Swachh Bharat mission
Nation level campaign to clean India.
|Swachh Bharat mission (SBM)|
|Swachh Bharat Abhiyan (SBA)|
PM launches Swachh Bharat Abhiyan
|Slogan||One step towards cleanliness|
|Prime Minister(s)||Narendra Modi|
|Launched||Raj Ghat, 2 October 2014|
Swachh Bharat Abhiyan (SBA) or Swachh Bharat Mission (SBM) is a nation-wide campaign in India for the period 2013 to 2019 that aims to clean up the streets, roads and infrastructure of India's cities, towns, and rural areas. The campaign's official name is in Hindi and translates to "Clean India Mission" in English. The objectives of Swachh Bharat include eliminating open defecation through the construction of household-owned and community-owned toilets and establishing an accountable mechanism of monitoring toilet use. Run by the Government of India, the mission aims to achieve an "open-defecation free" (ODF) India by 2 October 2019, the 150th anniversary of the birth of Mahatma Gandhi, by constructing 90 million toilets in rural India at a projected cost of ₹1.96 lakh crore (US$30 billion). The mission will also contribute to India reaching Sustainable Development Goal 6 (SDG 6), established by the UN in 2015.
The campaign was officially launched on 2 October 2014 at Rajghat, New Delhi by Prime Minister Narendra Modi. It is India's largest cleanliness drive to date with three million government employees and students from all parts of India participating in 4,043 cities, towns, and rural areas. Modi has called the campaign Satyagrah se Swachhagrah in reference to Gandhi's Champaran Satyagraha launched on 10 April 1917.
The mission has two thrusts: Swachh Bharat Abhiyan ("gramin" or 'rural'), which operates under the Ministry of Drinking Water and Sanitation; and Swachh Bharat Abhiyan ('urban'), which operates under the Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs.
As part of the campaign, volunteers, known as Swachhagrahis, or "Ambassadors of cleanliness", have promoted indoor plumbing and community approaches to sanitation (CAS) at the village level. Other non-governmental activities include national real-time monitoring and updates from non-governmental organizations (NGOs) such as The Ugly Indian, Waste Warriors, and SWaCH Pune (Solid Waste Collection and Handling) that are working towards its ideas of Swachh Bharat.
The government has constructed 86 million toilets since 2014, reducing the number of persons who openly defecate from 550 million to fewer than 150 million in 2018. Many people continue to not use toilets despite having them. The campaign has been criticized for using coercive approaches to force people to use toilets
To overcome the problem, personnel from the Department of Rural Development, Ministry of Drinking Water and Sanitation can be constituted while technical expertise from UNICEF can be taken. Standard toilet design and structure must be made common across all the villages. Governance must be decentralized to empower the district administration to procure all the material for the construction of toilets and send it to the villages directly. When a household constructs toilets for one’s own family/community, the quality is also mostly not compromised. 10% of the funds will be released upon applying for constructing a new toilet, 20% of the funds when construction starts, 30% of the funds will be released upon successful construction and evaluation. The remaining 40% of the funds will be released only after the entire village becomes ODF village.
- 1 Background
- 2 Structure
- 3 Performance monitoring (government data)
- 4 Other outcomes
- 5 Criticism
- 6 See also
- 7 References
- 8 External links
Open defecation and contamination of drinking and bathing water has been an endemic sanitary problem in India. In 2014, India was the country with the highest number of people practicing open defecation, around 530 million people.
Swachh Bharat Abhiyan campaign, launched on 2 October 2014 on Gandhi Jayanti, aims to eradicate open defecation by 2 October 2019, the 150th anniversary of the birth of Mahatma Gandhi, by constructing 90 million toilets in rural India at a projected cost of ₹1.96 lakh crore (US$28 billion). The national campaign spans 4,041 statutory cities and towns. conceived in March 2014 at a sanitation conference organised by UNICEF India and the Indian Institute of Technology as part of the larger Total Sanitation Campaign, which the Indian government launched in 1999.
Previous sanitation campaigns
On 1 April 2000, the Government of India restructured the Comprehensive Rural Sanitation Programme and launched the Total Sanitation Campaign (TSC) which was later (on 1 April 2012) renamed "Nirmal Bharat Abhiyan" by then Prime Minister Manmohan Singh. A limited randomized study of eighty villages in rural (Madhya Pradesh) showed that the TSC programme did modestly increase the number of households with latrines, and had a small effect in reducing open defecation. However, there was no improvement in the health of children."
The earlier "Nirmal Bharat Abhiyan" rural sanitation program was hampered by the unrealistic approach. Consequently, Nirmal Bharat Abhiyan was restructured by Cabinet approval on 24 September 2014 as Swachh Bharat Abhiyan.
Why were the Previous Policies (1986 – 2014) not successful?
Sanitation was viewed merely as an infrastructure problem; there was no emphasis on the behavioral aspect. The sanitation coverage across India in the last 3 decades is only 30%, which clearly tells that the sanitation policies lacked clear robustness and had very weak institutional mechanism. There was no clear targeting and the policies followed a generalized “All Fits into One” approach. Governments did not engage other stakeholders in the previous policies.
Swachh Bharat Abhiyan is expected to cost over ₹620 billion (US$9.0 billion). The government provides an incentive of ₹12,000 (US$170) for each toilet constructed by a below-poverty-line (BPL) family. An amount of ₹90 billion (US$1.3 billion) was allocated for the mission in the 2016 Union budget of India. The World Bank provided a US$1.5 billion loan and $25 million in technical assistance in 2016 for the Swachh Bharat Mission to support India's universal sanitation initiation. The programme has also received funds and technical support from the World Bank, corporations as part of corporate social responsibility initiatives, and by state governments under the Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan and Rashtriya Madhyamik Shiksha Abhiyan schemes.
The Government appointed CPWD with the responsibility to dispose of waste from Government offices. The Ministry of Railways planned to have the facility of cleaning on demand, clean bed-rolls from automatic laundries, bio-toilets, dustbins in all non-AC coaches. The Centre will use its Digital India project in conjunction with the Swachh Bharat Abhiyan to have solar-powered dustbins, which send alerts to sanitation crew once they are full. The Swachh Bharat Swachh Vidyalaya campaign was launched by the Minister of Human Resource Development, Government of India by participating in the cleanliness drive along with the school's teachers and students.
Selected public figures
Anushka Sharma and the Vice President of India M V Naidu picked up a broom to help clean the cyclone-hit port city of Visakhapatnam, in the southern state of Andhra Pradesh, as part of the cleanliness campaign.
On 2 October 2014, Prime Minister Modi nominated following people as Brand Ambassadors:
He also nominated a number of organisations, including the Institute of Chartered Accountants of India, Eenadu and India Today as well as the dabbawala of Mumbai, who deliver home-made food to lakhs of people in the city.[clarification needed]More than 3 million government employees and school and college students participated in the drive on the occasion.
- Rajyogini (Brahmakumaris Dadi Janki)
- Pawan Kalyan
- S. P. Balasubrahmanyam
- Amala (actress)
- K. Kavitha
- G V K Reddy
- Suddala Ashok Teja
- P Gopichand (sports)
- Humpy Koneru
- Galla Jayadev
- V. V. S. Laxman (sports)
- J. Rameshwar Rao
- Shivlal Yadav
- B. V. R. Mohan Reddy
- Akshay Kumar
- Lakshmi Manchu
From later dates the following public icons were invited to join and support the mission as brand ambassadors
Other notable activities
Kunwar Bai Yadav lived in a village in Dhamtari district and sold seven of her goats to raise the money to build a toilet at her house at age 106 in 2016. She was declared a mascot of the campaign and visited by Prime Minister Narendra Modi.
Performance monitoring (government data)
Swachh Bharat Mission (SBM) Mobile app is being used by people and Government organisations for achieving the goals of Swachh Bharat Mission. For this the government of India is bringing awareness to the people through advertisements.
In 2017, the national sanitation coverage rose to 65% from 38.7% on Oct 2, 2014 before the start of the campaign. It was 90% in August 2018. Eleven states, 314 districts and 3.25 lakh villages were declared Open Defecation Free (ODF) by 15 February 2018.
The cities and towns which have been declared ODF stood at 22 percent and the urban wards which have achieved 100 percent door-to-door solid waste collection stood at 50 percent. The number of Swachhagrahi volunteers working across urban local bodies rose to 20,000, and those working in rural India rose to more than a lakh. The number of schools with separate toilet facilities for girls rose from 0.4 million (37 percent) to almost one million (91 percent).
Swachh Sarvekshan annual cleanliness survey
Swachh Sarvekshan, commissioned by Ministry of Urban Development and carried out by Quality Council of India, is an extensive sanitation survey across several hundred cities to check the progress and impact of Swachh Bharat Abhiyan and to foster a spirit of competition among the cities. The performance of each city is evaluated on six parameters:-
- Municipal solid waste, sweeping, collection and transportation
- Municipal solid waste, processing, and disposal of solid waste
- Open defecation free and toilets
- Capacity building and eLearning
- Provision of public toilets and community toilets
- Information, education and communication, and behavior change
2017 Swachh Sarvekshan survey
Swachh Sarvekshan 2017 was conducted across 500 cities between 4 January 2017 and 7 February 2017. The top 10 cities are:
2016 Swachh Sarvekshan survey
Cleanest ten cities:
Ten least clean cities (at the bottom of the list):
As per an independent survey released by Quality Council of India in August 2017, overall national rural "household access to toilet" coverage increased to 62.5% and usage of what toilets to 91.3%, with Haryana topping the national ranking with 99% of households in rural areas covered and usage of toilets of 100%. World Health Organization (WHO) has in its report stated that at least 180,000 diarrhoeal deaths were averted in rural India since the launch of the Swachh Bharat Mission.
As per an independent research report published by ABP News, Haryana disbursement of incentives under the Swachh Bharat Mission (Urban) in the state of Haryana has been made arbitrarily by ignoring the government guidelines of Swachh Bharat Mission (Urban).
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