Suspiria

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Suspiria
SuspiriaItaly.jpg
Original Italian theatrical release poster
Directed by Dario Argento
Produced by Claudio Argento
Screenplay by
Based on Suspiria de Profundis
by Thomas De Quincey
Starring
Narrated by
  • Dario Argento
  • William Kiehl (English version)
Music by
Cinematography Luciano Tovoli
Edited by Franco Fraticelli
Production
company
Seda Spettacoli
Distributed by Produzioni Atlas Consorziate
Release date
  • 1 February 1977 (1977-02-01)
Running time
98 minutes[1]
Country Italy
Language
  • Italian
  • Russian
  • English
  • German
  • Latin
Box office 1.43 billion (Italy)
$1.8 million (North American rentals)[2]

Suspiria (pronounced [sʊsˈpɪ.ri.a], lit. Latin: "sighs") is a 1977 Italian supernatural horror film directed by Dario Argento, co-written by Argento and Daria Nicolodi, partially based on Thomas De Quincey's 1845 essay Suspiria de Profundis (Sighs from the Depths) and co-produced by Claudio and Salvatore Argento. The film stars Jessica Harper as an American ballet student who transfers to a prestigious dance academy in Germany but realizes, amidst a series of brutal murders, that the academy is a front for a supernatural conspiracy. It also features Stefania Casini, Flavio Bucci, Miguel Bosé, Alida Valli, Udo Kier and Joan Bennett, in her final film role.

The film is the first of the trilogy Argento refers to as "The Three Mothers", which also comprises Inferno (1980) and The Mother of Tears (2007). Suspiria has become one of Argento's most successful feature films, receiving critical acclaim for its visual and stylistic flair, use of vibrant colors and its score by the prog-rock band Goblin.

Suspiria was nominated for two Saturn Awards: Best Supporting Actress for Bennett in 1978, and Best DVD Classic Film Release, in 2002. It has become a cult classic, and is recognised as an influential film in the horror genre. A remake under the same name, directed by Luca Guadagnino, is scheduled to be released in the United States on November 2, 2018; Harper appears in the film in a secondary role.[3]

Plot[edit]

Suzy Bannion, a ballet student from New York City, arrives at the prestigious Tanz Dance Academy in Freiburg late on a stormy night. While trying to get someone to answer the door, she encounters a fellow student, Pat, fleeing from the academy. Suzy makes her way to a hotel, while Pat seeks refuge at a friend's apartment. Pat reveals that she has uncovered something terrible at the academy, then locks herself in the bathroom. A shadowy figure smashes the window and grabs Pat. Hearing Pat's screams, her friend runs for help. The attacker stabs Pat repeatedly, slips a noose around her neck, and throws her onto the building's sunroof, which shatters, hanging her. Pat's friend is killed by the falling glass and metalwork.

The next morning, Suzy returns to the academy, where she is introduced to Madame Blanc, the vice-directress, and Miss Tanner, an instructor. She also meets two fellow students, Sara and Olga. (Suzy had arranged to share an apartment with Olga.) After a strange encounter with the academy's custodian, Suzy faints during a lesson. She awakens to discover that she has been moved into a dormitory on campus. Doctors tell her that she is to be "medicated" daily with a glass of wine, and will have to live on campus for her continued care. Suzy moves in with Sara, and the two become friends.

As the students prepare for dinner, maggots fall from the ceiling. The students are told this is due to spoiled food having been stored in the attic, and are invited to sleep in the practice hall while the attic is cleaned. At night, Sara identifies a distinctive whistling snore as that of the school's director, who is not due to return to the academy for several weeks. The following day, Miss Tanner orders the school's blind piano player, Daniel, to leave the academy after his guide dog supposedly bit the custodian's son. That night, Sara hears a teacher's footsteps and counts them whilst Suzy becomes drowsy and falls asleep. Later, while crossing a plaza, Daniel and his dog sense a strange presence before the dog suddenly lunges at him and tears his throat out, killing him.

Suzy recalls that Pat had mumbled the words "iris" and "secret" when they briefly crossed paths; Sara reveals to Suzy that Pat had been saying strange things for some time. The girls search for personal notes Pat might have left, but cannot find them. Suddenly, Suzy becomes drowsy once more and falls asleep; Sara then flees, having heard footsteps again. Sara is chased by an unseen pursuer, who slits her throat. In the morning, Blanc and Miss Tanner inform Suzy that Sara has abruptly left the academy. Suspicious, Suzy goes into town to meet one of Sara's acquaintances, the psychologist Frank Mandel. He explains that the academy was founded by Helena Markos, a cruel Greek émigré who was widely believed to be a witch. Mandel's colleague, Professor Milius, tells Suzy that a coven cannot survive without their queen.

Suzy returns to the academy to find that all the other students have been sent out for the evening to see a performance by the Bolshoi Ballet. After disposing of her food and wine (which had been repeatedly drugged to keep her drowsy), she hears footsteps. Suzy follows them to Blanc's office, finding the walls painted with irises. After finding a hidden passage, she observes Blanc, Miss Tanner, and the staff performing a ritual and plotting her death. Suzy turns to discovers Sara's body nailed to a coffin. She sneaks into another room, where she accidentally awakens Helena Markos. Helena orders Sara's corpse to rise from the dead to murder Suzy, but Suzy stabs Helena through the throat with a knife, killing Helena and causing Sara's corpse to collapse. The rest of the coven start asphyxiating without their queen, and Suzy escapes just as the academy collapses in flames.

Cast[edit]

Production[edit]

Development[edit]

Argento based Suspiria in part on Thomas De Quincey's essay Suspiria de Profundis (1845).[4][5] Critic Maitland McDonagh notes: "In Argento's reading [of the material], the three mothers generate/inhabit a cinematic world informed by Jungian archetypal imagery, each holding sway over a particular city."[6] Argento said the idea for the film came to him after a trip through several European cities, including Lyon, Prague, and Turin.[7] He became fascinated by the "Magic Triangle," a point where the countries of France, Germany, and Switzerland meet; this is where Rudolf Steiner, a controversial social reformer and occultist, founded an anthroposophic community.[7] Commenting on witchcraft and the occult, Argento stated: "There's very little to joke about. It's something that exists."[7] The title and general concept of "The Three Mothers"—a concept Argento would expand upon in Inferno and Mother of Tearscame from De Quincey's essay, which was an uncredited inspiration for the film.[8] There is a section in the work entitled "Levana and Our Ladies of Sorrow".[9] The piece asserts that just as there are three Fates and three Graces, there are three Sorrows: "Mater Lacrymarum, Our Lady of Tears", "Mater Suspiriorum, Our Lady of Sighs", and "Mater Tenebrarum, Our Lady of Darkness".

Daria Nicolodi helped Argento write the screenplay for the film, which combined the occult themes that interested Argento with fairytales that were inspiring to Nicolodi, such as Bluebeard, Pinocchio, and Alice's Adventures in Wonderland.[7] Nicolodi also partially based her contributions to the screenplay on a personal story her grandmother had told her, in which her grandmother had gone to take a piano lesson at an unnamed academy where she believed she encountered black magic.[7] The encounter terrified her grandmother, prompting her to flee.[7] This story, however, was later said by Argento to have been fabricated.[10] Using Nicolodi's core ideas, Argento helped co-write the screenplay, which he chose to set at a dance academy in Freiburg, Germany.[7] The lead character of Suzy Bannion was based on Snow White.[7] Initially, the characters in the film were very young girls—around eight to ten years old—but this was altered when the film's producers were hesitant to make a film with all young actors.[7] Additionally, the final sequence of the film was based on a dream Nicolodi had while she was staying in Los Angeles.[7]

Casting[edit]

Stefania Casini (left) plays a supporting role as Sara, while Jessica Harper (right) plays the lead character, Suzy Bannion

American actress Jessica Harper was cast in the lead role of American ballet dancer Suzy Bannion,[11] after attending an audition via the William Morris Agency.[7] Argento chose Harper based on her performance in Brian De Palma's Phantom of the Paradise (1974).[7] Upon being cast in the film, Harper watched Argento's Four Flies on Grey Velvet (1971) to better understand the director's style.[7] Harper turned down a role in Woody Allen's Annie Hall (1977) in order to appear in the film.[12]

Argento requested Italian actress Stefania Casini for the supporting role of Sara, a request which she obliged, having been an admirer of his films.[7] Daria Nicolodi had originally planned on playing the role of Sara, but was unable to due to illness, and Casini was brought in at the last minute.[7] German actor Udo Kier was cast in the minor supporting role of Frank Mandel.[7]

Filming[edit]

The façade of The Whale House in Freiburg was replicated for the film.

The majority of Suspiria was shot at De Paoli studios in Rome, where key exterior sets (including the façade of the academy) were constructed.[13] Actress Harper described the film shoot as "very, very focused," as Argento "knew exactly what he was looking for."[7] The façade of the academy was replicated on a soundstage from the real-life The Whale House in Freiburg.[7] Additional photography took place in Munich, including Daniel's death scene in the city square, as well as the opening scene of the film, which was shot on location at the Munich Airport.[7] The scene in which Suzy meets with Dr. Mandel was filmed outside the BMW Headquarters building in Munich.[7]

Suspiria is noteworthy for several stylistic flourishes that have become Argento trademarks, particularly the use of set-piece structures that allow the camera to linger on pronounced visual elements.[14] Cinematographer Luciano Tovoli was hired by Argento to shoot the film based on color film tests he completed which Argento felt matched his vision.[7] The film was shot using anamorphic lenses. The production design and cinematography emphasize vivid primary colors, particularly red, creating a deliberately unrealistic, nightmarish setting, emphasized by the use of imbibition Technicolor prints. Commenting on the film's lush colors, Argento said: "We were trying to reproduce the colour of Walt Disney's Snow White; it has been said from the beginning that Technicolor lacked subdued shades, [and] was without nuances—like cut-out cartoons."[15]

The imbibition process, used for The Wizard of Oz and Gone with the Wind, is much more vivid in its color rendition than emulsion-based release prints, therefore enhancing the nightmarish qualities of the film Argento intended to evoke.[7] It was one of the final feature films to be processed in Technicolor,[16] having been shot on one of the last remaining Technicolor 3-strip cameras in Europe at the time; the rest had been returned to California.[7]

Post-production[edit]

Dubbing[edit]

In the Suspiria: 25th Anniversary documentary, Harper commented on the fact that the actors' dialogue was not properly recorded, but was dubbed through additional dialogue recording—common practice in Italian filmmaking at the time.[7] Part of the reason was, she said, that each actor spoke their native language (for instance, Harper, Valli, and Bennett spoke English; Casini, Bosé, Valli, and Bucci spoke Italian; and several others spoke German), and as each actor generally knew what the other was saying anyway, they each responded with their lines as if they had understood the other. Argento also expressed disappointment over the fact that Harper's voice, which he liked, was not heard in the Italian market because she was dubbed in Italian by another actress. The dubbing was overseen by Ted Rusoff, a prolific voiceover artist based in Rome who supervised English-language dubbing for numerous European genre films including Argento's follow-up to Suspiria, Inferno.

Musical score[edit]

The Italian prog-rock band Goblin composed most of the film's score in collaboration with Argento himself.[7] Goblin had previously scored Argento's earlier film Deep Red as well as several subsequent films following Suspiria. In the film's opening credits, they are referred to as "The Goblins".[7] Like Ennio Morricone's compositions for Sergio Leone, Goblin's score for Suspiria was created before the film was shot.[7] It has been reused in multiple Hong Kong films, including Yuen Woo-ping's martial arts film Dance of the Drunk Mantis (1979) and Tsui Hark's horror-comedy We're Going to Eat You (1980).

The main title theme was named as one of the best songs released between 1977–79 in the book The Pitchfork 500: Our Guide to the Greatest Songs from Punk to the Present, compiled by influential music website Pitchfork. It has been sampled on the Raekwon and Ghostface Killah song "Legal Coke",[17] from the R. A. G. U. mix tape, by RJD2 for the song "Weather People" by Cage[18] and by Army of the Pharaohs in their song "Swords Drawn".

Release[edit]

Suspiria was released in Italy on 1 February 1977.[19] In May 1977, it was announced in Variety that 20th Century Fox had acquired the American distribution rights to the film.[20] Released through Fox's International Classics banner,[21][12] Suspiria made its United States premiere in July 1977. The original American prints were cut by a total of eight minutes, in order for the film to pass with an R-rating.[12] Of all of Argento's films, Suspiria was his highest-earning film in the United States.[22]

Critical reception[edit]

On the review aggregator Rotten Tomatoes, the film holds a 91% "Certified Fresh" score based on 47 retrospectively-collected reviews, with an average rating of 8.4/10. The website's critical consensus states: "The blood pours freely in Argento's classic Suspiria, a giallo horror as grandiose and glossy as it is gory".[23] Rotten Tomatoes also ranked it number 41 on their 2010 list of the greatest horror films.[24] On Metacritic, the film has a weighted average score of 79 out of 100, based on 10 critics, indicating "generally favorable reviews".[25]

Janet Maslin of The New York Times wrote a mixed review, saying the film had "slender charms, though they will most assuredly be lost on viewers who are squeamish."[26] Dave Kehr of the Chicago Reader gave a positive review, claiming that "Argento works so hard for his effects—throwing around shock cuts, colored lights and peculiar camera angles—that it would be impolite not to be a little frightened".[27] Although J. Hoberman of The Village Voice gave a positive review as well, he calls it "a movie that makes sense only to the eye".[28]

Retrospective assessment[edit]

In the years since its release, Suspiria has been cited by critics as a cult film.[29] In the book European Nightmares: Horror Cinema in Europe Since the 1945 (2012), the film is noted for being an "exemplar of Eurohorror...it is excessive but here the excess seems to entail a more forceful retardation of a narrative drive, to the extent that the narrative periodically ceases to exist."[30] Suspiria has been praised by film historians and critics for its emphasized employment of color and elaborate set-pieces; film scholar John Kenneth Muir notes that "each and every frame of Suspiria is composed with an artistic, remarkable attention to color."[31]

The Village Voice ranked Suspiria #100 on their list of the 100 greatest films made in the 20th century.[32] Adam Smith of Empire magazine awarded the film a perfect score of five out of five.[33] Empire magazine also ranked Suspiria #312 on their list of the 500 greatest films ever[34] as well as number 45 on their list 'The 100 Best Films of World Cinema'.[35] AllMovie called it "one of the most striking assaults on the senses ever to be committed to celluloid [...] this unrelenting tale of the supernatural was—and likely still is—the closest a filmmaker has come to capturing a nightmare on film."[19] Entertainment Weekly ranked Suspiria #18 on their list of the 25 scariest films ever.[36] A poll of critics of Total Film ranked it #3 on their list of the 50 greatest horror films ever.[37] One of the film's sequences was ranked at #24 on Bravo's The 100 Scariest Movie Moments program.[38] IGN ranked it #20 on their list of the 25 best horror films.[39]

Home media[edit]

Suspiria was released on DVD by Anchor Bay Entertainment in a three-disc set[40] on September 11, 2001. This release, which was a limited edition run restricted to 60,000 units, features a THX-certified video master of the film, with a second disc consisting of a 52-minute documentary and other bonus material; the third disc is a CD consisting of the original film score.[40] This release also includes a 28-page booklet and ten lobby card and poster reproductions.[41] Goblin frontman Claudio Simonetti later formed the heavy-metal band Daemonia; the DVD also contains a video of the band playing a reworking of the Suspiria theme. A standard single-disc edition was released by Anchor Bay the following month.[42]

On 19 December 2017, the independent home media distributor Synapse Films released the film for the first time on Blu-ray in the United States in a limited steelbook package.[43] This release also consists of three discs which include a 4K restoration of the feature film, bonus materials, and the original score on a compact disc.[43] A wide-release version not containing the soundtrack CD was released on March 13, 2018.[44]

In Italy, the film received a 4K-remastered Blu-ray release via the Italian distributor Videa in February 2017.[45]

Legacy[edit]

In popular culture[edit]

Three bands—the Norwegian thrash-metal band Susperia; a pioneering mid-1990s UK gothic rock band; and the witch-house project Mater Suspiria Vision—have named themselves after the film. Several albums have also used the title, including an album by gothic metal band Darkwell, an album by Darkwave band Miranda Sex Garden and Suspiria de Profundis by Die Form, which can also be regarded as inspired by Thomas De Quincey's work of the same title.

In the 2007 film Juno, Suspiria is considered by the title character to be the goriest film ever made, until she is shown The Wizard of Gore and changes her mind, saying it is actually gorier than Suspiria.

The film's music has been imitated and sampled by various artists, including Ministry in the track "Psalm 69" from their album Psalm 69: The Way to Succeed and the Way to Suck Eggs, Cage Kennylz on "Weather People" and Atmosphere on "Bird Sings Why the Caged I Know".

The Houston, Texas-based Two Star Symphony Orchestra included a track titled "Goblin Attack" on their 2004 CD Danse Macabre: Constant Companion that features a strings rendition of the Suspiria theme; the track's title also appears to be a reference to the band Goblin. The 69 Eyes have a song called "Suspiria Snow White" on their album Back in Blood.

In books by Simon R. Green, mentions are often made of a "Black Forest Dance Academy" in Germany, a place where witches and Satanists gather, a possible reference to Suspiria.

The American death metal band Infester included a sample from the film in their song, "Chamber of Reunion", from their 1994 album, To The Depths, In Degradation.

A section of the soundtrack cue "Markos" was incorporated into the noted Australian radiophonic work What's Rangoon to You is Grafton to Me, conceived and written by radio presenter and author Russell Guy, co-narrated by Guy and former ABC TV newsreader James Dibble, and co-produced by Guy and Graham Wyatt. It was originally broadcast in 1978 on the ABC's "youth" radio station 2JJ aka Double Jay (the Sydney-based AM-band precursor to the current Triple J network).

The film is also mentioned in Season 7, Episode 14 of "The Office" when Gabe intends to watch it with Erin, much to her dismay.

It is mentioned, and featured in Kirby Reed's horror film collection in the 2011 horror film Scream 4.

Related works[edit]

Subsequent films[edit]

Suspiria is the first of a trilogy of films by Argento, referred to as "The Three Mothers".[46] The trilogy centers around three witches, or "Mothers of Sorrow" who unleash evil from three locations in the world.[47] In Suspiria, Helena Marcos is Mater Suspiriorum (lit. Latin: "Mother of Sighs") in Freiburg.[48] Argento's 1980 film Inferno focuses on Mater Tenebrarum (lit. Latin: "Mother of Darkness"), in New York City.[15] The final installment in the trilogy, The Mother of Tears (2007), focuses on Mater Lachrymarum (lit. Latin: "Mother of Tears") in Rome.[15]

Film scholar L. Andrew Cooper notes "Aesthetic experience is arguably the ultimate source of 'meaning' in all of Argento's films, but Suspiria and the other films of the Three Mothers trilogy...take their emphasis on aesthetics further by self-consciously connecting their irrational worlds to nineteenth-century romanticism and the aestheticism that grew out of it."[5]

Remake[edit]

Unfilmed remake[edit]

It was announced through MTV in 2008 that a remake of Suspiria was in production, to be directed by David Gordon Green, who directed films such as Undertow and Pineapple Express.[49] The announcement was met with hostility by some,[50] including Argento himself.[51] The film was to be produced by Italian production company First Sun.[52] In August 2008, it was reported that Natalie Portman and Annette Savitch's Handsome Charlie Films were set to produce the remake, and that Portman would play the lead role.[53] The project was also announced to be produced by Marco Morabito and Luca Guadagnino.[54] After a period of no news in which it was thought that the remake attempt had failed, Green said in August 2011 that he was still trying to remake the film.[50] It was announced on 15 May 2012 that actress Isabelle Fuhrman would be cast as the lead.[55] Later that year, however, the planned remake was put on hold. In January 2013, Green revealed that it may never happen due to legal issues.[56] In April 2014, Green admitted the remake was too expensive to make during the "found-footage boom", and thus the film was ultimately not made.[57]

In April 2015, an English-language television series based on the film—along with a series based on Sergio Corbucci's Django (1966)—was announced as being developed by Atlantique Productions and Cattleya. Both series were set to consist of twelve 50-minute long episodes, with the possibility of multiple seasons.[58][59][60][61][62]

Filmed remake[edit]

In September 2015, Guadagnino announced at the 72nd Venice Film Festival that he would direct a Suspiria remake, with the intention of using the cast of his film A Bigger Splash (Tilda Swinton, Matthias Schoenaerts, Ralph Fiennes, and Dakota Johnson).[63] Guadagnino's version is set in Berlin circa 1977 (the year in which Argento’s film was released). The film's thematic focus is "the uncompromising force of motherhood."[64][65] Johnson has said that she was undertaking ballet training to prepare for the film.[66] On 23 November 2015, Guadagnino revealed shooting will begin in August 2016.[67][68] In October 2016, it was announced that Chloë Grace Moretz would co-star, alongside Johnson and Swinton.[69] Since the fall of 2016, both Johnson and Swinton are frequently reported by local news in Varese.[70] The film finished shooting on 10 March 2017[71] in Berlin.[72][73]

Awards[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Suspiria (18) (CUT)". British Board of Film Classification. 28 July 1977. Retrieved 4 July 2013. 
  2. ^ Solomon, Aubrey. Twentieth Century Fox: A Corporate and Financial History (The Scarecrow Filmmakers Series). Lanham, Maryland: Scarecrow Press, 1989. ISBN 978-0-8108-4244-1. p233. Please note figures are rentals accruing to distributors and not total gross.
  3. ^ Klein, Brennan (October 31, 2016). "Jessica Harper to Return for Suspiria Remake". JoBlo.com. Retrieved December 27, 2016. 
  4. ^ McDonagh 2010, p. 146.
  5. ^ a b Cooper 2012, p. 88.
  6. ^ McDonagh 2010, p. 29.
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa Hertz, Gary (director) et al. (2001). Suspiria 25th Anniversary. Anchor Bay Entertainment. 
  8. ^ McDonagh 2010, p. 130.
  9. ^ De Quincey, Thomas (2001). Eliot, Charles William, ed. Levana and Our Ladies of Sorrow. English essays, from Sir Philip Sidney to Macaulay. The Harvard Classics. XXVII. New York: P.F. Collier & Son (published 1909–14) – via Bartleby.com. 
  10. ^ "Dario Argento - Film and Music: Interviews". Bizarre. Retrieved 9 November 2012. 
  11. ^ Bosco, Scott Michael (2001). "Jessica Harper Interview". Suspiria (booklet). Anchor Bay Entertainment. 
  12. ^ a b c Kalat, David. "Suspiria". Turner Classic Movies. In the Know. 
  13. ^ Curti 2017, p. 133.
  14. ^ Bondanella 2009, p. 323.
  15. ^ a b c McDonagh 2010, p. 138.
  16. ^ "Dario Argento's Suspiria: A Visual and Aural Masterwork". Indiana Public Media. 21 May 2009. Archived from the original on 25 December 2010. Retrieved 18 December 2017. 
  17. ^ Kay, Tony (10 October 2014). "'Suspiria': A Rookie's Guide to a Horror Classic". CityArts Magazine. Retrieved 20 December 2017. 
  18. ^ "Symphony Of Fear: Hip Hop's Best Horror Movie Theme Samples". Hip Hop DX. 28 October 2011. Retrieved 20 December 2017. 
  19. ^ a b Buchanan, Jason. "Suspiria". AllMovie. Archived from the original on 29 July 2012. Retrieved 18 December 2017. 
  20. ^ "20th Century-Fox acquired Dario Argento's " Suspiria " for U.S. release". varietyultimate.com: Variety. May 11, 1977. Retrieved September 2, 2017. 
  21. ^ McDonagh 2010, p. 149.
  22. ^ Allmer, Huxley & Brick 2012, p. 15.
  23. ^ "Suspiria (1977)". Rotten Tomatoes. Fandango Media. Retrieved 10 August 2012. 
  24. ^ "Best Horror Movies 2010". Rotten Tomatoes. Fandango Media. Retrieved 10 August 2012. 
  25. ^ "Suspiria Reviews". Metacritic. CBS Interactive. Retrieved March 8, 2018. 
  26. ^ Maslin, Janet (13 August 1977). "'Suspiria,' a Specialty Movie, Drips With Gore". The New York Times. Retrieved 10 August 2012. 
  27. ^ Kehr, Dave. "Suspiria". chicagoreader.com. Retrieved 10 August 2012. 
  28. ^ Hoberma, J. (1 September 2009). "Suspiria Shock: Two Runs in Two Weeks - Page 1 - New York - Village Voice". The Village Voice. Retrieved 10 August 2012. 
  29. ^ Weiner, Robert G.; Brottman, Mikita; Cline, John (2010). Cinema Inferno: Celluloid Explosions from the Cultural Margins. Scarecrow Press. p. 64. ISBN 978-0-810-87656-9. 
  30. ^ Allmer, Huxley & Brick 2012, p. 14.
  31. ^ Muir 2007, p. 511.
  32. ^ Dirks, Tim. "100 Best Films of the 20th Century". Filmsite.org. AMC. Archived from the original on 3 December 2017. Retrieved 17 December 2017. 
  33. ^ Smith, Adam. "Empire's Suspiria Movie Review". empireonline.com. Retrieved 10 August 2012. 
  34. ^ "Empire's 500 Greatest Movies Of All Time". empireonline.com. Retrieved 10 August 2012. 
  35. ^ "The 100 Best Films of World Cinema". empireonline.com. Retrieved 5 August 2012. 
  36. ^ "The 25 scariest movies of all time". ew.com. Retrieved 10 August 2012. 
  37. ^ Graham, Jamie. "Shock Horror!". totalfilm.com. Retrieved 10 August 2012. 
  38. ^ "The 100 Scariest Movie Moments: 100 Scariest Moments in Movie History - Official Bravo TV Site". bravotv.com. Archived from the original on 30 October 2007. Retrieved 10 August 2012. 
  39. ^ "Top 25 Horror Films of All-Time". IGN. 29 October 2010. Archived from the original on 10 October 2017. Retrieved 30 December 2012. 
  40. ^ a b Gonzalez, Ed (8 January 2002). "DVD Review: Suspiria". Slant Magazine. Retrieved 19 December 2017. 
  41. ^ Sanchez, Rick (4 October 2001). "Suspiria Limited Edition". IGN.com. Retrieved 18 December 2017. 
  42. ^ Chaw, Walter (19 January 2002). "Suspiria (1977) - DVD". Film Freak Central. Retrieved 17 December 2017. 
  43. ^ a b Coffel, Chris (23 November 2017). "Synapse's 'Suspiria' SteelBook Gets a December 19th Release Date". Bloody-Disgusting. Archived from the original on 20 December 2017. Retrieved 19 December 2017. 
  44. ^ Sprague, Mike (25 January 2018). "Suspiria 4K gets wide release via Synapse this March". Joblo.com. Retrieved 28 January 2018. 
  45. ^ "Suspiria Blu-ray (Italy)". Blu-ray.com. Retrieved 18 December 2017. 
  46. ^ Cooper 2012, p. 73.
  47. ^ Cooper 2012, pp. 87–92.
  48. ^ Cooper 2012, pp. 88–9.
  49. ^ Adler, Shawn (5 March 2008). "David Gordon Green Confirms 'Suspiria' Remake". MTV. Retrieved 10 September 2015. 
  50. ^ a b Brigden, Charlie. "Please Leave Suspiria Alone". lostinthemultiplex.com. Archived from the original on 20 November 2012. Retrieved 5 August 2012. 
  51. ^ Þorvalds, Esther. "Interview with Dario Argento after his masterclass". riff.is/tv. Retrieved 9 October 2012. 
  52. ^ "'Suspiria' Remake to Shoot in 2010". Bloody Disgusting. Bloody Disgusting. 8 September 2009. Retrieved 5 August 2012. 
  53. ^ "Update #2: Natalie Portman to Topline 'Suspiria' Remake!". Bloody Disgusting. Bloody Disgusting. 6 August 2008. Retrieved 5 August 2012. 
  54. ^ Berni, Andrea Francesco (10 July 2010). "Suspiria 2010, the producer: "Yes the shooting is starting and no, there won't be Marilyn Manson"". BadTaste.it - Il nuovo gusto del cinema!. Retrieved 5 August 2012. 
  55. ^ "The Hunger Games and Orphan Star Isabelle Fuhrman Set for Suspiria". Dread Central. 15 May 2012. Retrieved 5 August 2012. 
  56. ^ Castillo, Sara (28 January 2013). "Looks Like 'Suspiria' Remake Slashed". Archived from the original on 10 March 2013. Retrieved 19 December 2017. 
  57. ^ Fred Topel (10 April 2014). "Joe: David Gordon Green on Nicolas Cage, Suspiria and Little House". Crave Online. Retrieved 10 April 2015. 
  58. ^ Jean Pierre Diez (9 April 2015). "Italian cult films 'Django' and Dario Argento's 'Suspiria' to be adapted for television". Sound On Sight. Retrieved 22 May 2015. 
  59. ^ Kevin Jagernauth (8 April 2015). "'Django' And 'Suspiria' TV Shows In Development". The Playlist. Retrieved 18 December 2017. 
  60. ^ Ryan Lattanzio (8 April 2015). "'Django' and Dario Argento's 'Suspiria' Getting Classy TV Series Remakes". Thompson on Hollywood. Retrieved 18 December 2017. 
  61. ^ James White (8 April 2015). "Sergio Corbucci's Django Heads For TV". Empire Magazine. Retrieved 18 December 2017. 
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Works cited[edit]

  • Allmer, Patricia; Huxley, David; Brick, Emily (2012). European Nightmares: Horror Cinema in Europe Since the 1945. Columbia University Press. ISBN 978-0-231-85008-7. 
  • Bondanella, Peter (2009). A History of Italian Cinema. A&C Black. ISBN 978-1-441-16069-0. 
  • Cooper, L. Andrew (2012). Dario Argento. University of Illinois Press. ISBN 978-0-252-09438-5. 
  • Curti, Roberto (2017). "1977: Suspiria". Italian Gothic Horror Films, 1970-1979. McFarland. ISBN 978-1-476-66469-9. 
  • McDonagh, Maitland (2010). Broken Mirrors, Broken Minds: The Dark Dreams of Dario Argento. University of Minnesota Press. ISBN 978-1-452-91537-1. 
  • Muir, John Kenneth (2007). Horror Films of the 1970s. II. McFarland. ISBN 978-0-786-43104-5. 

External links[edit]