Sweyn Forkbeard

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Sweyn Forkbeard
Sweyn Forkbeard.jpg
Sweyn (Suanus rex) invading England in 1013 (detail of a 13th-century miniature).
King of Denmark
Reign 986–1014
Predecessor Harald Bluetooth
Successor Harald II
King of Norway
Reign
  • 986–995
  • 1000–1014
Predecessor
Successor Olaf II
King of England
Reign 1013–1014
Predecessor Æthelred
Successor Æthelred
Born c. 960
Denmark
Died 3 February 1014
Gainsborough, Lincolnshire
Burial Roskilde Cathedral or St. Trinity in Lund
Spouse Świętosława / Sigrid/ Gunhild (detail)
Issue
among others...
House House of Denmark
Father Harald Bluetooth
Mother Gunhild or Tove
Religion Chalcedonian Christianity

Sweyn Forkbeard (Old Norse: Sveinn Haraldsson tjúguskegg;[1] Danish: Svend Tveskæg; 960 – 3 February 1014) was king of Denmark during 986–1014.

In the mid-980s, Sweyn revolted against his father, Harald Bluetooth, and seized the throne. Harald was driven into exile and died shortly afterwards in November 986 or 987.[2] In 1000, with the allegiance of Trondejarl, Eric of Lade, Sweyn ruled most of Norway. In 1013, shortly before his death, he became the first Danish king of England after a long effort.

Biography[edit]

A coin of Sweyn Forkbeard, minted in 995; this is the earliest known coin with a Latin inscription minted in Scandinavia, based on Anglo-Saxon models and made by an English moneyer (obv.: ZVEN REX AD DENER "Sven, king of [or among] the Danes", rev.: GOD-WINE M-AN D-NER "Godwine, moneyer among the Danes").[3]

Historiographical sources on Sweyn's life include the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle (where his name is rendered as Swegen),[4] Adam of Bremen's 12th-century Deeds of the Bishops of Hamburg, and Snorri Sturluson's 13th-century Heimskringla.[5] Conflicting accounts of Sweyn's later life also appear in the Encomium Emmae Reginae, an 11th-century Latin encomium in honour of his son king Cnut's queen Emma of Normandy, along with Chronicon ex chronicis by Florence of Worcester, another 11th-century author.

Sweyn's father, Harald Bluetooth, was the first of the reigning Scandinavian kings to be baptised, in the early or mid-960s. According to Adam of Bremen, Harald's son Sweyn was baptised "Otto" (in honour of German king Otto I).[6] There are conflicting records as to the identity of his mother.[2] Adam of Bremen identifies her as "Gunhild", but some modern day scholars give her name as Tove from Western Wendland.[7] Sweyn married the widow of Erik, king of Sweden, named "Gunhild" in some sources,[7] or identified as an unnamed sister of Boleslav, ruler of Poland.[2]

Revolt and possible exile[edit]

Sweyn and the Jomsvikings at the funeral ale of his father Harald Bluetooth. Painting by Lorenz Frølich, c. 1883–86, Frederiksborg Castle.

In the mid-980s, Sweyn revolted against his father and seized the throne. Harald was driven into exile and died shortly afterwards in November 986 or 987.[2]

Adam of Bremen depicted Sweyn as a rebellious pagan who persecuted Christians, betrayed his father and expelled German bishops from Scania and Zealand. According to Adam, Sweyn was sent into exile by his father's German friends and deposed in favour of king Eric the Victorious of Sweden, whom Adam wrote ruled Denmark until his death in 994 or 995. Sørensen (2001) argues that Adam's depiction of Sweyn may be overly negative, as seen through an "unsympathetic and intolerant eye".[8] Adam's account is thus not seen as entirely reliable; the claimed 14-years' exile of Sweyn to Scotland does not seem to agree with Sweyn's building churches in Denmark throughout the same period, including the churches in Lund and Roskilde.[9] According to Adam, Sweyn was punished by God for leading the uprising which led to king Harald's death, and had to spend fourteen years abroad (i.e. 986–1000). The historicity of this exile, or its duration, is uncertain. Adam purports that Sweyn was shunned by all those with whom he sought refuge, but was finally allowed to live for a while in Scotland. Adam also suggests that Sweyn in his youth lived among heathens, and only achieved success as a ruler after accepting Christianity.

Battle of Svolder[edit]

Division of Norway after the Battle of Svolder according to Heimskringla: The red area was under direct Danish control, with Sweyn's ruling it as a Danish extension. Eiríkr Hákonarson ruled the purple area as a fiefdom from Sweyn Forkbeard. The yellow area was under Sveinn Hákonarson, his half-brother, held as a fief of Olof Skötkonung, the Swedish king.

Harald Bluetooth had already established a foothold in Norway, controlling Viken in c. 970. He may, however, have lost control over his Norwegian claims following his defeat against a German army in 974.

Sweyn built an alliance with Swedish king Olof Skötkonung and Eirik Hákonarson, Jarl of Lade, against Norwegian king Olaf Tryggvason. The Kings' sagas ascribe the causes of the alliance to Olaf Tryggvason's ill-fated marriage proposal to Sigrid the Haughty and his problematic marriage to Thyri, sister of Svein Forkbeard.

The allies attacked and defeated king Olaf in the western Baltic Sea when he was sailing home from an expedition, in the Battle of Svolder, fought in September of either 999 or 1000. The victors divided Norway among them. According to the account of the Heimskringla, Sweyn re-gained direct control of Viken district.

Olaf the Swede received four districts in Trondheim as well as Møre, Romsdal and Rånrike (the Fagrskinna, by contrast, says that the Swedish part consisted of Oppland and a part of Trondheim). He gave these to Jarl Svein Hákonarson, his son in law, to hold as a vassal. The rest of Norway was ruled by Eirik Hákonarson as Svein's vassal.

The Jarls Eirik and Svein proved strong, competent rulers, and their reign was prosperous. Most sources say that they adopted Christianity but allowed the people religious freedom, leading to a backlash against Christianity which undid much of Olaf Tryggvason's missionary work.[10]

Religion[edit]

King Sweyn enlisted priests and bishops from England rather than from the Archbishopric of Bremen. This may have been a reason for Adam of Bremen's apparent hostility in his accounts. Numerous converted priests of a Danish origin from the Danelaw lived in England, while Sweyn had few connections to Germany or its priests. By allowing English ecclesiastical influence in his kingdom, he was spurning the Hamburg-Bremen archbishop. Since German bishops were an integral part of the secular state, Sweyn's preference for the English church may have been a political move. He sought to pre-empt any threat against his independence posed by the German kings.[11]

Invasions of England[edit]

The "Chronicle of John of Wallingford" (c. 1225–1250) records Sweyn's involvement in raids against England during 1002–1005, 1006–1007, and 1009–1012 to avenge the St. Brice's Day massacre of England's Danish inhabitants in November 1002. According to Ashley (1998), Sweyn's invasion was partly motivated by the massacre of Danes in England ordered by Aethelred the Unready in 1002, in which his sister and brother-in-law are said to have been killed.[12] but Lund (2001) argues that the main motivation for the raids was more likely the prospect of revenue.[9]

Sweyn campaigned in Wessex and East Anglia in 1003–1004, but a famine forced him to return to Denmark in 1005. Further raids took place in 1006–1007, and in 1009–1012 Thorkell the Tall led a Viking invasion into England. Simon Keynes regards it as uncertain whether Sweyn supported these invasions, but "whatever the case, he was quick to exploit the disruption caused by the activities of Thorkell's army".[13] Sweyn acquired massive sums of Danegeld through the raids. In 1013, he is reported to have personally led his forces in a full-scale invasion of England.[14]

The contemporary Peterborough Chronicle (part of the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle) states:

before the month of August came king Sweyn with his fleet to Sandwich. He went very quickly about East Anglia into the Humber's mouth, and so upward along the Trent till he came to Gainsborough. Earl Uchtred and all Northumbria quickly bowed to him, as did all the people of the Kingdom of Lindsey, then the people of the Five Boroughs. He was given hostages from each shire. When he understood that all the people had submitted to him, he bade that his force should be provisioned and horsed; he went south with the main part of the invasion force, while some of the invasion force, as well as the hostages, were with his son Cnut. After he came over Watling Street, they went to Oxford, and the town-dwellers soon bowed to him, and gave hostages. From there they went to Winchester, and the people did the same, then eastward to London.[15]

But the Londoners put up a strong resistance, because King Æthelred and Thorkell the Tall, a Viking leader who had defected to Æthelred, personally held their ground against him in London itself. Sweyn then went west to Bath, where the western thanes submitted to him and gave hostages. The Londoners then followed suit, fearing Sweyn's revenge if they resisted any longer. King Æthelred sent his sons Edward and Alfred to Normandy, and himself retreated to the Isle of Wight, and then followed them into exile.[15] On Christmas Day 1013 Sweyn was declared King of England.

Based in Gainsborough, Lincolnshire, Sweyn began to organise his vast new kingdom, but he died there on 3 February 1014, having ruled England for only five weeks. His embalmed body was returned to Denmark for burial in the church he had built. Tradition locates this church in Roskilde,[13] but it is more plausible that it was actually located in Lund in Scania (now part of Sweden).[16] Sweyn's elder son, Harald II, succeeded him as King of Denmark, but the Danish fleet in England proclaimed his younger son Cnut king. In England, the councillors had sent for Æthelred, who upon his return from exile in Normandy in the spring of 1014 managed to drive Cnut out of England. But Cnut returned and became King of England in 1016, eventually also ruling Denmark, Norway, parts of Sweden, Pomerania, and Schleswig.

Sweyn's son Cnut and Cnut's own sons Harold Harefoot and Harthacnut ruled England for 26 years. After Harthacnut's death, the English throne reverted to the House of Wessex in the person of King Edward the Confessor (reigned 1042–1066).

Sweyn's descendants through his daughter Estrid continue to reign in Denmark to this day. One of his descendants, Margaret of Denmark, married James III of Scotland in 1469, introducing Sweyn's bloodline into the Scottish royal house. After James VI of Scotland inherited the English throne in 1603, Sweyn's descendants became monarchs of England again.

Issue[edit]

Sweyn had eight children with Sigrid the Haughty and Gunhild of Wenden:

References[edit]

  1. ^ Svæinn Harallz sunr; Latinized forms of the name Sveinn are Suanus, Suenus, or Sveinus (Haraldi filius). The nickname tjúguskegg is a compound of tjúga "fork" and skegg "beard". Sweyn is so named in Fagrskinna chapters 27 and 41 (ed. Finnur Jónsson 1902–8, pp. 161, 206), in both cases in references to Astriðr dottor Svæins tiuguskægs.
  2. ^ a b c d Sawyer, P. H. (2004). "Swein (Sveinn Haraldsson, Sveinn Tjúguskegg, Swein Forkbeard) (d. 1014), king of England and of Denmark". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/26830. Retrieved 27 February 2013.  (subscription or UK public library membership required)
  3. ^ Timothy Bolton, The Empire of Cnut the Great: Conquest and the Consolidation of Power in Northern Europe in the Early Eleventh Century (2009), p. 162. Nils Hybel, Bjorn Poulsen, The Danish Resources c. 1000-1550: Growth and Recession (2007), p. 86
  4. ^ The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. Manuscripts C, D, and E. Edited by Jebson, Tony. Accessed 18 August 2011.
  5. ^ Howard, Ian (2003). Swein Forkbeard's Invasions and the Danish Conquest of England, 991– 1017. Woodbridge: Boydell Press. pp. 7–8. ISBN 0-85115-928-1. 
  6. ^ Adam of Bremen Gesta II.3. Ed. Schmeidler, trans. Tschan, pg. 56
  7. ^ a b "Svend 1. Tveskæg". Den Store Danske. Retrieved 27 February 2013. 
  8. ^ Sørensen, M.P. (2001). "Religions Old and New", The Oxford Illustrated History of the Vikings. Ed. P.H. Sawyer. Oxford University Press (2001), pg. 202
  9. ^ a b Lund, Niels (2001). "The Danish Empire and the End of the Viking Age", The Oxford Illustrated History of the Vikings. Ed. P. H. Sawyer. Oxford University Press, 2001, p. 167–181. ISBN 0-19-285434-8.
  10. ^ This is according to Heimskringla and Fagrskinna, see Lee M. Hollander (trans.) (1991) Heimskringla, p. 244 and Finlay Finlay, Alison (editor and translator) (2004) Fagrskinna, p. 130. According to Historia Norwegie and Ágrip, the Jarls actively worked to uproot Christianity in Norway, see Driscoll, M.J. (editor) (1995). Ágrip af Nóregskonungasǫgum. Viking Society for Northern Research, p. 35 and Ekrem, Inger (editor), Lars Boje Mortensen (editor) and Peter Fisher (translator) (2003). Historia Norwegie (2003), p. 101.
  11. ^ Lund, Niels (1986). "The armies of Swein Forkbeard and Cnut: leding or li(th)" Anglo-Saxon England 15 (1986), p. 39–40The Christianization of Scandinavia, Birgit Sawyer, et al., ed. Kungälv: Viktoria Bokforlag, p. 80. ISBN 91-86708-04-X.
  12. ^ Mike Ashley, British Monarchs; A complete genealogy, gazetteer and biographical Encyclopaedia of the Kings and Queens of Britain, Robinson Publishing (1998) p.483: "Probably his [Æthelred's] worst decision was the St. Brice's day massacre on 13 November 1002...he ordered the killing of every Dane who lived in England, except the Anglo-Danes in the Danelaw. The massacre brought back to English shores the Danish commander Swein, whose sister and brother-in-law had been killed in the massacre".
  13. ^ a b Keynes, Simon (2001). "Swein Forkbeard". In Lapidge, Michael; Blair, John; Scragg, Donald. The Blackwell Encyclopaedia of Anglo-Saxon England. London: Blackwell Publishing. p. 437. ISBN 0-631-15565-1. 
  14. ^ Blair, Peter Hunter (2003). An Introduction to Anglo-Saxon England (3rd ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 98. ISBN 0-521-53777-0. 
  15. ^ a b The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. Everyman Press: London, 1912. Translation by James Ingram (London, 1823) and J. A. Giles (London, 1847). Online Medieval and Classical Library Release #17. Retrieved 12 October 2006.
  16. ^ "Sweyn Forkbeard". Medieval Histories. 4 February 2014. Retrieved 9 March 2017. 

External links[edit]

Regnal titles
Preceded by
Harald Bluetooth
King of Denmark
c. 985–1014
Succeeded by
Harald II
King of Norway
c. 985–995
Succeeded by
Olaf I
Preceded by
Olaf I
King of Norway
1000–1014
Succeeded by
Olaf II
Preceded by
Æthelred the Unready
King of the English
1013–1014
Succeeded by
Æthelred the Unready