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Survivor at the Sweden Rock Festival in 2013
|Origin||Chicago, Illinois, United States|
|Labels||Scotti Brothers, PolyGram, Frontiers|
|Associated acts||The Ides of March
Pride of Lions
McAuley Schenker Group
|Past members||Jim Peterik
Dennis Keith Johnson
Survivor is an American rock band formed in Chicago in 1978 by guitarist/songwriter Jim Peterik. The band achieved its greatest success in the 1980s, garnering many charting singles, especially in the United States. The band is best known for its double platinum-certified 1982 hit "Eye of the Tiger," the theme song for the motion picture Rocky III (US number 1 for 6 weeks). Singles like "Burning Heart" (US number 2), "The Search Is Over" (US number 4), "High on You" (US number 8), "Is This Love" (US number 9) and "I Can't Hold Back" (US number 13) continued to chart in the mid-1980s.
The band tweaked its musical direction in 1988 with the release of the slightly heavier Too Hot to Sleep, but due to lackluster promotion the album barely reached the Billboard 200 in the United States. Because of this and tension between founding members, the band split.
Singer Jimi Jamison later toured as "Survivor" in the mid-1990s without the permission of the rest of the band, but reunited with guitarist Frankie Sullivan in 2000. The band then released Reach in 2006, but Jamison left again after its release and was replaced by singer Robin McAuley. Survivor continued to tour with McAuley into 2011 until Jamison returned later that year.
An announcement on November 13, 2011 by McAuley on his Facebook page revealed that he had left Survivor. A subsequent announcement on November 18, 2011 confirmed that Jamison had rejoined the band and a tour was to take place in 2012.
In April 2013 it was announced by the band's official media sources that guitarist Frankie Sullivan had reunited the current Survivor line-up with original singer Dave Bickler, with the band now having their two most popular vocalists together for the next tour, Bickler and Jamison.
On September 1, 2014 Jamison died of what was believed to be a heart attack in his home in Memphis, TN, at the age of 63. His autopsy released on November 11, 2014 revealed the actual cause of death to be a hemorrhagic brain stroke, with "acute methamphetamine intoxication contributing."
- 1 History
- 2 Personnel
- 3 Discography
- 4 The singles analytically
- 4.1 Survivor (LP) February 1980
- 4.2 Non-album Single
- 4.3 Premonition (LP) August 1981 (US), February 1982 (UK)
- 4.4 Eye of the Tiger (LP) June 8, 1982
- 4.5 Caught in the Game (LP) September 1983
- 4.6 The Karate Kid Soundtrack (LP)
- 4.7 1984 re-entry (UK only, from the compilation LP with the same name)
- 4.8 Vital Signs (LP) August 1984
- 4.9 Rocky IV Soundtrack (LP) January 20, 1985
- 4.10 1985 re-entry (Single Germany only)
- 4.11 When Seconds Count (LP) October 1986
- 4.12 Too Hot To Sleep (LP) October 3, 1988
- 4.13 Greatest Hits (CD) 1993
- 4.14 Reach (CD) April 25, 2006
- 4.15 2007 re-entry (CD-Single US only)
- 5 See also
- 6 References
- 7 External links
Jim Peterik was previously the lead vocalist–guitarist for the band The Ides of March. In the mid 1970s, The Jim Peterik Band was formed after Peterik had released an album, Don't Fight the Feeling, on Epic Records in 1976. In the liner notes of the album, written by Jim Charney, Peterik is referred to as a "survivor." This note would be the inspiration for the name of Peterik's next grouping.
Drummer Gary Smith and bassist Dennis Keith Johnson had both been members of Bill Chase's jazz-rock fusion band Chase and Peterik had worked with Chase in 1974. One of the other inspirations for Peterik's choice of the new band's name was his narrow escape from death when he was unable to make a guest appearance at a Chase concert scheduled for Jackson, Minnesota on August 9, 1974. He ended up not being on the plane that crashed, killing Bill Chase and most of his band.
Then in 1978, while recuperating from pneumonia in the hospital, Peterik made plans to form the "ultimate band" upon his recovery. Johnson and Smith were recruited and, at the urging of tour manager Rick Weigand, Peterik hooked up with guitarist Frankie Sullivan (from the band Mariah), brought in singer Dave Bickler (ex-Jamestown Massacre), who had worked with Peterik in Chicago on commercial jingles sessions, and Survivor was born.
In September 1978 Survivor played their very first show at Lyons Township High School in La Grange, Illinois. And after playing in small clubs during the rest of that year, one of them being the original "My Pi" Pizza location on Sheridan Avenue near Loyola University in Chicago, where they headlined every Saturday night in the upstairs bar area, Survivor was signed by Atlantic Records A&R executive John Kalodner. One of Survivor's earliest performances (their second gig, according to Peterik, in his autobiography Through the Eye of the Tiger), from Haymakers Rock Club in Wheeling, Illinois on September 15, 1978, has appeared as a bootleg recording in trader's circles in recent years.
The group's first album, the self-titled Survivor, was recorded in 1979 and released on the Atlantic subsidiary Scotti Bros. in February 1980. The album produced no Top 40 singles ("Somewhere in America" only managed to make number 70) and did not achieve the level of success that the band had hoped for.
During Survivor's first album, Peterik played Rhythm Guitars and organ/keyboards were done by Lead Singer, Dave Bickler (who plays several instruments) but his role quickly became backing vocals, some keyboards & co- songwriter from 1981 on with some keyboard parts being performed on records by session piano/keyboardists per the producers.
In 1981 it was decided to let Johnson and Smith go as they had schedule conflicts with their other projects and were a bit "too jazzy" in their approach, according to Peterik. They were replaced by Sullivan's friend and drummer Marc Droubay and bassist Stephan Ellis, whom Peterik and Sullivan had spotted playing in a band at Flipper's Roller Boogie Palace in the Los Angeles CA at 3am.
Both Droubay and Ellis came aboard in time for the recording of the band's follow-up album, Premonition (August 1981). It charted higher, achieving popularity with American audiences and gave the band its first Top 40 single, "Poor Man's Son." The album also showed off Bickler's range as a vocalist with its second single, "Summer Nights." With fan favorite non-singles " Hearts A Lonely Hunter", " Take You On A Saturday"," Runway Lights" & " Love Is On My Side", many fans cite "Premonition" as their favorite album in the band's history so far.
Eye of the Tiger
In 1982 Survivor's breakthrough arrived when actor Sylvester Stallone asked them to provide the theme song for his movie Rocky III. Stallone had heard "Poor Man's Son" and wanted a song similar to it. The band agreed to his request and soon came up with "Eye of the Tiger".
The new song featured a faster tempo while still incorporating the stylish, nearly identical power chords. It had an enormous impact on the Billboard Hot 100 chart, peaking at number 1, remaining there for six weeks and was in the Top 40 for a total of eighteen weeks. It also topped the British charts and was Australia's number 1 single for four weeks.
"Eye" went on to win the band the Grammy Award for Best Rock Performance by a Duo or Group with Vocal, was voted Best New Song by the People's Choice Awards and received an Academy Award nomination.
The album of the same title, Eye of the Tiger, was released by the band in June 1982 and contained another Top 40 hit in the United States, "American Heartbeat" (number 17 US)and " The One Who Really Matters" ( number 74 US). The album charted at number 2 in the States.
In 1983 Survivor tried to duplicate the success of Eye of the Tiger with their next release, Caught in the Game (September 1983). Unfortunately the album turned out to be a commercial disappointment, (though a fan favorite) stalling at number 82 on the Billboard 200 in the U.S., while the album's title track peaked at number 77.
The band suffered a further setback when lead singer Dave Bickler suffered vocal problems and was required to undergo an operation to remove vocal fold nodules, a very common ailment in singers, that required rest which Peterik & Sullivan weren't willing to do. Bickler was fired, Record Label, Scotti Bro's yet again, failed to do much in the way of promotion of what many feel was a superior album overall to the " MONSTER" #1 album, Eye Of The Tiger one year before. In early 1984, he was replaced by Jimi Jamison of the bands Target and Cobra.
1984–1988: The Jimi Jamison era
The band's first song to feature Jimi Jamison was "The Moment of Truth", the theme song of the box office smash hit The Karate Kid (1984), which peaked at number 63 on the Billboard Hot 100 in June 1984. Next came Survivor's first album with Jamison, Vital Signs (August 1984), which provided the band with a massive comeback, peaking at number 16 on the Billboard Album Chart with the hits "I Can't Hold Back" (number 13 U.S.), "High on You" (number 8 U.S.), and "The Search Is Over" (number 4 U.S.).
When Seconds Count was released in October 1986 and included the hit "Is This Love" (number 9 U.S.). On the Billboard Album Chart the album only reached number 49 but still managed to sell over 500,000 copies and reached certified gold status.
In 1987 longtime members; bassist Ellis & Drummer Droubay,were fired by Jimi Jamison & Jim Peterik after they refused to vote out band co-founder, lead guitarist,co-writer & main backing singer, Frankie Sullivan. Jamison & Peterik wanted to replace Sullivan with a cheaper sidemen of Jamison's which would then give majority control on band decisions and a much larger payday.
During pre-production of their seventh album, Too Hot to Sleep (October 1988), Ellis and Droubay were replaced by studio session veterans Mickey Curry (drums) and Bill Syniar (bass). Sullivan produced the effort with Frank Filipetti. Though the album presented a harder-rocking Survivor, similar to the sound in the band's early days, Too Hot to Sleep failed to make a significant dent on the chart (only number 187 US).
There were, reportedly, a few live dates done by the band during this period (including a stint as opening act for Cheap Trick on "The Flame" Tour of North America) that included Syniar on bass and Kyle Woodring on drums.
1988–2000: Hiatus, Bickler's return and legal issues
After the disappointing sales of Too Hot to Sleep, Jamison decided to start work on a solo album and Peterik and Sullivan decided to put the band on indefinite hiatus. A Greatest Hits compilation was released in late 1989.
Jamison's debut solo album, When Love Comes Down, was released in July 1991 and he decided to continue touring and playing Survivor songs with local musicians. Meanwhile, the Survivor rhythm section of Ellis and Droubay decided to form the group Club M.E.D. with guitarist Rod McClure, releasing the album Sampler in 1990. Peterik co-wrote "The Sound of Your Voice", "Rebel to Rebel" and "Treasure" for 38 Special's 1991 album Bone Against Steel.
In 1992 Jamison toured, now billing his band as "Survivor" or "Jimi Jamison's Survivor." After Jamison's success touring overseas that year, Sullivan contacted Jamison's management and asked to be included on the tour; he performed on eight to ten dates before leaving the group. Soon after, in late 1992–early 1993, Survivor was tapped to do a new and more extensive hits package with two new songs. For a short time, Peterik, Sullivan and Jamison were reunited in the studio to record new material for the new package and forthcoming world tour. But after contract talks broke down, Jamison quit and went back on the road again as "Jimi Jamison's Survivor."
In early 1993, Peterik and Sullivan reunited with original lead singer Dave Bickler as Survivor and released a new Greatest Hits album with two new songs ("Hungry Years," co-written by Bickler, and "You Know Who You Are") and embarked on a world tour with Bill Syniar and Kyle Woodring returning on bass and drums, respectively. Klem Hayes, who had performed on the new tracks on the 1993 compilation, took over on bass in 1994 after Syniar departed.
As Jamison was also touring as Survivor, Peterik and Sullivan filed a lawsuit against their former colleague for using the name but ultimately failed (at the time) in their bid to stop Jamison from touring under the "Survivor" banner.
On November 27, 1993 guitarist Dave Carl filled in for Sullivan at a gig at Club Dimensions in Highland, Indiana after the latter injured his ribs from falling through a garage roof.
From 1993 to 1996, Peterik, Sullivan and Bickler recorded about 20 demos for a new album (which are available on the Fire Makes Steel bootleg) with Syniar and Woodring and, later, Ellis and Droubay contributing. But they failed to secure a record deal due to ongoing litigation and trademark issues with Jamison.
In 1995 Klem Hayes departed and the bass chair was filled, first by Randy Riley (1995), then by Billy Ozzello (1995–1996).
With Peterik and Sullivan increasingly at musical and personal odds and Sullivan attempting to move the band in more of a bluesy direction, Peterik abruptly decided to leave Survivor, playing his last show with them on July 3, 1996 at the 'Eyes To The Skies' summer fest in Lisle, Illinois.
At this juncture, Sullivan and Bickler were effectively the only remaining original members of the band. Survivor replaced Peterik with composer–keyboardist Chris Grove. Peterik returned to recording and touring with The Ides of March and also formed the group Pride of Lions.
In late 1996, bassist Stephan Ellis and drummer Marc Droubay rejoined Survivor, but Ellis left again by early 1999 and was replaced by Gordon Patriarca who only played about a half a dozen shows before Billy Ozzello was brought back. Survivor then went on to record more demos for a record deal, including "Rebel Girl '98" and the Sullivan solo album cut "Lies."
In 1999 Jamison released the album Empires under the name "Jimi Jamison's Survivor" (later re-released under his own name).
In late September 1999, Sullivan, who had brought forth another lawsuit against Jamison, won ownership of the name "Survivor," thereby ending the ongoing trademark battle.
2000–2006: Bickler's departure and Jamison's return
In March 2000 Bickler was fired, severing the then Sullivan–Bickler Survivor and resulting in Sullivan's reestablishment of a partnership with Jamison. The band then began recording material for a new album. The Peterik–Sullivan-penned track "Velocitized" was set for inclusion on the soundtrack to the Stallone film Driven. However, it did not make the cut.
In 2003 bassist Randy Riley returned to replace Billy Ozzello.
In 2004 a Starbucks television commercial debuted for their Double Shot espresso beverage. It featured the band following a man named Glen, singing a modified version of "Eye of the Tiger" while he went about his day-to-day tasks. This commercial gained a number of fans and was nominated for an Emmy Award.
Meanwhile, original Survivor vocalist David Bickler began collaborating on the successful Bud Light Real Men of Genius radio ads in the late 1990s and 2000s. The "Real Men of Genius" Bud Light ads are widely popular and include TV spots aired during the 2006 Super Bowl, among others. A CD package containing many of the popular commercials was recorded with Bickler selling over 100,000 copies in its first month of release.
Bassist Stephan Ellis returned to play a few shows with the group in 2005, but it was Barry Dunaway who played bass for most of that year. By early 2006, Billy Ozzello was back to fill the bass spot again.
In April 2006 Survivor released a new album called Reach. Consisting of mostly new songs, it also included some re-recordings from the Fire Makes Steel sessions. Six of the album's songs were originally written and recorded in the 1990s with Bickler on lead vocals.
2007–present: Reunions and Jamison's death
The band performed "Eye of the Tiger" on ABC's Dancing with the Stars on April 3, 2007 and on October 10, 2008 the song was used to introduce Republican Vice-Presidential candidate and Alaska Governor Sarah Palin at a rally in west-central Ohio.
In 2008 Michael Young replaced Chris Grove on keyboards.
According to Sullivan, and revealed at Survivormusic.com on March 5, 2010, an album of new original music titled Re-Entry was to be released the following month, but this never came to pass. As of 2010, the lineup was a mix of old and new members: Robin McAuley (vocals), original member/songwriter Sullivan (guitar/vocals), longtime members Marc Droubay (drums) and Billy Ozzello (bass) and newcomer Mitchell Sigman (keyboards/guitar), who replaced Young.
Sullivan worked with the Chicago suburban based Melodic Rock band, Mecca, led by Chicago area native singer–songwriter Joe Knez Vana. Coincidentally, he replaced Peterik, who produced the first Mecca album. The album was released in late 2011 on Frontiers Records.
On November 15, 2011 Jamison announced his return to Survivor. The new lineup of Jamison (vocals), Sullivan (guitar), Droubay (drums), Ozzello (bass) and Walter Tolentino (keyboards/guitar) announced they would begin working on a new album, which was slated for release in 2012 but has thus far not appeared.
In 2013 it was announced on the band's official media sources that Sullivan had reunited the current Survivor line-up with Bickler. “Our fans are the best and I can’t think of a better way to give them our best. With this line-up, and both Dave and Jimi in the band, we can perform ALL of our hits,” he said. They were also working on new material and looking forward to getting back into the studio together.
As of 2014, Frankie's son, Ryan, has taken over on drums in place of Droubay, who had to bow out due to health matters.
On August 31, 2014 Jamison died of what was believed to be a heart attack in his home in Memphis, TN. at the age of 63.
Jamison's last show was on August 30, 2014, in Morgan Hill, California, at the CANcert benefit event during the ARTTEC Summer Concert Series (arttecusa.com). The benefit raised funds and awareness for two non-profits supporting cancer patients as well as career training opportunities for high school students. Survivor's 58-minute set consisted of "Feels Like Love", "Broken Promises", "Take You on a Saturday", "High on You", "Rockin' into the Night", "The Search Is Over", "Rebel Girl", "I Can't Hold Back", "Burning Heart", "Poor Man's Son", "It's the Singer Not the Song" and ended with "Eye of the Tiger".
In November 2014 Classic Rock (magazine) carried a report that shed further light on the cause of Jimi's death: "Shelby County medical examiner confirms he (Jamison) was suffering from cardiovascular disease and narrowing of the arteries. But the report cites the cause of death as a result of hemorrhagic brain stroke, with 'acute methamphetamine intoxication contributing.' His passing was ruled to be an accident."
In September 2015 Survivor appeared at a showcase for talent buyers down in Nashville with new vocalist 21 year old Cameron Barton singing alongside Dave Bickler.
On March 2nd 2016 Bickler was again fired from the band. Via an Edit on Survivor's official Twitter page.
Bickler was fired in early 2000 after allegedly finding out via an Australian independent music website and NOT by management or band co-founder/leader Frankie Sullivan.
- Survivor (1980)
- Premonition (1981)
- Eye of the Tiger (1982)- RIAA: Platinum
- Caught in the Game (1983)
- Vital Signs (1984)- RIAA: Platinum
- When Seconds Count (1986)
- Too Hot to Sleep (1988)
- Reach (2006)
- Live in Tokyo (1985)
- The Very Best of Survivor (1986)
- Greatest Hits (1989/1993)
- Prime Cuts: The Classic Tracks (1998)
- Survivor Special Selection (2000)
- Fire in Your Eyes: Greatest Hits (2001)
- Ultimate Survivor (2004)
- Extended Versions: The Encore Collection (2004)
- The Best of Survivor (2006)
- Playlist: The Very Best of Survivor (2009)
- Fire Makes Steel: The Demos (1996)
|1980||"Somewhere in America"||70||—||—||—||—||Survivor|
|"Rebel Girl"||103||—||—||—||—||Non-album single|
|1981||"Poor Man's Son"||33||—||—||—||—||Premonition|
|1982||"Eye of the Tiger"||1||1||27||1||1||Eye of the Tiger|
|"Ever Since the World Began"||—||—||—||—||—|
|"The One That Really Matters"||74||—||—||—||—|
|1983||"Caught in the Game"||77||16||—||—||—||Caught in the Game|
|1984||"I Never Stopped Loving You"||104||—||—||—||—|
|"The Moment of Truth"||63||—||—||—||—||The Karate Kid soundtrack|
|"I Can't Hold Back"||13||1||—||93||80||Vital Signs|
|1985||"High on You"||8||8||—||—||—|
|"The Search Is Over"||4||—||1||60||—|
|"Burning Heart"||2||11||—||55||5||Rocky IV soundtrack|
|1986||"Is This Love"||9||27||25||—||—||When Seconds Count|
|1987||"How Much Love"||51||—||—||—||—|
|"Man Against the World"||86||—||—||—||—|
|1988||"Didn't Know It Was Love"||61||40||—||—||—||Too Hot to Sleep|
|1989||"Across the Miles"||74||—||16||—||—|
|2007||"Eye of the Tiger" (2007 re-entry)||—||—||—||—||47||Eye of the Tiger|
The singles analytically
Survivor (LP) February 1980
1. Somewhere In America / Freelance 
Somewhere In America / Youngblood [1980 (Japan only)]
2. Rebel Girl / Somewhere In America [1980 (US), July 1980 (Germany)]
Premonition (LP) August 1981 (US), February 1982 (UK)
3. Summer Nights / Take You On A Saturday 
4. Poor Man's Son / Love Is On My Side [1981 (US), November 1981 (Germany)]
Poor Man's Son / Chevy Nights [1981 (Japan only)]
Summer Nights / Runway Lights [March 1983 (Germany only)]
Eye of the Tiger (LP) June 8, 1982
5. Eye Of The Tiger / Take You On A Saturday [May 29, 1982 (US), July 1982 (Germany)]
6. Ever Since The World Began 
7. American Heartbeat / Silver Girl [September 15, 1982]
8. The One That Really Matters / Hesitation Dance [1982 (US), November 1982 (Germany)]
Eye Of The Tiger / Silver Girl [1982 (Brazil only)]
Eye Of The Tiger / American Heartbeat [1982 (Mexico only)]
Caught in the Game (LP) September 1983
9. Caught In The Game / Slander 
10. I Never Stopped Loving You / Ready For The Real Thing 
11. Slander / I Never Stopped Loving You [December 1983 (German only)]
12. It Doesn't Have To Be This Way / Ready For The Real Thing [ June 1984 (German only)]
Caught In The Game / Santa Ana Winds [August 1983 (German only)]
I Never Stopped Loving You / What Do You Really Think? [1984 (Japan only)]
The Karate Kid Soundtrack (LP)
13. The Moment Of Truth / It Doesn't Have To Be This Way 
The Moment Of Truth / High On You [September 1984 1984 (Japan only)]
The Moment Of Truth / Broken Promises [September 1984 (German only)]
1984 re-entry (UK only, from the compilation LP with the same name)
American Heartbeat / Silver Girl 
Vital Signs (LP) August 1984
14. I Can't Hold Back / I See You In Everyone [September 4, 1984 (US), October 1984 (Germany)]
15. High On You / It's The Singer Not The Song [January 14, 1985, February 1985 (Germany)]
16. The Search Is Over / It's The Singer Not The Song [April 8, 1985]
17. First Night / Feels Like Love [August 5, 1985 (US), August 26 (Germany)]
I Can't Hold Back / Burning Heart [February 1986 (UK & Holland only)]
Rocky IV Soundtrack (LP) January 20, 1985
18. Burning Heart / Feels Like Love [October 20, 1985]
Burning Heart / Eye Of The Tiger [1985 (Japan only)]
1985 re-entry (Single Germany only)
Eye Of The Tiger / Take You On A Saturday [July 1985]
When Seconds Count (LP) October 1986
19. Is This Love / Can't Let You Go [October 15, 1986]
20. How Much Love / Backstreet Love Affair [February 4, 1987 (US), March 1987 (Germany)]
21. Man Against The World / Oceans [April 20, 1987]
22. In Good Faith / When Seconds Count [October 1987 (German only)]
Too Hot To Sleep (LP) October 3, 1988
23. Didn't Know It Was Love / Rhythm Of The City [September 16, 1988]
24. Across The Miles / Burning Bridges [January 3, 1989]
Didn't Know It Was Love / In Good Faith [1988 (France only)]
Didn't Know It Was Love / Across The Mile [January 1989 (Japan only)]
Greatest Hits (CD) 1993
25. You Know Who You Are (edit) / You Know Who You Are [1993 (US only)]
Reach (CD) April 25, 2006
2007 re-entry (CD-Single US only)
Eye Of The Tiger, Take You On A Saturday 
- "Frankie Sullivan Reunites Four Original "Survivor" Members including Dave Bickler and Jimi Jamison". Survivor. 2013-04-18. Retrieved 2013-09-13.
- "Ex-Survivor lead singer died of stroke, drugs". yahoo.com. 11 November 2014.
- "Jim Peterik - Biography". jimpeterik.com.
- "My Pie Pizza • About Us & Contact Information". lilguysandwich.com.
- ‹See Tfm›Survivor (Inset). Survivor. UK: Rock Candy Records. 2010. CANDY081.
- "Survivor profile". Rhapsody.
- Justin Wm. Moyer (September 9, 2015). "Why the band behind 'Eye of the Tiger' didn't want it to be Kim Davis's fight song". The Washington Post.
- Survivor Bio at Thoughtworthy
- Club M.E.D.- Sampler @Discogs.com Retrieved 10-26-2013.
- "DDB Wins Commercial Emmy". Allbusiness.com. 2005-09-12. Retrieved 2008-08-13.
- Interview with Survivor (last appearance of Mr. Jamison on TV) @YouTube.com Retrieved 11-2-2014.
- "ARTTEC". arttecusa.com.
- Wardlaw, Matt. "Exclusive: Survivor Part Ways With Singer Dave Bickler". Ultimate Classic Rock. Ultimate Classic Rock. Retrieved 8 March 2016.
- "RIAA - Gold & Platinum Searchable Database - June 10, 2015". http://www.riaa.com. External link in
- Roberts, David (2006). British Hit Singles & Albums (19th ed.). London: Guinness World Records Limited. p. 542. ISBN 1-904994-10-5.