jan 1960

22. Surgeon Rear-Admiral WJ Elliot OStJ, CD, QHS, MD, CM Sep 1964

23. Major-General DGM Nelson CD, QHP, MD, DPH, FACPM Jul 1968

24. Major-General JWB Barr CMM, KStJ, CD, QHP, MD, CM, DHA Jul 1970

25. Rear-Admiral RH Roberts CD, QHP, MD, FRCPC, FACP Sep 1973

26. Major-General WG Leach CMM, CD, QHP, MD Apr 1976

27. Major-General VA McPherson CD, QHP, MD, FRCSC Aug 1980

28. Major-General R Dupuis CMM, CStJ, CD, QHP, MD, CSPQ, FRCPC Jul 1982

29. Major-General RW Fassold OStJ, CD, QHP, MD Sep 1985

30. Rear-Admiral CJ Knight CMM, CStJ, CD, QHP, MD Jan 1988

31. Major-General JJ Benoit CStJ, CD, QHP, MD, FRCPC Aug 1990

32. Major-General P Morisset CMM, CStJ, CD, QHP, MD, MHA Aug 1992

33. Major-General WA Clay CMM, OStJ, CD, QHP, MD, MHSc, DSc(hon) Oct 1994[26][27]

34. Brigadier-General C Auger CD, QHS, MD, FRCSC Jun 1998

35. Colonel SF Cameron OMM, CD, QHP, MD Jan 2000 (Note 2)

36. Brigadier-General HF Jaeger OMM, SSStJ, MSM, CD, QHP, MD, LLD(hon), plsc, pcsc Jun 2004[28]

37. Commodore HW Jung OMM, OStJ, CD, QHP, MD, MA Jul 2009

38. Major-General JJ-RS Bernier OMM, CD, QHP, MD, MPH, DEH, DSc(hon), FRCPC(hon), rmc, plsc Jul 2012[29][30][31]

39. Brigadier-General HC MacKay OMM, CD, QHP, MD, MHSc, FRCPC(hon) Jun 2015[32][33]

Note 2: Command and Director General responsibilities were held separately by Major-General MJL Mathieu CMM, CD, MSc, LLD(hon), CHE (Jan 2000-Apr 2005)[34][35] and Commodore MF Kavanagh OMM, OStJ, CD, MD, MHA, CHE (Apr 2005-Jul 2007)[36][37][38][39]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Canadian Forces Health Services website. Retrieved on 1 February 2012 from http://www.forces.gc.ca/health-sante/default-eng.asp
  2. ^ Canadian Forces Health Services Group Surgeon General’s Report 2010. Retrieved on 1 February 2012 from http://www.forces.gc.ca/health-sante/pub/sgr-rmc-2010/default-eng.asp
  3. ^ Official History Of The Canadian Forces In The Great War 1914-19 - The Medical Services By Sir Andrew Macphail, FA Acland, Ottawa, 1925. Retrieved on 1 February 2012 from http://www.cmp-cpm.forces.gc.ca/dhh-dhp/his/docs/CFGW_MedSvc_e.pdf
  4. ^ Seventy Years of Service – A History of the Royal Canadian Army Medical Corps, GWL Nicholson Borealis Press, Ottawa, 1977.
  5. ^ Royal Canadian Medical Service – Introduction to its History and Heritage. Director General Health Services, Department of National Defence, Ottawa, 2003. Retrieved on 1 February 2012 from http://www.forces.gc.ca/health-sante/pub/pdf/0-662-66397-7-eng.pdf
  6. ^ Dictionary of Canadian Biography Online – Bergin, Darby. Retrieved on 1 February 2012 from http://www.biographi.ca/009004-119.01-e.php?&id_nbr=5968
  7. ^ Official History Of The Canadian Forces In The Great War 1914-19 - The Medical Services By Sir Andrew Macphail, FA Acland, Ottawa, 1925. Retrieved on 1 February 2012 from http://www.cmp-cpm.forces.gc.ca/dhh-dhp/his/docs/CFGW_MedSvc_e.pdf
  8. ^ Seventy Years of Service – A History of the Royal Canadian Army Medical Corps, GWL Nicholson Borealis Press, Ottawa, 1977
  9. ^ Quebec Daily Telegraph, August 5, 1924, page 1. Retrieved on 1 February 2012 from https://news.google.com/newspapers?nid=1903&dat=19240801&id=x5UfAAAAIBAJ&sjid=QNQEAAAAIBAJ&pg=3968,2926315 Retrieved on 1 February 2012
  10. ^ Canadian Annual review of Public Affairs 1914 by H Castell Hopkins, F.SS., F.R.G.S. Retrieved on 1 February 2012 from https://archive.org/stream/canadianannuawar01hopkuoft/canadianannuawar01hopkuoft_djvu.txt
  11. ^ The county families of the United Kingdom; or, Royal manual of the titled and untitled aristocracy of England, Wales, Scotland, and Ireland . (Volume ed.59, yr.1919, page 129). Edward Walford. Retrieved on 1 February 2012 from http://www.ebooksread.com/authors-eng/edward-walford/the-county-families-of-the-united-kingdom-or-royal-manual-of-the-titled-and-un-fla/page-129-the-county-families-of-the-united-kingdom-or-royal-manual-of-the-titled-and-un-fla.shtml
  12. ^ Canadian Forces Medical Service: Introduction to its History and Heritage (Director General Health Services, Department of National Defence, Ottawa, 2003). Retrieved on 18 August 2015 from http://www.royalcdnmedicalsvc.ca//wp-content/uploads/2013/08/CFMS-History-HeritageE.pdf
  13. ^ Feasby, W.R. Official History of the Canadian Medical Services 1939 -1945, Volume One Ottawa: Edmond Cloutier, Queens Printer and Controller of Stationary, 1953)
  14. ^ Seventy Years of Service – A History of the Royal Canadian Army Medical Corps, GWL Nicholson Borealis Press, Ottawa, 1977
  15. ^ The Canadian Armed Forces Health Services return to their historical identities. Retrieved on 10 November 2013 from http://news.gc.ca/web/article-eng.do?nid=779769
  16. ^ Seventy Years of Service – A History of the Royal Canadian Army Medical Corps, GWL Nicholson Borealis Press, Ottawa, 1977
  17. ^ Seventy Years of Service – A History of the Royal Canadian Army Medical Corps, GWL Nicholson Borealis Press, Ottawa, 1977
  18. ^ Seventy Years of Service – A History of the Royal Canadian Army Medical Corps, GWL Nicholson Borealis Press, Ottawa, 1977
  19. ^ Quebec Daily Telegraph, August 5, 1924, page 1. Retrieved on 1 February 2012 from https://news.google.com/newspapers?nid=1903&dat=19240801&id=x5UfAAAAIBAJ&sjid=QNQEAAAAIBAJ&pg=3968,2926315 Retrieved on 1 February 2012
  20. ^ Canadian Annual review of Public Affairs 1914 by H Castell Hopkins, F.SS., F.R.G.S. Retrieved on 1 February 2012 from https://archive.org/stream/canadianannuawar01hopkuoft/canadianannuawar01hopkuoft_djvu.txt
  21. ^ "Report of the Committee on Re-Organisation of Canadian Army Medical Corps" (PDF). Can Med Assoc J. 11: 6. June 1921. PMC 1524173Freely accessible. 
  22. ^ Royal Canadian Medical Service – Introduction to its History and Heritage. Director General Health Services, Department of National Defence, Ottawa, 2003. Retrieved on 1 February 2012 from http://www.forces.gc.ca/health-sante/pub/pdf/0-662-66397-7-eng.pdf
  23. ^ Canadian Medical Association Journal, Nov. 1 1957 vol. 77 Retrieved on 23 February 2012 from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1824144/pdf/canmedaj00768-0077.pdf
  24. ^ A Story of the Canadian Forces Medical Services As Told By The Colonel Commandant On The Occasion Of The 25th Anniversary Of Its Formation, Department of National Defence, Ottawa, December 1983.
  25. ^ The Myriad Challenges of Peace: Canadian Forces Medical Practitioners Since The Second World War. Bill Rawling. Canadian Government Publishing Communication Canada, Ottawa, 2004
  26. ^ Wright, Harold M. (1999). Salute to the Air Force Medical Branch on the 75th Anniversary: Royal Canadian Air Force. Ottawa: Harold M. Wright. p. 12. ISBN 0-9686588-0-6
  27. ^ THE TITLE AND DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF LAWS, (honoris causa) CONFERRED AT CONGREGATION, JUNE 2, 1995. Retrieved 24 May 2015 from http://www.library.ubc.ca/archives/hdcites/hdcites11.html
  28. ^ BROCK UNIVERSITY HONORARY DEGREE AND AWARD RECIPIENTS. Retrieved 24 May 2015 from http://www.brocku.ca/webfm_send/17416
  29. ^ http://www.forces.gc.ca/site/news-nouvelles/news-nouvelles-eng.asp?id=4305
  30. ^ Canadian Forces Fellows’ medical services honoured by Her Royal Highness The Princess Royal. Retrieved on 10 November 2013 from http://www.royalcollege.ca/portal/page/portal/rc/resources/publications/dialogue/vol13_11/royal_honour
  31. ^ Queen’s recognizes exemplary careers with honorary degrees. Retrieved 24 May 2015 from http://www.queensu.ca/gazette/stories/queen-s-recognizes-exemplary-careers-honorary-degrees
  32. ^ New Surgeon General Appointed for the Canadian Armed Forces. Retrieved 13 June 2015 from http://news.gc.ca/web/article-en.do?nid=986299
  33. ^ Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada Honorary Fellowship. Retrieved 5 December 2016 from http://www.royalcollege.ca/rcsite/membership/join-the-royal-college/honoury-fellowship-e
  34. ^ Royal Roads honours leaders in health care, education and the arts at fall convocation October 27, 2015. Retrieved 10 March 2016 from http://www.royalroads.ca/news-releases/royal-roads-honours-leaders-health-care-education-and-arts-fall-convocation
  35. ^ Major-General (Retired) Lise Mathieu, CMM. Retrieved 10 March 2016 from http://www.royalroads.ca/news-events/convocation/awards/major-general-retired-lise-mathieu-cmm
  36. ^ National Defence and the Canadian Forces - Medical Services Update January 11, 2000. Retrieved on 1 February 2012 from http://www.forces.gc.ca/site/mobil/news-nouvelles-eng.asp?id=62
  37. ^ National Defence and the Canadian Forces Senior Officer Biography - Brigadier General Jaeger. Retrieved on 1 February 2012 from http://www.cmp-cpm.forces.gc.ca/dsa-dns/sa-ns/ab/sobv-vbos-eng.asp?mAction=View&mBiographyID=116
  38. ^ Minister of National Defence Announces Senior Promotions and Appointments - March 6, 2007. Retrieved on 1 February 2012 from http://www.forces.gc.ca/site/mobil/news-nouvelles-eng.asp?id=2211
  39. ^ Retrieved 18 August 2015 from http://www.nauticapedia.ca/dbase/Query/Biolist3.php?name=Kavanagh,%20M.F.&id=369&Page=1&input=Kavanagh,%20M.F

External links[edit]