Svan language

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Svan
ლუშნუ ნინ Lušnu nin
Pronunciation[luʃnu nin]
Native toGeorgia
RegionSvaneti
Abkhazia (Kodori Gorge)
Native speakers
14,000 (2015)[1]
South-Caucasian languages
  • Svan
Georgian script
Language codes
ISO 639-3sva
Glottologsvan1243[2]
Kartvelian languages.svg
This article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters. For a guide to IPA symbols, see Help:IPA.

The Svan language (Svan: ლუშნუ ნინ lušnu nin; Georgian: სვანური ენა svanuri ena) is a Caucasian language spoken in the western Georgian region of Svaneti primarily by the Svan people.[3][4] With its speakers variously estimated to be between 30,000 and 80,000, the UNESCO designates Svan as a "definitely endangered language".[5] It is of particular interest because it has retained many archaic features that have been lost in the other South-Caucasian languages.

Features[edit]

Familial features[edit]

Like all languages of the Caucasian language family, Svan has a large number of consonants. It has agreement between subject and object, and a split-ergative morphosyntactic system. Verbs are marked for aspect, evidentiality and "version".

Distinguishing features[edit]

Svan retains the voiceless aspirated uvular plosive, /qʰ/, and the glides /w/ and /j/. It has a larger vowel inventory than Georgian; the Upper Bal dialect of Svan has the most vowels of any South-Caucasian language, having both long and short versions of /a ɛ i ɔ u æ ø y/ plus /ə eː/, a total of 18 vowels (Georgian, by contrast, has just five).

Its morphology is less regular than that of the other three sister languages, and there are notable differences in verbal inflections.

Distribution[edit]

Svan is the native language of fewer than 30,000 Svans (15,000 of whom are Upper Svan dialect speakers and 12,000 are Lower Svan), living in the mountains of Svaneti, i.e. in the districts of Mestia and Lentekhi of Georgia, along the Enguri, Tskhenistsqali and Kodori rivers. Some Svan speakers live in the Kodori Valley of the de facto independent republic of Abkhazia. Although conditions there make it difficult to reliably establish their numbers, there are only an estimated 2,500 Svan individuals living there.[6]

The language is used in familiar and casual social communication. It has no written standard or official status. Most speakers also speak Georgian, the country's official language, and use it as their literary and business language. There is no official instruction in Svan, and the number of speakers is declining due to the dispersal of the Svan population in the face of increasing economic hardship and due to the campaign of the Georgian government to "georgianize" the svanetian people. The Georgian government does not recognize the Svanetian language as an language due to fear of seperatism even though the great difference between the two languages. The language is regarded as being endangered, as proficiency in it among young people is limited.

History[edit]

Svan is the most differentiated member of the four South-Caucasian languages and is believed to have split off in the 2nd millennium BC or earlier, about one thousand years before Georgian did.

Dialects[edit]

The Svan language is divided into the following dialects and subdialects:

  • Upper Svan (about 15,000 speakers)
    • Upper Bal: Ushguli, Kala, Ipar, Mulakh, Mestia, Lenzer, Latal.
    • Lower Bal: Becho, Tskhumar, Etser, Par, Chubekh, Lakham.
  • Lower Svan (about 12,000 speakers)
    • Lashkhian: Lashkh.
    • Lentekhian: Lentekhi, Kheled, Khopur, Rtskhmelur, Cholur

Phonology[edit]

Consonants[edit]

Bilabial Alveolar Palatal Velar Uvular Glottal
plain aspirated ejective plain aspirated ejective plain aspirated ejective plain aspirated ejective aspirated ejective
Stop voiceless pʰ ფ pʼ პ tʰ თ tʼ ტ kʰ ქ kʼ კ qʰ ჴ qʼ ყ ʔ
voiced b ბ d დ g გ
Fricative voiceless f ჶ s ს ʃ შ x ხ h
voiced v ვ z ზ ʒ ჟ ɣ ღ
Affricate voiceless t͡sʰ ც t͡sʼ წ t͡ʃʰ ჩ t͡ʃʼ ჭ
voiced d͡z ძ d͡ʒ ჯ
Nasal m მ n ნ
Approximant l ლ j ჲ w ჳ
Trill r რ

Vowels[edit]

Front Central Back
unrounded rounded unrounded rounded
short long short long short long short long
Close /i/

i
/iː/
ი̄
ī
/y/
უ̈, ჳი
ü
/yː/
უ̄̈
ű
/u/

u
/uː/
უ̄
ū
Close-mid /eː/

ė
/ə/¹

ə
Open-mid /ɛ/

e
/ɛː/
ე̄
ē
/œ/
ო̈, ჳე
ö
/œː/
ო̄̈
ő
/ɔ/

o
/ɔː/
ო̄
ō
Open /æ/
ა̈
ä
/æː/
ა̄̈
ã
/a/

a
/aː/
ა̄
ā
  1. Freely varies between [ə] and [ɨ]

Apart from the odd /eː/, only Upper Bal and Lashkh dialects have long vowels. Only Upper Bal has /æ, æː/; Lashkh does not have the front rounded vowels /œ, œː, y, yː/.

Alphabet[edit]

The alphabet, illustrated above, is similar to the Mingrelian alphabet, with a few additional letters otherwise obsolete in the Georgian script:

  • /f/
  • /q⁽ʰ⁾/
  • /ʔ/
  • /j/
  • /w/
  • /ə/
  • /eː/

These are supplemented by diacritics on the vowels (the umlaut for front vowels and macron for length), though those are not normally written. The digraphs

  • ჳი ("wi") /y/
  • ჳე ("we") /œ/

are used in the Lower Bal and Lentekh dialects, and occasionally in Upper Bal; these sounds do not occur in Lashkh dialect.

References[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ "Svan". Ethnologue. Retrieved 2018-05-03.
  2. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Svan". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  3. ^ Levinson, David. Ethnic Groups Worldwide: A Ready Reference Handbook. Phoenix: Oryx Press, 1998. p 34
  4. ^ Stephen F. Jones. Svans. World Culture Encyclopedia. Retrieved on March 13, 2011
  5. ^ UNESCO Interactive Atlas of the World’s Languages in Danger
  6. ^ DoBeS (Dokumentation Bedrohter Sprachen, Documentation of Endangered Languages)

General references[edit]

External links[edit]