Sven Vilhem Nykvist (Swedish pronunciation: [ˈsvɛnː ˈvɪlːhɛlm ²nyːkvɪst]) (3 December 1922 – 20 September 2006) was a Swedish cinematographer. He worked on over 120 films, but is known especially for his work with director Ingmar Bergman. He won Academy Awards for his work on two Bergman films, Cries and Whispers (Viskningar och rop) in 1973 and Fanny and Alexander (Fanny och Alexander) in 1983, and the Independent Spirit Award for Best Cinematography for The Unbearable Lightness of Being.
His work is generally noted for its naturalism and simplicity. He is considered by many to be one of the greatest cinematographers of all time. In 2003, Nykvist was judged one of history's ten most influential cinematographers in a survey conducted by the International Cinematographers Guild.
Life and career
Nykvist was born in Moheda, Kronobergs län, Sweden. His parents were Lutheran missionaries who spent most of their lives in the Belgian Congo, so Nykvist was raised by relatives in Sweden and saw his parents rarely. His father was a keen amateur photographer of African wildlife, whose activities may have sparked Nykvist's interest in the visual arts.
A talented athlete in his youth, Nykvist's first cinematic effort was to film himself taking a high jump, to improve his jumping technique. After a year at the Municipal School for Photographers in Stockholm, he entered the Swedish film industry at the age of 19.
In 1941, he became an assistant cameraman at Sandrews studio, working on The Poor Millionaire. He moved to Italy in 1943 to work at Cinecittà Studios, returning to Sweden two years later. In 1945, aged 23, he became a full-fledged cinematographer, with his first solo credit on The Children from Frostmo Mountain.
He worked on many small Swedish films for the next few years, and spent some time with his parents in Africa filming wildlife, footage which was later released as a documentary entitled In the Footsteps of the Witch Doctor (also known as Under the Southern Cross).
Back in Sweden, he began to work with the director Ingmar Bergman in 1953 on Sawdust and Tinsel (released in the US as The Naked Night). He was one of three cinematographers to work on that film, the others being Gunnar Fischer and Hilding Bladh.
Nykvist would eventually become Bergman's full-time cinematographer and push the director's work in a new direction, away from the theatrical look of his earlier films. He worked as sole cameraman on Bergman's Oscar-winning films The Virgin Spring in 1959 and Through a Glass Darkly in 1960. He revolutionised the way faces are shot in close-up with Bergman's psychologic drama Persona in 1966.
After working with other Swedish directors, including Alf Sjöberg on The Judge (1960) and Mai Zetterling on Loving Couples (1964), he then worked in the United States and elsewhere, on: Richard Fleischer's The Last Run (1971); Louis Malle's Black Moon (1975) and Pretty Baby (1978); Roman Polanski's The Tenant (1976); Jan Troell's Hurricane (1979); Bob Rafelson's version of The Postman Always Rings Twice (1981); Agnes of God (1985); Woody Allen's Another Woman (1988) and Crimes and Misdemeanors (1989); Richard Attenborough's Chaplin (1992); Nora Ephron's Sleepless in Seattle (1993); and Lasse Hallström's What's Eating Gilbert Grape (1993).
Nykvist won the Academy Award for Best Cinematography for two of his films: Cries and Whispers (1973), and Fanny and Alexander (1982), both of which were Bergman films. At the 9th Guldbagge Awards in 1973 he won the Special Achievement award for his work on Cries and Whispers. He was also nominated for a Cinematography Oscar for The Unbearable Lightness of Being (1988), and in the category of Best Foreign Language Film for The Ox (1991), in which he directed Max von Sydow and Liv Ullmann.
He won a special prize at the Cannes Film Festival for his work on The Sacrifice (1986), the last film of the Russian director Andrei Tarkovsky. He was the first European cinematographer to join the American Society of Cinematographers, and received a Lifetime Achievement Award from the ASC in 1996.
He wrote three books, including Curtain Call in 1999.
His ex-wife, Ulrika, died in 1982. Nykvist's career was brought to a sudden end in 1998 when he was diagnosed with aphasia, and he died in 2006, aged 83.
He is survived by his son, Carl-Gustaf Nykvist, who directed his first film, Woman on the Roof, in 1989 and directed a documentary about his father, Light Keeps Me Company, 1999.
- Sawdust and Tinsel (1953)
- Laughing in the Sunshine (1956)
- The Virgin Spring (1960) (Jungfrukällan)
- Through a Glass Darkly (1961) (Såsom i en spegel)
- Winter Light (1963) (Nattvardsgästerna)
- The Silence (1963) (Tystnaden)
- Persona (1966)
- Shame (1968) (Skammen)
- Hour of the Wolf (1968) (Vargtimmen)
- The Passion of Anna (1969) (En Passion)
- The Touch (1971) (Beröringen)
- The Last Run (1971)
- Siddhartha (1972), from the Hermann Hesse novel, directed by Conrad Rooks
- Cries and Whispers (1973) (Viskningar och rop) (won Academy Award for Best Cinematography)
- Scenes from a Marriage (1973) (Scener ur ett äktenskap)
- The Dove (1974)
- Black Moon (1975) directed by Louis Malle
- The Magic Flute (1975) (Trollflöjten)
- The Tenant (1976) ( Le Locataire) directed by Roman Polanski
- Face to Face (1976) directed by Ingmar Bergman
- The Serpent's Egg (1977) (Das Schlangenei)
- Autumn Sonata (1978) (Höstsonaten)
- Pretty Baby (1978)
- Starting Over (1979)
- Marmalade Revolution (1980)
- From the Life of the Marionettes (1980) (Aus dem Leben der Marionetten)
- The Postman Always Rings Twice (1981)
- Fanny and Alexander (1982) (Fanny och Alexander) (won Academy Award for Best Cinematography)
- Star 80 (1983)
- Agnes of God (1985)
- The Sacrifice (1986)
- The Unbearable Lightness of Being (1988) (nominated for Academy Award for Best Cinematography)
- New York Stories (1989) (segment "Oedipus Wrecks")
- Crimes and Misdemeanors (1989)
- Buster's Bedroom (1990)
- The Ox (1991)
- Chaplin (1992)
- Sleepless in Seattle (1993)
- What's Eating Gilbert Grape (1993)
- Something to Talk About (1995)
- Celebrity (1998)
- Cinematographer Nykvist dies, 83, BBC News
- "Top 10 Most Influential Cinematographers Voted on by Camera Guild," October 16, 2003. Retrieved January 28, 2011.
- Borden, D.M., 1977. Bergman’s style and the facial icon. Quarterly Review of Film Studies 2, 42–55. https://doi.org/10.1080/10509207709391332
- "Viskningar och rop (1973)". Swedish Film Institute. 2 March 2014.
- Some years later Nykvist told in a Swedish television interview about joining the ASC. At first he was surprised over having to qualify for the entrance, but showed up for his interview. One of the first questions to him was, how many full-length films he had shot. He said "seventy", to which the board said, that they understood that there was a language problem; obviously Nykvist had meant "seventeen". No, seventy, seven-oh. Hrm-hrm. Than the board said "It says here, you've been doing some films with Bergman." "Yes, that's seventeen," Nykvist answered...
- In-depth interview with Nykvist from 1984 on working with Bergman
- Obituary, The Daily Telegraph, 20 September 2006
- Obituary, New York Times, 21 September 2006
- Sven Nykvist on IMDb
- Sven Nykvist at the Swedish Film Database
- Sven Nykvist at the TCM Movie Database
- Interview with Nicholas Pasquariello in 1989 in San Francisco, California 
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