February 13, 1932
New York City, U.S.
|Died||May 10, 1990 (aged 58)|
Susan Oliver (born Charlotte Gercke, February 13, 1932 – May 10, 1990) was an American actress, television director, and aviator.
Early life and family
Oliver was the daughter of George Gercke, a journalist, and Ruth Hale Oliver, an astrology practitioner, in New York City in 1932. Her father was a political reporter and journalist for the New York World. Her parents divorced when she was still a child. In June 1949, Oliver joined her mother in Southern California, where Ruth was in the process of becoming a well-known Hollywood astrologer. Oliver made a decision to embark upon a career as an actress and chose the stage name Susan Oliver, using her mother's maiden name.
By September 1949 and using her new name, Oliver returned to the East Coast to begin drama studies at Swarthmore College, followed by professional training at the Neighborhood Playhouse School of the Theatre in New York City. After working in summer stock and regional theater, and in unbilled bits in daytime and primetime television shows and commercials, she made her first major television appearance in a supporting role in the July 31, 1955, episode of the live drama series Goodyear TV Playhouse, and quickly progressed to leading parts in other shows.
Oliver did numerous television shows in 1957, and appeared on stage. She began the year with an ingénue part, as the daughter of an 18th-century Manhattan family, in her first Broadway play, Small War on Murray Hill, a Robert E. Sherwood comedy. That same year, Oliver replaced Mary Ure as the female lead in the Broadway production of John Osborne's play Look Back in Anger.
The play's short run was immediately followed by larger roles in live television plays on Kaiser Aluminum Hour, The United States Steel Hour, and Matinee Theater. Oliver then went to Hollywood, where she appeared in the November 14, 1957, episode of Climax!, one of the few live drama series based on the West Coast, as well as in a number of filmed shows, including one of the first episodes of NBC's Wagon Train, Father Knows Best, The Americans, and Johnny Staccato.
In July 1957, Oliver was chosen for the title role in her first motion picture, The Green-Eyed Blonde, a low-budget independent melodrama scripted by Dalton Trumbo (under a pseudonym), and released by Warner Bros. in December on the bottom half of a double bill.
In mid-1958, Oliver began rehearsals for a co-starring role in Patate, her second Broadway play. Its seven-performance run was even shorter than that of Small War on Murray Hill, but won Oliver a Theatre World Award for "Outstanding Breakout Performance"; it was her last Broadway appearance.
Television and films
On April 6, 1960, the 28-year-old Oliver played a spoiled young runaway, Maggie Hamilton, who gets soundly spanked by scout Flint McCullough (Robert Horton), in "The Maggie Hamilton Story" on NBC's Wagon Train. On November 9, 1960, she was cast as the lead guest star in "The Cathy Eckhart Story" on Wagon Train, with husband-and-wife actors John Larch and Vivi Janiss as Ben and Sarah Harness.
Oliver was cast in the 1960 episode of The Deputy as the long-lost daughter of star Henry Fonda's late girl friend, and appeared in Dick Powell's Zane Grey Theatre episode "Knife of Hate" as Susan Pittman. In 1961, Oliver played the part of Laurie Evans in the episode "Incident of His Brother's Keeper" on CBS's Rawhide, and in 1963, she played Judy Hall in the episode "Incident at Spider Rock", Also in 1962, Oliver appeared as Jeanie in the television series Laramie in the episode "Shadows in the Dust".
Oliver was cast in episodes of Adventures in Paradise, Twilight Zone, Route 66, Dr. Kildare, The Naked City, The Barbara Stanwyck Show, Burke's Law, The Fugitive, Gomer Pyle, U.S.M.C., I Spy, The Virginian, The Name of the Game, Longstreet, and Mannix. She made one appearance on The Andy Griffith Show and ABC's family Western series, The Travels of Jaimie McPheeters. She also made two appearances in Quinn Martin's The Invaders (episodes: "Inquisition" and "The Ivy Curtain") on ABC.
Her most challenging role during this time was as the ambitious wife of doomed country music legend Hank Williams (George Hamilton) in Your Cheatin' Heart (1964). The same year, she also starred opposite Jerry Lewis in The Disorderly Orderly, and appeared in The Man from U.N.C.L.E. (1965) and The Love-Ins (1967) with Richard Todd.
Oliver played the female lead guest character Vina in "The Cage" (1964), which was the first pilot of Gene Roddenberry's new show, Star Trek. Two years later, Oliver's performance was reused in the first season, two-part episode "The Menagerie" (1966). Because the special optical effects used by the series were taking longer to complete than anticipated (which made a missed air date a real possibility), that pilot story was re-framed using newly filmed "current" footage and a time difference to explain the significant format and cast evolution since Oliver's scenes were filmed. In particular, Jeffrey Hunter played "Captain Christopher Pike" in the pilot episode, but was replaced by William Shatner as "Captain James T. Kirk" of the Starship Enterprise when the series was green-lit by NBC in 1966. For the fantasy sequence in the pilot, in which her character appeared as an "Orion slave girl", Oliver was covered in green makeup all over her body, and a dark brunette wig. A still of her with green skin is frequently seen in the end credits of the television series, and it has since become an iconic image of Star Trek. Hence, the 2014 documentary about Susan Oliver's life was titled The Green Girl.
In 1970, she appeared as Carole Carson/Alice Barnes on the television Western The Men From Shiloh (rebranded name for The Virginian) in the episode titled "Hannah".
From 1975 to 1976, Oliver was a regular cast member of the television soap opera Days of Our Lives. In 1976, she received her only Emmy Award nomination (for "Outstanding Performance by a Supporting Actress") in the three-hour-long, made-for-TV movie Amelia Earhart, broadcast on October 15, 1976, on NBC-TV.
In addition to her scores of television appearances, Oliver also had roles in several theatrical features, including The Gene Krupa Story (1959), BUtterfield 8 (1960) and The Caretakers (1963).
Directing and later years
By the late 1970s with acting opportunities coming less frequently, Oliver turned to directing. She was one of the original 19 women admitted to the American Film Institute's Directing Workshop for Women (DWW), and she left a "good chunk of funding for the DWW." In 1977, she wrote and directed Cowboysan, her AFI DWW short film that presents the fantasy scenario of a Japanese actor and actress playing leads in an American Western. Oliver directed two television episodes, the premiere episode "Hey, Look Me Over" of the 11th season of M*A*S*H and the season-five episode "Fat Chance" of one of M*A*S*H's sequel series, Trapper John, M.D.
In Oliver's last fully active years, she also appeared in the February 21, 1985, episode of Magnum, P.I., two episodes of Murder, She Wrote (March 31 and December 1), the February 12, 1987, episode of Simon & Simon, and the January 10, 1988, episode of the NBC domestic drama Our House. She made her last onscreen appearance in the November 6, 1988, episode of the syndicated horror anthology Freddy's Nightmares. During her career in Hollywood, Oliver amassed 58 credits on various television programs.
Oliver experienced an event in February 1959 that underscored her later aviation accomplishments. She was a passenger aboard Pan Am Flight 115, a Boeing 707 on a transatlantic flight from Paris to New York City when it dropped from 35,000 to 6,000 feet (10,700 to 1,800 m). It was February 3, 1959, the same day Buddy Holly died in an airplane crash. These events caused her to avoid flying for the next year, even turning down job offers, with the exception of auditioning for BUtterfield 8, if they were so short notice that she could only travel by air. She eventually underwent hypnosis to overcome her fear of flying.
In July 1964, local Los Angeles area news anchor Hal Fishman introduced her to personal flying when he took her on an evening flight over Los Angeles in a Cessna 172. The experience motivated her to return the next day to the Santa Monica Airport to begin training for a private pilot certificate. In 1966, while preparing for her own transatlantic flight, she was a passenger in a Piper J-3 Cub when the pilot ran into wires while "show-boating"; the airplane flipped and crashed. She and the pilot escaped injury.
In 1967, piloting her own Aero Commander 200, which was fitted with an extra fuel tank, she became the fourth woman to fly a single-engined aircraft solo across the Atlantic Ocean and the second to do it from New York City. Oliver's route included stops in Goose Bay, Canada, Narsarsuaq in Greenland, Keflavik in Iceland, and Prestwick in Scotland, before landing in Copenhagen, Denmark. Although she was attempting to fly to Moscow, her odyssey ended in Denmark after the government of the Soviet Union denied her permission to enter its air space. She wrote about her aviation exploits and philosophy of life in an autobiography published in 1983.
In 1968, she was contacted by Learjet to see if she was interested in obtaining a type rating on one of their jet planes with the intent to set record flights for them. She earned the rating and even flew some charters (having by that time acquired a commercial pilot certificate in single- and multiengined land airplanes), but did not fly any record flights in their jets.
In 1970, Oliver co-piloted a Piper Comanche to victory in the 2760-mile transcontinental race known as the "Powder Puff Derby", which resulted in her being named Pilot of the Year by the Association of Executive Pilots. The pilot was Margaret Mead (not the famous anthropologist), an experienced pilot who had flown in several derbies with different co-pilots. In 1971, Oliver was inducted as a member of the Federal Aviation Administration's Women Advisory Committee on Aviation.
According to the FAA Registry, the glider rating was issued to Oliver on July 21, 1972. It was her last rating. The registry shows her to have earned commercial pilot ratings for airplane single-engined land, airplane multi-engined land, instrument airplane, and private privileges for glider. Her last aviation medical examination was in May 1976, so she could not legally pilot any aircraft except gliders after May 1978, marking the end of her piloting of powered aircraft.
Oliver was diagnosed with colorectal cancer that later metastasized to her lungs, and she died on May 10, 1990 (aged 58), at the Motion Picture and Television Hospital in Woodland Hills, California.
|1955||Goodyear Playhouse||Episode: "The Prizewinner"|
|1956||Studio One||Flora||Episode: "A Day Before Battle"|
|1956||Camera Three||Dewey Dell||Episode: "As I Lay Dying"|
|1957||The Green-Eyed Blonde||Phyllis ("Greeneyes")|
|1957||The Kaiser Aluminum Hour||Kay||Episode: "So Short a Season"|
|1957||The United States Steel Hour||Maria||Episode: "The Bottle Imp"|
|1957||Crossroads||Connie Willis||Episode: "9:30 Action"|
|1957||Matinee Theater||Episode: "End of the Rope"|
|1957||Climax!||Pat Farley||Episode: "Two Tests for Tuesday"|
|1957||Studio 57||Episode: "Seventh Brother, Seventh Son"|
|1957||Wagon Train||Judy Rossiter||Episode: "The Emily Rossiter Story"|
|1957||Playhouse 90||Louise Grant||Episode: "The Thundering Wave"|
|1958||Father Knows Best||Cousin Millie||Episode: "Country Cousin"|
|1958||Kraft Television Theatre||Pamela||Episode: "The Woman at High Hollow"|
|1958||Matinee Theater||Episode: "Button, Button"|
|1958||Suspicion||Rosemary Russell||Episode: "The Woman Turned to Salt"|
|1959||Playhouse 90||Ellie||Episode: "A Trip to Paradise"|
|1959||The David Niven Show||Ilsa||Episode: "The Last Room"|
|1959||Armstrong Circle Theatre||Episode: "The Monkey Ride"|
|1959||Trackdown||Rebecca Ford||Episode: "Blind Alley"|
|1959||The Millionaire||Cathy Burnell||Episode: "Millionaire Phillip Burnell"|
|1959||Johnny Staccato||Barbara Ames||Episode: "Murder in Hi-Fi"|
|1959||The Lineup||Laurie Hayden||Episode: "Run to the City"|
|1959||Alcoa Theatre||Bernice Davis||Episode: "The Long House on Avenue A"|
|1959||The Gene Krupa Story||Dorissa Dinell|
|1960||Playhouse 90||Valerie Ferguson||Episode: "A Dream of Treason"|
|1960||The DuPont Show with June Allyson||Judy||Episode: "The Blue Goose"|
|1960||Wanted Dead or Alive||Bess||Episode: "The Pariah"|
|1960||Wrangler||Helen McQueen||Episode: "Incident at the Bar M"|
|1960||The Deputy||Julie Desmond||Episode: "The Deadly Breed"|
|1960||The Untouchables||Roxie Plumber||Episode: "The Organization"|
|1960||Bonanza||Leta Malvet||Episode: "The Outcast"|
|1960||Wagon Train||Maggie Hamilton||Episode: "The Maggie Hamilton Story"|
|1960||Wagon Train||Cathy Eckhart||Episode: "The Cathy Eckhart Story"|
|1960||The Twilight Zone||Teenya||Episode: "People Are Alike All Over"|
|1960||Dick Powell's Zane Grey Theatre||Susan Pittman||Episode: "Knife of Hate"|
|1960||The Barbara Stanwyck Show||Tracy Lane||Episode: "No One"|
|1961||Naked City||as Jessica||Episode: "A Memory of Crying"|
|1961||The Aquanauts||Laura West||Episode: "Stormy Weather"|
|1961||Rawhide||Laurie Evans||S3:E21, "Incident of His Brother's Keeper"|
|1961||The Adventures of Ozzie and Harriet||Lori||Episode: "Rick, the Milkman"|
|1961||Route 66||Joan Maslow||Episode: "Welcome to Amity"|
|1961||Dick Powell's Zane Grey Theatre||Hannah Smith||Episode: "Image of a Drawn Sword"|
|1961||Thriller||Edith Landers||Episode: "Choose a Victim"|
|1962||Route 66||Claire/Chris||Episode: "Between Hello and Goodbye"|
|1962||Laramie||Jean Lavelle||Episode: "Shadows in the Dust"|
|1962||Cain's Hundred||Kitty||Episode: "The Cost of Living"|
|1962||The Alfred Hitchcock Hour||Annabel Delaney||Season 1 Episode 7: "Annabel"|
|1963||Rawhide||Judy Hall||Episode: "Incident at Spider Rock"|
|1963||Wagon Train||Lily||Episode: "The Lily Legend Story"|
|1963||77 Sunset Strip||Kristine Seaver||Episode: "Your Fortune for a Penny"|
|1963||The Caretakers||Nurse Cathy Clark|
|1963||The Fugitive||Karen||Episode: "Never Wave Goodbye" (Parts 1 & 2)|
|1963||Dr. Kildare||Carol Logan||Episode: "The Eleventh Commandment"|
|1963||Route 66||Willow||Episode: "Fifty Miles from Home"|
|1964||Looking For Love||Jan McNair|
|1964||Guns of Diablo||Maria Macklin|
|1964||Your Cheatin' Heart||Audrey Williams|
|1964||The Disorderly Orderly||Susan Andrews|
|1964||Destry||Rebecca Fairhaven||Episode: "One Hundred Bibles"|
|1964||The Andy Griffith Show||Prisoner||Episode: "Prisoner of Love" Season 4 Episode 18|
|1964||The Defenders||Anna Leverton||Episode: "The Hidden Fury""|
|1964||Star Trek||Vina||Pilot Episode: "The Cage"
Episode: "The Menagerie" (Parts 1 & 2) S1: E11 & E12 respectively (1966) (re-used footage from the pilot)
|1965||Seaway||Sue Murray||Episode: "The Sparrows"|
|1965||The Man from U.N.C.L.E.||Ursula Alice Baldwin||Episode: "The Bow-Wow Affair"|
|1965||The Virginian||Martha Perry||Episode: "A Little Learning"|
|1966||A Man Called Shenandoah||Virginia Harvey||Episode: "Rope's End"|
|1966||Gomer Pyle, U.S.M.C.||Julie Myers||Episode: "A Date with Miss Camp Henderson"|
|1966||My Three Sons||Jerry Harper||Episode: "The Awkward Age"|
|1966||Peyton Place||Ann Howard||48 episodes|
|1967||Tarzan||Peggy Dean||Episode S1E18: "The Day the Earth Trembled"|
|1967||T.H.E. Cat||Lori Neil||Episode: "Twenty One And Out"|
|1967||The Love-Ins||Patricia Cross|
|1967||The Wild Wild West||Triste||Episode: "The Night Dr. Loveless Died"|
|1967||The Invaders||Stacy Cahill||Episode: "The Ivy Curtain"|
|1968||A Man Called Gannon||Matty|
|1968||The Invaders||Joan Seeley||Episode: "Inquisition"|
|1968||The Virginian||Anne Crowder||Episode: "The Storm Gate"|
|1969||Mannix||Linda Jordan||S2-Episode 21: "The Odds Against Donald Jordan"|
|1969||The Big Valley||Kate Wilson||Episode: "Alias Nellie Handley"|
|1969||Change of Mind||Margaret Rowe|
|1969||The Monitors||Barbara Cole|
|1970||Carter's Army||Anna Renvic||TV movie|
|1971||Company of Killers||Thelma Dwyer||TV movie|
|1971||Do You Take This Stranger?||Mildred Crandall||TV movie|
|1971||Dan August||Leona Serling||Episode: "Prognosis: Homicide"|
|1971||Sarge||Fran||Episode: "An Accident Waiting to Happen"|
|1971||Alias Smith and Jones||Miss Blanche Graham||Episode: "Journey from San Juan"|
|1972||Night Gallery||Kelly Bellman||Episode: "The Tune in Dan's Cafe"|
|1972||Medical Center||Ruth||Episode: "Vision of Doom"|
|1972||Gunsmoke||Sarah Elkins||Episode: "Eleven Dollars"|
|1973||The American Sportsman||Herself||Segment: "Soaring at El Mirage"|
|1973||Cannon||Jill Thorson||Episode: "Moving Target"|
|1973||Circle of Fear||Ellen Pritchard||Episode: "Spare Parts"|
|1973||Love Story||Virginia Madison||Episode: "The Youngest Lovers"|
|1974||Ginger in the Morning||Sugar|
|1974||Police Story||Rina Prescott||Episode: "World Full of Hurt"|
|1974||Petrocelli||Eleanor Warren||Episode: "Edge of Evil"|
|1976||Amelia Earhart||Netta Snook "Snookie"|
|1977||The Streets of San Francisco||Gracie Boggs||Episode: "Hang Tough"|
|1977||Nido de Viudas||Isabel||US title: Widow's Nest|
|1980||Hardly Working||Claire Trent|
|1982||Tomorrow's Child||Marilyn Hurst||Television movie|
|1982||M*A*S*H||Director, 1 episode|
|1983||Trapper John, M.D.||Director, 1 episode|
|1982||International Airport||Mary Van Leuven||Television movie|
|1984||Murder, She Wrote||Nurse Marge Horton||Episode: "Armed Response"|
|1985||Magnum, P.I.||Laurie Crane||Episode: "Let Me Hear the Music"|
|1986||Murder, She Wrote||Louise||Episode: "Jessica Behind Bars"|
|1988||Our House||Olga Zelnikova||Episode: "Balance of Power"|
|1988||Freddy's Nightmares||The Maid / Future Judy Miller||Episode: "Judy Miller, Come on Down" (final appearance)|
- The Green Girl (2014), biographical documentary film directed by George Pappy.
- Oliver, Susan (1983). Odyssey: A Daring Transatlantic Journey. Macmillan. ISBN 9780025929203.
- 10. NTSB Identification: LAX67D0086
- The play's opening night at the Ethel Barrymore Theatre was on January 3, 1957, and 12 performances later, closing night was January 12. Leo Genn performed as General Howe.
- The film was scripted by blacklisted writer Dalton Trumbo and credited to "front" Sally Stubblefield.
- The melancholy comedy, written by French playwright Marcel Achard, played to sold-out theaters in Paris upon its premiere in 1957. Adapted for American audiences by Irwin Shaw, Patate (which in French means "spud", but can also mean "chump") paired Oliver with veteran leading man Tom Ewell (in the title role) and Lee Bowman. The play opened at Henry Miller's Theatre on October 28, 1958, and closed on November 1.
- "Susan Oliver". TVGuide.com. TV Guide. Retrieved January 31, 2020.
- Whitfield, Stephen; and Roddenberry, Gene. The Making of Star Trek (New York: Ballantine Books), 1968. ASIN: B0014C7WYK
- Asherman, Allan (1983). The Star Trek Compendium. WH Allen, Star Books. p. 28.
- "Star Trek's original Green Girl the subject of Kickstarter documentary". ew.com - Entertainment Weekly. February 13, 2013. Retrieved December 31, 2015.
- Staff. "The Gene Krupa Story". TV Guide. TV Guide, a Red Ventures Co. Retrieved March 25, 2022.
- "BUtterfield 8 (1960)". TCM.com. Turner Classic Movies (TCM). Retrieved October 1, 2018.
- Women Directors in Hollywood, The Founding of the Directing Workshop for Women of the American Film Institute, a History, The Dream of the Marble Bridge, http://janhaag.com/ESessays.html
- Oliver, Susan (1983). Odyssey: A Daring Transatlantic Journey. Macmillan Publishing Co. ISBN 0-02-592920-8.
- "NTSB No. LAX67D0086".
- History.net: How a Hollywood Actress Became an Aerial Emissary
- Robesonian newspaper archives, March 18, 1973; accessed March 7, 2015.
- Profile, amsrvs.registry.faa.gov; accessed March 7, 2015.
- "Susan Oliver Is Dead; Television Actress". The New York Times. May 15, 1990. Retrieved January 27, 2012.
- Susan Oliver at IMDb
- Susan Oliver at the Internet Broadway Database
- Susan Oliver at the Internet Off-Broadway Database
- Susan Oliver at Memory Alpha
- Susan Oliver at AllMovie
- Listen to Susan Oliver on Zero Hour hosted by Rod Serling Zero Hour Podcast 1973-12-24 (ep51) John Dehner and Susan Oliver – Fourth of Forever – Part 1, with a new introduction.
- Los Angeles Times obituary