|United States Senator
January 3, 1997
Serving with Angus King
|Preceded by||Bill Cohen|
|Chair of the Senate Aging Committee|
January 3, 2015
|Preceded by||Bill Nelson|
|Chair of the Senate Homeland Security Committee|
January 3, 2003 – January 3, 2007
|Preceded by||Joe Lieberman|
|Succeeded by||Joe Lieberman|
|Born||Susan Margaret Collins
December 7, 1952
Caribou, Maine, U.S.
|Spouse(s)||Thomas Daffron (2012–present)|
|Education||St. Lawrence University (BA)|
Susan Margaret Collins (born December 7, 1952) is a U.S. politician who currently serves as the senior United States Senator from Maine. A member of the Republican Party, Collins has served in the Senate since 1997, and has served as the Chairwoman of the Senate Special Committee on Aging since 2015 and previously chaired the Senate Committee on Homeland Security from 2003 to 2007. She is considered one of the most moderate Republicans in office. She also is known for her long consecutive voting streak, which reached 6,000 votes in September 2015. She is the current dean of Maine's congressional delegation.
Born in Caribou, Maine, Collins is a graduate of St. Lawrence University. Beginning her career as a staff assistant for Senator William Cohen in 1975, Collins later became the staff director of the Oversight of Government Management Subcommittee of the Senate Committee on Homeland Security in 1981. She was then appointed as the Commissioner of the Maine Department of Professional and Financial Regulation by Governor John R. McKernan, Jr. in 1987. In 1992 she was appointed by President George H. W. Bush as the director of the Small Business Administration's regional office in Boston. Staying in Massachusetts, Collins became that state's Deputy State Treasurer in 1993.
After moving back to Maine in 1994, Collins became the Republican nominee for Governor in the 1994 general election. Becoming the first woman to become the nominee of a major party for Governor of Maine, Collins finished third in a four way race with 23% of the vote. After her bid for Governor in 1994, Collins became the founding director of the Center for Family Business at Husson University. Collins was first elected to the Senate in 1996. She has been re-elected three times, in 2002, 2008, and 2014. After former Senator Kelly Ayotte lost reelection in 2016, Collins became the only Republican in the US Senate currently representing a state in New England.
- 1 Early life
- 2 Early political career
- 3 Senate career
- 4 Political positions
- 4.1 Donald Trump
- 4.2 Foreign policy and terrorism
- 4.3 Social issues
- 4.4 Judicial appointments
- 4.5 Immigration and trade
- 4.6 Economic issues
- 4.7 Healthcare
- 4.8 Environmental issues
- 4.9 Gun policy
- 4.10 Other issues
- 4.11 Notable legislation
- 4.12 Committee appointments
- 5 2018 Maine gubernatorial election
- 6 Awards and honors
- 7 Personal life
- 8 Electoral history
- 9 See also
- 10 References
- 11 External links
One of six children, Collins was born in Caribou, Maine, where her family has operated a lumber business since 1844. Her parents, Patricia M. Collins (née McGuigan) and Donald F. Collins, each served as mayor of Caribou; her father also served in both houses of the Maine Legislature. Her mother was born in Barrancabermeja, Colombia, to American parents. Collins has English and Irish ancestry. Her uncle, Samuel W. Collins, Jr., sat on the Maine Supreme Judicial Court from 1988 to 1994 and served in the Maine Senate from 1973 to 1984. Collins attended Caribou High School, where she was president of the student council. During her senior year of high school in 1971, Collins was chosen to participate in the U.S. Senate Youth Program, through which she visited Washington, D.C., for the first time and engaged in a two-hour conversation with U.S. Senator Margaret Chase Smith (R-ME). Collins is the first program delegate elected to the Senate and currently holds the seat once held by Smith.
After graduating from Caribou High School, she continued her education at St. Lawrence University in Canton, New York. Like her father before her, she was elected to the Phi Beta Kappa national academic honor society and Collins graduated from St. Lawrence magna cum laude with a bachelor's degree in government in 1975.
Early political career
Following graduation, Collins worked as a legislative assistant to U.S. Representative, and later U.S. Senator William Cohen (R-ME) from 1975 to 1987. She was also staff director of the Oversight of Government Management Subcommittee on the United States Senate Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs (1981–1987).
In 1987, Collins joined the cabinet of Governor John R. McKernan, Jr., as Commissioner of the Department of Professional and Financial Regulation. She was appointed the New England regional director for the Small Business Administration by President George H. W. Bush in 1992. After briefly serving in this post until the 1992 election of Democrat Bill Clinton, she moved to Massachusetts and became Deputy State Treasurer of Massachusetts under Joe Malone in 1993.
Returning to Maine, Collins won an eight-way Republican primary in the 1994 gubernatorial election, becoming the first woman to be nominated by a major party for Governor of Maine. During the campaign, she received little support from Republican leaders and was criticized by conservative groups for her more liberal views on social issues. She lost the general election, receiving 23% of the vote and placed third behind Democrat Joseph E. Brennan and the winner, Independent candidate Angus King, her future Senate colleague.
In December 1994, Collins became the founding executive director of the Center for Family Business at Husson College in Bangor. She served in this post until 1996, when she announced her candidacy for the seat in the U.S. Senate being vacated by her former boss, William Cohen, who retired to become U.S. Secretary of Defense under President Clinton. With Cohen's public endorsement, she won a difficult four-way primary and faced Joe Brennan, her Democratic opponent from the 1994 gubernatorial election, in the general election. She eventually defeated Brennan by a margin of 49% to 44%. She was reelected in 2002 over State Senator Chellie Pingree (D), 58%–42%, and again in 2008 over Rep. Tom Allen (D), 61.5%–38.5%. In both elections, she carried every county in Maine.
Described as one of "the last survivors of a once common species of moderate Northeastern Republican", Collins is considered a bipartisan and centrist member of the Republican Party, and an influential player in the U.S. Senate. In 2015, The Lugar Center, a Washington, D.C.-based nonprofit founded by Senator Richard Lugar released a bipartisan index in cooperation with Georgetown University, ranking Senator Collins the most bipartisan senator in the 114th Congress (and the only U.S. Senator from the American Northeast ranked among the top 10 most bipartisan senators). She is a member of several moderate organizations within the Republican Party, including the Republican Main Street Partnership, Republican Majority For Choice, Republicans for Choice, The Wish List, Republicans for Environmental Protection, and the Republican Leadership Council. Although she shares a centrist ideology with Maine's former Senator, Olympia Snowe, Collins is considered a "half-turn more conservative" than Snowe. Collins has consistently been endorsed by the Human Rights Campaign, a major LGBT rights organization; she was one of six Republicans running in 2008 to be endorsed by the HRC. She supported John McCain in the 2008 election for President of the United States.
Collins became the state's senior Senator in 2013 when Snowe left the Senate and was replaced by independent Angus King, who had defeated Collins in the 1994 Governor election.
In the 1990s, Collins played an important role during the U.S. Senate's impeachment trial of Bill Clinton when she and fellow Maine Senator Olympia Snowe sponsored a motion that would have allowed the Senate to vote separately on the charges and the remedy. When the motion failed, both Snowe and Collins subsequently voted to acquit, believing that while Clinton had broken the law by committing perjury, the charges did not amount to grounds for removal from office.
On March 26, 2014, Elle Magazine honored Collins as "one of the ten most powerful Women in Washington Power List".
According to a poll released by Morning Consult on November 24, 2015, Collins, with a 78% approval rating, had the highest approval rating of any sitting Republican U.S. senator, as well as the second-highest overall, behind only Independent Bernie Sanders of Vermont.
Susan Collins is a self-described "moderate Republican." In 2013, the National Journal gave Collins a score of 55% conservative and 45% liberal. Collins's Crowdpac score is 1.3C, with 10C being the most conservative and 10L being the most liberal. The score is based on donations she receives and gives. According to Crowdpac scores on individual issues, Susan Collins has a liberal viewpoint on abortion, electoral law, gender equality, but a conservative viewpoint on every other major issue. Another website, OnTheIssues.org, considers Collins to be a "Moderate Libertarian Liberal." It also gives politicians a "social score" and an "economic score." Collins's social score is 60%, with 0% being the most conservative and 100% being the most liberal. Additionally, Collins's economic score is 53%, with 0% being the most liberal and 100% being the most conservative. The American Conservative Union gives her a lifetime rating of 46.03% conservative. The Americans for Democratic Action gives her a rating of 50% liberal.
Being one of the most centrist Senators, Collins often votes across party lines in many issues such as the restrictions on travel to Cuba, harsher punishments for drug users, and amending the U.S. Constitution to prohibit same-sex marriages. She has also joined the moderates in the Republican Party and a vast majority of Democrats in supporting campaign finance reform laws. In 2003 she was the only Republican to vote for limiting a tax cut in order to help rural hospitals.
During the routine calling of names on the Senate floor on July 12, 2012, Collins cast her 5,000th consecutive roll-call vote. Collins had not missed a single vote since her inauguration in the Senate in 1997.
On August 8, 2016, Collins announced that she would not be voting for Donald Trump, the Republican nominee for the 2016 election. She said that as a lifelong Republican she did not make the decision lightly but felt that he is unsuitable for office, "based on his disregard for the precept of treating others with respect, an idea that should transcend politics."
Firing of FBI Director James Comey
Collins supported Trump's decision to fire FBI Director James Comey.
Temporary Travel Ban
On January 28, 2017, Collins joined five other Republicans to oppose President Donald Trump’s temporary ban on immigration from seven Islamic countries saying it is "overly broad and implementing it will be immediately problematic." She said, for example, that "it could interfere with the immigration of Iraqis who worked for American forces in Iraq as translators and bodyguards — people who literally saved the lives of our troops and diplomats during the last decade and whose lives are at risk if they remain in Iraq." She also objected to the religious aspects of the ban saying, "As I stated last summer, religious tests serve no useful purpose in the immigration process and run contrary to our American values.”
Collins stated in February 2017 that she was open both to subpoena President Trump’s tax returns as part of an investigation into Russian interference in the 2016 presidential election. She also said that she was open to public and secret hearings into Michael T. Flynn's covert communications with Russian officials.
Foreign policy and terrorism
Collins, joining the Senate majority, voted in favor of the Protect America Act, an amendment to the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act of 1978. She later sponsored the Accountability in Government Contracting Act of 2007, approved unanimously by the Senate, which would create more competition between military contractors.
Agreeing with the majority in both parties, Collins voted in favor of the Kyl-Lieberman Amendment, which gave President Bush and the executive branch the authorization for military force against Iran.
- Abortion laws
The Republican Majority for Choice, a pro-choice Republican PAC, supports Senator Collins. On October 21, 2003, with Senate Democrats, Collins was one of the three Republican Senators to oppose the Partial-Birth Abortion Ban Act. She did however join the majority of Republicans in voting for Laci and Conner's Law to increase penalties for killing the fetus while committing a violent crime against the mother. On March 30, 2017, Collins would again join Lisa Murkowski to break party lines on a vote; this time against a bill allowing states to defund Planned Parenthood. As in that case, Vice President Pence was forced to break a 50–50 tie in favor of the bill.
Planned Parenthood, which rates politicians' support for pro-choice issues, has given Collins a lifetime rating of 59%. In 2015, Planned Parenthood gave her a rating of 70%. NARAL Pro-Choice America, which also provides ratings, gave her a score of 90% in 2014. Conversely, National Right to Life, which opposes abortion and rates support for pro-life issues, gave Collins a rating of 25% during the 114th Congress.
- LGBT issues
Collins stated her support on same-sex marriage on June 25, 2014, after previously declining to publicly state her views, citing a policy to not discuss state-level issues, as well as a belief that each state's voters should decide the issue. When she won reelection in 2014, she became the first Republican senator to be reelected while supporting same-sex marriage.
Collins voted for the Employment Non-Discrimination Act to prevent job discrimination based on sexuality and gender identity. The Human Rights Campaign, which rates politicians' support for LGBT issues, gave Collins a score of 85% during the 114th Congress.
In May 2005, Collins was one of fourteen senators (seven Democrats and seven Republicans) to forge a compromise on the Democrats' use of the judicial filibuster, thus allowing the Republican leadership to end debate without having to exercise the so-called nuclear option. Under the agreement, the minority party agreed that it would filibuster President George W. Bush's judicial nominees only in "extraordinary circumstances"; three Bush appellate court nominees (Janice Rogers Brown, Priscilla Owen, and William Pryor) would receive a vote by the full Senate; and two others, Henry Saad and William Myers, were expressly denied such protection (both eventually withdrew their names from consideration).
Collins voted for the confirmation of George W. Bush Supreme Court nominees Samuel Alito and John G. Roberts, as well Barack Obama Supreme Court nominees Elena Kagan and Sonia Sotomayor.
After President Obama appointed Merrick Garland to the Supreme Court, Collins publicly opposed the Senate Republican leadership's unprecedented decision to refuse to consider the nomination, and urged her Republican colleagues to "follow regular order" and give Garland a confirmation hearing and a vote in the Senate Judiciary Committee in the normal fashion.
Immigration and trade
Collins has voted against free-trade agreements including the Dominican Republic – Central America Free Trade Agreement. In 1999 she was one of four Republicans (along with her colleague Olympia Snowe) to vote for a Wellstone amendment to the Trade and Development Act of 2000 which would have conditioned trade benefits for Caribbean countries on "compliance with internationally recognized labor rights".
Collins coauthored, along with Senator Joe Lieberman (D-CT/I-CT), the Collins-Lieberman Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act of 2004. This law implemented many of the recommendations of the 9-11 Commission, modernizing and improving America's intelligence systems.
In October 2006, President George W. Bush signed into law major port security legislation coauthored by Collins and Washington Senator Patty Murray. The new law includes major provisions to significantly strengthen security at US ports.
As ranking member of the Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs Committee, Collins and committee Chairman Joe Lieberman voiced concerns about budget, outside contractors, privacy and civil liberties relating to the National Cybersecurity Center, the Comprehensive National Cybersecurity Initiative and United States Department of Homeland Security plans to enhance Einstein, the program which protects federal networks. Citing improved security and the benefits of information sharing, as of mid-2008, Collins was satisfied with the response the committee received from Secretary Michael Chertoff.
Collins criticized President Donald Trump's 2017 executive order to ban entry to the U.S. to citizens of seven Muslim-majority countries, stating: "The worldwide refugee ban set forth in the executive order is overly broad and implementing it will be immediately problematic."
- Economic stimulus
Collins voted in favor of and for the extension of the Bush tax cuts. She offered an amendment to the original bill that allowed for tax credits to school teachers who purchase classroom materials.
Ultimately, Collins was one of just three Republican lawmakers to vote for the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act, earning heated criticism from the right for crossing party lines on the bill. In mid-December 2009, Collins was again one of three Republican senators to back a $1.1 trillion appropriations bill for the fiscal year beginning in 2010, joining Thad Cochran (R-Mississippi) and Kit Bond (R-Missouri) in compensating for three Democratic "nay" votes to pass the bill over a threatened GOP filibuster.
In April 2014, the United States Senate debated the Minimum Wage Fairness Act (S. 1737; 113th Congress). The bill would amend the Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938 (FLSA) to increase the federal minimum wage for employees to $10.10 per hour over the course of a two-year period. The bill was strongly supported by President Barack Obama and many of the Democratic Senators, but strongly opposed by Republicans in the Senate and House. Collins tried to negotiate a compromise bill that centrist Republicans could agree to, but was unable to do so. Collins' tried to argue that the Congressional Budget Office report predicting 500,000 jobs lost if the minimum wage was increased to $10.10 also said that an increase to $9.00 would only lead to 100,000 jobs lost, but the argument did not seem to persuade her fellow centrists. Collins said, "I'm confident that the votes are not there to pass a minimum wage increase up to $10.10 therefore it seems to me to make sense for senators on both sides of the aisle to get together and see if we can come up with a package that would help low-income families with causing the kind of job loss that the Congressional Budget Office has warned against."
Collins opposed President Barack Obama's health reform legislation, the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, and voted against it in December 2009. She voted against the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act of 2010.
In January 2017, at the beginning of the Congress, Collins voted in favor of a bill to begin the repeal of the Affordable Care Act ("Obamacare"). However, with four other Republican senators, Collins is leading an effort to slow down the ACA repeal in the Senate. Collins and fellow Republican Senator Bill Cassidy of Louisiana have proposed legislation that permits states to either keep the ACA or move to a replacement program to be funded in part by the federal government. Also in January 2017, Collins "was the only Republican to vote for a defeated amendment...that would have prevented the Senate from adopting legislation cutting Social Security, Medicare or Medicaid."
In September 2008, Collins joined the Gang of 20, a bipartisan group seeking a comprehensive energy reform bill. The group is pushing for a bill that would encourage state-by-state decisions on offshore drilling and authorize billions of dollars for conservation and alternative energy.
The Cantwell-Collins bill (S. 2877), also called the Carbon Limits and Energy for America's Renewal (CLEAR) Act, directs the Secretary of the Treasury to establish a program to regulate the entry of fossil carbon (fossil fuel) into commerce in the United States, to promote renewable energy jobs and economic growth. The bill is bipartisan with Maria Cantwell (Democrat-Washington). In May 2017, Collins was one of three Republicans who joined Democrats in voting against a repeal of Obama's regulations for drilling on public lands; the repeal effort was rejected by a 49-51 margin.
Collins voted for the Manchin–Toomey bill to amend federal law to expand background checks for gun purchases. She has received a C+ grade on gun rights from the NRA, and D- from Gun Owners of America. 
In April 2014, the United States Senate debated the Paycheck Fairness Act (S. 2199; 113th Congress). It was a bill that "punishes employers for retaliating against workers who share wage information, puts the justification burden on employers as to why someone is paid less and allows workers to sue for punitive damages of wage discrimination." Collins said that one of her reasons for voting against ending debate on the bill was that Majority Leader Harry Reid had refused to allow votes on any of the amendments that Republicans had suggested for the bill.
In January 2017, both Collins and Senator Lisa Murkowski voted for Donald Trump's selection for Secretary of Education, Betsy DeVos, within the Senate Health, Education, Labor and Pensions, passing DeVos' nomination by a vote of 12–11 to allow the full Senate to vote on the nominee. Collins justified her support vote due to her belief that "Presidents are entitled to considerable deference in the selection of Cabinet members". Later, Collins and Murkowski ended up backtracking on DeVos, becoming the only two Republicans to break party lines and vote against the nominee. However, Senator Collins could have blocked DeVos' nomination if she had voted "no" during committee vote, as opposed to waiting until the full senate confirmation vote. This caused a 50–50 tie that was broken by Senate President Mike Pence to successfully confirm DeVos' appointment. Another noted involvement in the Trump Cabinet confirmation process for Collins was her formal introduction of Sen. Jeff Sessions (R-AL) to the Judiciary Committee for its hearings on Sessions' nomination to be Attorney General.
Collins introduced a bill in June 2013 that would define a "full-time employee" as someone who works for 40 hours per week (instead of 30 hours). The Affordable Care Act (ACA) defined a full-time worker as someone who works 30 hours per week. Collins is cited as saying that her bill would help avoid employers reducing workers' hours to below 30 per week in order to comply with the ACA.
In September 2013, Collins introduced a bill aimed at preventing Sudden Unexpected Infant Death Syndrome (SUIDS). The bill, dubbed The Child Care Infant Mortality Prevention Act, aims to raise the amount of provider training in infant wards as well as enhanced CPR and first aid training. Backers of this bill hope this will make a dent in the 4,000 children killed every year due to SUIDS. This would require the Health and Human Services Department to update their materials as well as improve their training resources to primary providers.
- United States Senate Committee on Appropriations
- Subcommittee on Agriculture, Rural Development, Food and Drug Administration, and Related Agencies
- Subcommittee on Commerce, Justice, Science, and Related Agencies
- Subcommittee on Defense
- Subcommittee on Energy and Water Development
- Subcommittee on Military Construction, Veterans Affairs, and Related Agencies
- Subcommittee on Transportation, Housing and Urban Development, and Related Agencies (Chair)
- Committee on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions
- Select Committee on Intelligence
- Special Committee on Aging (Chair)
2018 Maine gubernatorial election
It has been speculated that Collins is considering running for Governor of Maine in the 2018 election. If Collins were to be elected, she would have to resign her Senate seat, leaving her or Paul LePage the duty as governor to appoint a new senator, which would most likely be a Republican. Democratic State legislators in Maine have said they are going to try to prevent this. The last time the Governor of Maine appointed a senator was in 1980, when governor Joseph Brennan appointed George J. Mitchell to continue Edmund Muskie's term.
The sponsor of the bill, Rep. Matt Moonen (D-Portland), has said he was not motivated by the possibility of Collins running, and that he has spoken with her and she called such speculation "silly". Collins told MPBN on January 4, 2016, that she was "baffled" by speculation about her being interested in running for Governor and that she did not initiate it. She added that many have encouraged her to run and that she was ruling nothing in or out.
Awards and honors
On September 19, 2012, Collins received the Navy League's Congressional Sea Services Award "for her outstanding contributions in Congress to advance the mission of our nation's maritime services".
On December 12, 2013, Collins received the "Legislator of the Year Award" from the Congressional Fire Services Institute (CFSI). CFSI, a nonprofit, nonpartisan policy institute established in 1989 which seeks to promote Congress' awareness of the needs of first responders, presented the award to Collins in the Capitol Building in Washington, D.C. The Award is given to a member of Congress who the organization deems to have made a "significant contribution to the fire service."
On February 24, 2014, Collins received the "Thought Leader Award" from the Corporation for Public Broadcasting. The award recognizes and honors American leaders who "affirm the essential services that public media provides to citizens in areas of education, journalism, and the arts."
On May 7, 2014, National Journal recognized Collins as the senator with "perfect attendance", noting that Collins hadn't missed a single vote since her election to the Senate in 1997.
Collins was a recipient of the Publius Award from the Center for the Study of the Presidency and Congress on March 12, 2014.
The Veterans of Foreign Wars gave Collins its 2017 Congressional Award, which is annually given to one member of Congress for their significant legislative contributions on behalf of military veterans.
|Republican||Susan Collins (incumbent)||411,211||68.4%||+6.9%|
|Republican||Susan Collins (incumbent)||444,587||61.5%|
|Republican||Susan Collins (incumbent)||299,266||58.4%|
|Democratic||Joseph E. Brennan||266,226||43.9%|
|Taxpayers||William P. Clarke||18,618||3.1%|
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- "Question: On Passage of the Bill (H.R. 3590 as Amended) (Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act)". United States Senate. December 24, 2009.
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- Official Senate website
- Susan Collins for Senate
- Column archive in Bangor Daily News
- Susan Collins at DMOZ
- Appearances on C-SPAN
- Biography at the Biographical Directory of the United States Congress
- Profile at Project Vote Smart
- Financial information (federal office) at the Federal Election Commission
- Legislation sponsored at The Library of Congress