Swachh Bharat Abhiyan
|Swachh Bharat Abhiyan (SBA)|
India + Cleanliness
एक कदम स्वच्छता की ओरOne step towards cleanliness
|Prime Minister(s)||Shri. Narendra Modi|
|Launched||Raj Ghat, 2 October 2014|
Swachh Bharat Abhiyan (SBA) (or Swachh Bharat Mission (SBM) or Clean India Mission in English) is a campaign in India that aims to clean up the streets, roads and infrastructure of India's cities, smaller towns, and rural areas. The objectives of Swachh Bharat include eliminating open defecation through the construction of household-owned and community-owned toilets and establishing an accountable mechanism of monitoring toilet use. Run by the Government of India, the mission aims to achieve an Open-Defecation Free (ODF) India by 2 October 2019, the 150th anniversary of the birth of Mahatma Gandhi, by constructing 90 million toilets in rural India at a projected cost of ₹1.96 lakh crore (US$30 billion). The mission will also contribute to India reaching Sustainable Development Goal Number 6 (SDG 6).
The campaign was officially launched on 2 October 2014 at Rajghat, New Delhi by Prime Minister Narendra Modi. It is India's largest cleanliness drive to date with 3 million government employees, school students, and college students from all parts of India participating in 4,041 statutory cities, towns and associated rural areas. Modi has called the campaign "Satyagrah se Swachhagrah" (लघु फिल्म सत्याग्रह से) in reference to Gandhi's “Champaran Satyagraha” launched on 10 April 1917.
The mission contains two sub-missions: Swachh Bharat Abhiyan ("Gramin" or rural), which operates under the Ministry of Drinking Water and Sanitation; and Swachh Bharat Abhiyan (Urban), which operates under the Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs.
As part of the campaign, volunteers, known as Swachhagrahis, or "ambassadors of cleanliness", have promoted indoor plumbing and the Community Approaches to Sanitation (CAS) at the village level. Other non-governmental activities include national real-time monitoring and updates from non-governmental organizations (NGOs) such as The Ugly Indian, Waste Warriors and SWaCH Pune (Solid Waste Collection and Handling) that are working towards its ideas of Swachh Bharat.
- 1 History
- 2 Structure
- 3 Activities
- 4 Performance monitoring
- 5 Outcomes
- 6 See also
- 7 References
Open defecation and sewage contamination of drinking and bathing water has been an endemic sanitary problem in India. In 2017, India was the country with the highest number of people practicing open defecation, around 525 million people.
Swachh Bharat Abhiyan campaign, launched on 2 October 2014 on Gandhi jayanti , aims to eradicate open defecation by 2 October 2019, the 150th anniversary of the birth of Mahatma Gandhi, by constructing 90 million toilets in rural India at a projected cost of ₹1.96 lakh crore (US$29 billion). The national campaign spans 4,041 statutory cities and towns. conceived in March 2014 at a sanitation conference organised by UNICEF India and the Indian Institute of Technology as part of the larger Total Sanitation Campaign, which the Indian government launched in 1999.
Previous sanitation campaigns
On 1 April 2000, the Government of India restructured the Comprehensive Rural Sanitation Programme and launched the Total Sanitation Campaign (TSC) which was later (on 1 April 2012) renamed "Nirmal Bharat Abhiyan" by then Prime Minister Manmohan Singh. A limited randomized study of eighty villages in rural (Madhya Pradesh) showed that the TSC programme did modestly increase the number of households with latrines, and had a small effect in reducing open defecation. However, there was no improvement in the health of children."
The earlier "Nirmal Bharat Abhiyan" rural sanitation program was hampered by the unrealistic approach. Consequently, Nirmal Bharat Abhiyan was restructured by Cabinet approval on 24 September 2014 as Swachh Bharat Abhiyan.
Swachh Bharat Abhiyan is expected to cost over ₹620 billion (US$9.2 billion). The government provides an incentive of ₹12,000 (US$180) for each toilet constructed by a BPL family. An amount of ₹90 billion (US$1.3 billion) was allocated for the mission in the 2016 Union budget of India. The World Bank provided a US$11.5 billion loan and $25 million in technical assistance in 2016 for the Swachh Bharat Mission to support India's universal sanitation initiation. The programme has also received funds and technical support from the World Bank, corporations as part of corporate social responsibility initiatives, and by state governments under the Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan and Rashtriya Madhyamik Shiksha Abhiyan schemes.
The Government appointed PWD with the responsibility to dispose off waste from Government offices. The Ministry of Railways planned to have the facility of cleaning on demand, clean bed-rolls from automatic laundries, bio-toilets, dustbins in all non-AC coaches. The Centre will use its Digital India project in conjunction with the Swachh Bharat Abhiyan to have solar-powered trash cans, which send alerts to sanitation crew once they are full. The Swachh Bharat Swachh Vidyalaya campaign was launched by Salman khan, of the Minister of Human Resource Development, Government of India by participating in the cleanliness drive along with the school's teachers and students.
Selected public figures
Anushka Sharma and the Vice President of India M V Naidu picked up a broom to help clean the cyclone-hit port city of Visakhapatnam, in the southern state of Andhra Pradesh, as part of the cleanliness campaign.
On 2 October 2014, Prime Minister Modi nominated following people as Brand Ambassador:
He also nominated a number of organisations, including the Institute of Chartered Accountants of India, Eenadu and India Today as well as the dabbawala of Mumbai, who deliver home-made food to lakhs of people in the city.[clarification needed]More than 3 million government employees and school and college students participated in the drive on the occasion.
- Rajyogini (Brahmakumaris Dadi Janki)
- Pawan Kalyan
- S. P. Balasubrahmanyam
- Amala (actress)
- K. Kavitha
- G V K Reddy
- Suddala Ashok Teja
- P Gopichand (sports)
- Humpy Koneru
- Galla Jayadev
- V. V. S. Laxman (sports)
- J. Rameshwar Rao
- Shivlal Yadav
- B. V. R. Mohan Reddy
- Akshay kumar
- Lakshmi Manchu
From later dates following were made part of the mission
Run and marathons
Ongoing real-time monitoring
Swachh Bharat Mission (SBM) Mobile app is being used by people and Government organisations for achieving the goals of Swachh Bharat Mission. For this the government of India is bringing awareness to the people through advertisements.
Swachh Sarvekshan annual cleanliness survey
Swachh Sarvekshan, commissioned by Ministry of Urban Development and carried out by Quality Council of India, is an extensive sanitation survey across several hundred cities to check the progress and impact of Swachh Bharat Abhiyan and to foster a spirit of competition among the cities. The performance of each city is evaluated on five parameters:
- Municipal solid waste, sweeping, collection and transportation
- Municipal solid waste, processing and disposal of solid waste
- Open defecation free/toilets
- Capacity building and eLearning
- Provision of public & community toilet seats
- Information, education and communication, and behaviour change
2017 Swachh Sarvekshan survey
Swachh Sarvekshan 2017 was conducted across 500 cities between 4 January 2017 and 7 February 2017. The top 10 cities are:
2016 Swachh Sarvekshan survey
Cleanest ten cities:
Ten least clean cities (at the bottom of the list):
By May 2015, 71 Indian public sector undertakings and 14 companies supported the construction of 89,976. Hundreds of thousands of Indian people were still employed as manual scavengers in emptying bucket toilets and pit latrines.
In 2017, the national sanitation coverage rose to 65% from 38.7% on Oct 2, 2014 before the start of the campaign. It was 80% in Feb 2018. Eleven states, 314 districts and 3.25 lakh villages were declared Open Defecation Free (ODF) till 15 February 2018.
The cities and towns which have been declared ODF stood at 22 per cent and the urban wards which have achieved 100 per cent door-to-door solid waste collection stood at 50 per cent. The number of Swachhagrahi volunteers working across urban local bodies rose to 20,000, and those working in rural India rose to more than a lakh. The number of schools with separate toilet facilities for girls rose from 0.4 million (37 per cent) to almost one million (91 per cent).
As per an independent survey released by Quality Council of India in August 2017, overall national rural "household access to toilet" coverage increased to 62.45 per cent and usage of 91.29 per cent, with Haryana topping the national ranking with 99 per cent of households in rural areas covered and usage of 100 per cent.
Arbitrarily Disbursement of Incentives under Swachh Bharat Mission
As per an independent Research report published by ABC Live Haryana, Disbursement of Incentives under Swachh Bharat Mission (Urban) in the state of Haryana has been made Arbitrarily by ignoring the guidelines of Swachh Bharat Mission (Urban)
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Monthly Magazine on Cleaning and Hygiene Technology: Clean India Journal
Media related to Swachh Bharat Abhiyan at Wikimedia Commons
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- "PM India Official".
- "Swachh Bharat Gramin". Archived from the original on 22 June 2015.
- "Ministry of Drinking Water & Sanitation".
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- "Toilet Beneficiary".
- "Swachh Bharat - How to Donate".
- "Swachh Bharat Mission Gramin Dhamtari-Chhattisgarh India Directed by Raju Hhirwani".[permanent dead link]
- Mangaluru: Non-disbursement of salary - garbage collectors resort to flash strike
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Swachh Bharat Abhiyan.|