Surigaonon language

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Surigaonon
Tandaganon
Native toPhilippines
RegionSurigao del Norte, most parts of Surigao del Sur, and some portion of Dinagat Islands, Agusan del Norte, Agusan del Sur and Davao Oriental
EthnicitySurigaonon people
Native speakers
500,000 (2009)[1]
Official status
Official language in
Regional language in the Philippines
Regulated byKomisyon sa Wikang Filipino
Language codes
ISO 639-3Either:
sgd – Surigaonon
tgn – Tandaganon
Glottologsuri1274[2]
Surigaonon language map.png
Area where Surigaonon is spoken according to Ethnologue

Surigaonon is a Philippine regional language spoken by Surigaonon people in the province of Surigao del Norte, Dinagat Islands, Surigao del Sur, and some portions of Agusan del Norte especially the towns near the Mainit Lake, Agusan del Sur and Davao Oriental.

External relationships[edit]

Surigaonon is a Visayan language. It has been heavily influenced by Cebuano due to the influx of many Cebuanos in the region. However, most Cebuano speakers can hardly understand Surigaonon speakers, except for Cebuanos who has been living in the region for years.

Surigaonon is very closely related to the Tausug language of Sulu and the Butuanon language of Butuan.

Varieties[edit]

Tandaganon[edit]

Tandaganon[3] (also called Tinandag, Naturalis, Tagon-on) is a closely related variety spoken in the central Surigao del Sur municipalities of Tandag City, San Miguel, Tago, Bayabas, Cagwait, Marihatag, San Agustin, and most of Lianga. It can be classified as a separate language or alternatively as a southern variety of Surigaonon. There are about 100,000 speakers.

Surigaonon (also called Jaun-Jaun, Waya-Waya) itself on the other hand is the northern (Surigao del Norte) variety, with about 400,000 speakers. Surigaonon speakers are distributed throughout Surigao del Norte, northern Surigao del Sur, and northern Agusan del Norte.[4] Surigaonon and Tandaganon speakers can understand each other well, even if they use their own languages in conversation (similar to the mutual intelligibility between the Boholano dialect and the general Cebuano dialect).

Together, Surigaonon and Tandaganon are spoken in Surigao del Norte and most parts of Surigao del Sur, except in the City of Bislig, municipalities of Barobo, Hinatuan, Lingig, and Tagbina. In the non-Surigaonons-speaking areas of Surigao, most of the inhabitants are descended from Cebuano-speaking migrants, and the rest are natives who speak Kamayo, a Mansakan language.

Phonology[edit]

According to Dumanig (2015),[5] Surigaonon has a similar phonological inventory as its sister Visayan languages, Cebuano and Boholano.

Vowels[edit]

Below is the vowel system of Surigaonon:[5]

Front Central Back
Close i u
Open a

Consonants[edit]

Below is a chart of Surigaonon consonants.[5]

Bilabial Dental Palatal Velar Glottal
Nasal m n ŋ
Plosive Voiceless p t k ʔ
Voiced b d ɡ
Affricate d͡ʒ
Fricative s h
Flap ɾ
Lateral l
Approximant w j

Note: [j] is spelled y, [d͡ʒ] is spelled j and [ŋ] is spelled ng.

Clusters[edit]

Surigaonon has 25 consonant clusters (br, bl, bw, by, dr, dy, dw, gr, gw, kr, kl, kw, mw, my, nw, pr, pl, pw, py, sw, sy, tr, tw, ty, hw) and 4 diphthongs (aw, ay, iw, uy), which is similar to Cebuano.[5]

Comparison between Surigaonon, Cebuano, and Tausug[edit]

English Tausug Surigaonon Cebuano
What is your name? Unu in ngān mu? Omay imo ngayan? (Surigaonon), Unu an ngayan mu?/Unu may imo pangayan?/ Unu an pangayan nimo?/ Unu'y pangan mo? (Tandaganon) Unsa ang ngalan/ngan nimo?
My name is Juan In ngān ku Juan An ako ngayan ay Juan (Surigaonon), An ngayan ku kay Juan/An ako ngayan kay Juan/ Ang pangayan ko si Juan/ An ako pangan(ngan) kay Juan(Tandaganon) Ang ngan naku kay Juan
How are you? Maunu-unu nakaw? Kumusta naman kaw?/ "Kumusta na kaw?"(Surigaonon),"Kumusta nasa kaw?"(Tandaganon) Kumusta na ka?
I am fine, (too) Marayaw da isab Madayaw da (sab(isab) or da nu-un) aku (Tandaganon) or Marajaw da/ra i-/sab aku (Surigaonon) Maayo da/ra (usab)
Where is Ahmad? Hawnu hi Ahmad? Hain si Ahmad?(Tandaganon)/ Haman si Ahmad? Haman/Hain man/asa si Ahmad?
He is in the house Ha bāy siya Sa bay siya or yaun siya sa bahay(Tandaganon) / Jaon sija sa bayay? or jadto sija sa bayay (Surigaonon) Naa siya sa balay/bay
Thank you Magsukul Salamat Salamat
‘I am staying at’ or ‘I live at’ Naghuhula’ aku ha Yaghuya aku sa(Tandaganon)/ Naghuya aku sa(Surigaonon)or taga ___ Nagpuyo ako sa
I am here at the house. Yari aku ha bay. Yadi aku sa bay(Tandaganon)./ Jari aku sa bayay Dia ko sa bay.
I am Hungry. Hiyapdi' aku. In-gutom aku or Paga-gutom ako(Tandaganon). / Tag gutom ako Gi-gutom ko.
He is there, at school. Yadtu siya ha iskul. Yadtu siya sa iskuylahan(Tandaganon). /Jadto sija sa iskuylahan. Tu-a sya sa iskuylahan
Person Tau Tao(Tandaganon)Tawo (Surigaonon) Taw/Tawo
(Sea/River) current Sug Suwg(Tandaganon)Suyug (Surigaonon) Sug/Sulog
Day Adlaw Buntag(Tandaganon)Buntag (Surigaonon) Adlaw/Buntag
Night Duwm Gabi-i/Duwm(Tandaganon)/Duyum (Surigaonon) Gabi-i
Today Biháun Kuman na adlaw(Tandaganon and Surigaonon) Karon/Karong Adlawa
Yesterday Káhapun Káhapun Gahapon
The day before yesterday Ta’kisa Min-agi na adlaw(Tandaganon)Nin-agi na adlaw (Surigaonon) Miaging adlaw/usang adlaw
Tomorrow Kunsuwm Siluwm/ Silom(Tandaganon)Silum (Surigaonon) Ugma
The day after tomorrow Ku’nisa Sunod na adlaw(Surigaonon/Tandaganon) Sunod adlaw
Tonight Duwm ini Kuman na duwm or Kuman duwm(Tandaganon)/ Kuman na duyum or Kuman duyum (Surigaonon) Karong gabii
Last night Kábi-i Kábi-i(Surigaonon/Tandaganon) Kagabii
Morning Mahinaat/Maynaat Buntag(Surigaonon/Tandaganon) Buntag
Afternoon Mahapun Hapun(Surigaonon/Tandaganon) Hapun
Noon Mataas Suga Gabi-i(Tandaganon)Udto (Surigaonon) Udto
Midnight Tungaan Duwm Tunga-tunga nan Duwn or Tunga'y Duwm(Tandaganon)Tungay-duyum (Surigaonon) Tunga sa gabi-i/tungang gabii
What day is today? Adlaw unu biháun? Unu na adlaw kuman? or Unu kuman na adlawa?(Tandaganon) Oman na adlaw kuman? (Surigaonon) Unsa nga adlaw karon?/unsang adlawa 'ron?
What day will you leave? Adlaw unu kaw tumulak? Unu na adlaw kaw mu-larga or Kun-o kaw mo-larga(Surigaonon) /Kanus-a kaw mu-larga(mu-panaw)(Tandaganon) Unsa nga adlaw ka mo-larga?/unsang adlawa ka mo-larga?
My walked last Saturday. Miyanaw aku sin sabtu’ yaun. An ako panaw adton sabado (Surigaonon) - An ako panaw nan sabado yadtu.(Tandaganon) Ang lakaw naku niadtong sabado.
When did they eat? Ka’nu sila kimaun? Kagan-o sila nangaon? (Surigaonon), Kinun-u sila kin-maun?/Kagan-o sila nangaon(mikaon)?(Tandaganon) Kanus-a sila mikaon?
When did you arrive? Ka’nu kamu dimatung? Kagan-o man kaw nin-abot? (Surigaonon), Kinun-u/Kagan-o kamu(kaw) min-abot? Kanus-a kamo miabot?
When are going to school? Ku’nu kaw pa iskul? Kun-o man kaw mukadto sa iskuylahan? (Surigaonon), kinun-u/Kun-o kaw mokadto sa iskuylahan?(Tandaganon) Kanus-a ka mo-adto sa iskuylahan?
Where are you going? Pakain kamu manaw? Haman kaw pasingud? or haman kaw mukadto? (Surigaonon), Pahain kamu mamanaw?(Tandaganon)/ Hain kaw pasingud?(Tandaganon) Asa ka pa-ingon?
Who is that guy? Hisiyu in usug yaun? Siman jaon? or siman jaon sija? (Surigaonon), Sin-o yaun?/ Sin-o taraw yaon(informal)?(Tandaganon) Kinsa na nga tawhana?
Who own this shirt? Kansiyu in badju ini? Kanin-o ini baro? or simay tag-ija ini na baro? (Surigaonon), Kanin-o ini badu?(Tandaganon) Kang kinsa nga sinina kini?
Where is mother? Hain hi Inah? Haman si mama? (Surigaonon), Hain si nanay?(Tandaganon) Asa si mama?/hain si nanay?
When was your birth date? Ka’nu kaw piyag-anak? Kagan-o man kaw natawo? or kagan-o man kaw tag-anak? (Surigaonon), Kinun-u kaw in anak?/Kagan-o kaw gi-anak?/Kagan-o kaw ya Tao(Tandaganon) Kanus-a ka gipanganak/natawo?
Why are you crying? Mayta’ kaw timangis? Oman nag tuwaw man kaw? (Surigaonon), Nasa ga-hilak(ga-tyaho) sa kaw?(Tandaganon) Ngano nga nagahilak ka?
How do you sleep? Biyariin kaw magtuwg? Un-hon man nimo pagkatuyog? (Surigaonon), Paga unu mo pagkaturog?(Tandaganon)/Paga unu mo sa taraw pagkaturug?(informal) Unsaon man nimo pagkatug/pagkatulog?
How is mother doing? Maunu-unu na hi Inah? Kumusta man si Mama? (Surigaonon), Ya-unu na sa si Ina?/ Kumosta na si mama(nanay)?(Tandaganon) Kumusta na man si nanay/mama?

Sample words and phrases[edit]

  • -ambaw - rat
  • -diin – where
  • -kun-o – when, future
  • -kagan-o – when, past
  • -uno – what
  • -sin-o or siman – who
  • -tag-uno – how
  • -"salamat karajaw" – Thank you very much
  • -na ay, unja na (the actual word is "ngaj'an") – later
  • -"ay ay na bata ini!" – Tsk tsk this child!
  • -"uman kaw?" (contraction of "na uno man kaw?") – What happened to you?
  • -ajo-ajo/amping (Cebuano "ayo ayo") – Take care
  • -"na buang na" – This is crazy
  • -"Simba ko" – "Knock on wood"
  • -"Pag hilom ngad-on" or "saba did-on" – Be silent there
  • -maradjao (Surigaonon) or madayao (Tandaganon) – good
  • -maradjao na buntag – Good morning
  • -maradjao na hapon – Good afternoon
  • -haman kaw? (composed of "hain" and "man") – Where are you?
  • -ngayan (Surigaonon) or ngan(Tandaganon) - name
  • -uno may imo ngayan?/unoy ngayan mo? – What is your name?
  • -pila may imo edad? (Tandaganon)or "pila may edad mo?" (Surigaonon) – How old are you?
  • -grabehi sa nimo ka gwapa (Tandaganon) "gulpi man kaw kagwapa"/ "grabeh nimo ka gwapa"(Surigaonon) – You are so beautiful
  • -gwapahi – very beautiful
  • -arang - very
  • -arang ka tignaw - very cold
  • -"grabehi nimo ka yaot/taru" or grabe nimo kayaot (Surigaonon) – You're so ugly
  • -tagad (Tandaganon) huyat (Surigaonon) – wait
  • -ihap/bilang – count
  • -"tabangi ko" (same as Cebuano), in Norte "tabangi ako" – Help me
  • - pagpaspas/pagdali (same as Cebuano) – be fast
  • -"maradjao (madayao) na duyom dijo hurot" – Good evening to all
  • -"hain man (ha'man) kaw pasingod?" – Where are you going?
  • -kuman – now
  • -silom – tomorrow
  • -mahagkot, tignaw, pakukog– cold
  • -paso, malangka – hot
  • -wayong - face
  • -alima – hand
  • -sike – leg
  • -"taghigugma ta kaw" – I love you
  • -mangita nan sine – watch a movie. . .atud (old Surigaonon word)
  • -"mupanaw na ako kuman" – I will leave now
  • -inday uno or waya ako mahibayo – I don't know
  • -jaon – that
  • -"uno yaon (jaon)?" or "uman yaon (jaon)?" – What is that?
  • -manguyab – courting
  • -kalasangan or guyangan(surigaonon)/guwangan(tandaganon) - forest
  • -doot - the other side of the river
  • -baro (Surigaonon)- dress
  • -dayag/kat-kat - climb
  • -kayajo(Surigaonon)/kayo(tandanganon) - fire
  • -buyod(Surigaonon)/Bukid(tandaganon) - mountain
  • -hilam - mosquito
  • -duyod(Surigaonon)/duwd(tandaganon) - to approach
  • -yaon (Tandaganon) or jaon (Surigaonon)- have
  • -ingod or tungod - beneath the house (in Cebuano "silong")
  • -adja(Surigaonon)/aya(Tandaganon) - just or only ( e.g. "adja ra man kaw magsinaoy saoy" You are just interrupting)
  • - bakoy(Surigaonon)/baku'(tandaganon) - thumb
  • - puyo(Surigaonon)/Isla(Tandaganon) - island
  • - kayajo - fire
  • - miya - cat
  • - ilaja - farm

References[edit]

  1. ^ Surigaonon at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
    Tandaganon at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  2. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Surigao". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  3. ^ http://www-01.sil.org/iso639-3/cr_files/2009-087_tgn.pdf
  4. ^ https://www.ethnologue.com/language/sgd/19
  5. ^ a b c d Dumanig, Francisco Perlas (2015). "Descriptive Analysis of the Surigaonon Language". Polyglossia. Ritsumeikan Center for Asia Pacific Studies. 27.