Slavic vocabulary

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The following list is a comparison of basic Proto-Slavic vocabulary and the corresponding reflexes in the modern languages, for assistance in understanding the discussion in Proto-Slavic and History of the Slavic languages. The word list is based on the Swadesh word list, developed by the linguist Morris Swadesh, a tool to study the evolution of languages via comparison, containing a set of 207 basic words which can be found in every language and are rarely borrowed. However, the words given as the modern versions are not necessarily the normal words with the given meaning in the various modern languages, but the words directly descended from the corresponding Proto-Slavic word (the reflex). The list here is given both in the orthography of each language, with accent marks added as necessary to aid in pronunciation and Proto-Slavic reconstruction. See below for a capsule summary of how to pronounce each language, as well as some discussion of the conventions used.

Table[edit]

Slavic languages
Translation Late Proto-Slavic class Russian Bulgarian Czech Polish Serbo-Croatian Slovenian Macedonian
Cyrillic Latin Cyrillic Latin standard
(Shtokavian)
Chakavian Cyrillic Latin
I *(j)azъ, (j)ā prn. я ja аз az ja jå̃ jàz јас jas
thou *ty prn. ты ty ти ti ty ty ти ti
he *onъ prn. он, она, оно on, oná, onó ((той)) ((toj)) on, ona, ono ȍn/ȏn, òna, òno õn, onȁ, onȍ òn, óna, onọ̑/óno тој/оној toj/onoj
we *my prn. мы my ние nie (dial.) my my ние nie
ye *vy prn. вы vy (ви́е) (víe) vy wy вие vie
they *oni, *ony, *ona prn. они́ on'í те te oni, ony, ona oni, one oni oni тие/оние tie/onie
this, that *tъ prn. то tot, ta, to (това́) (tová) ten, ta, to tȃj, tȃ, tȏ tȁ, tȃ, tȏ/tȍ tȃ, tȃ, tọ̑ ова/она ova/ona
there *tamъ там tam там tam tam tam tam таму tamu
who *kъto prn. кто kto ((кой)) ((koi)) kdo kto tkȍ; ki kdọ́ кој koj
what *čьto, *čь prn. что čto /što/ što co co štȍ (Vrg.) ča (<*čь) kaj што što
where *kъde prn. где gd'e къде kəde kde gdzie gdjȅ kadȅ (Orb.) kjẹ́ каде kade
when *kogъda; *kogъdy adv./conj. когда́ kogdá кога́ kogá (kdy); OCz. kehdy kiedy, gdy kàda kdáj кога koga
how; what (kind of) какъ adv.; prn. как kak; kakój как kak (jak) (OCz. kaký) (jak), jaki/jaka/jakie (arch. jako, jakowy/jakowa/jakowe, kako, kaki) kàko, kakav/kakva/kako kakọ̑, kakšen/kakšna/kakšno како, каков/каква/какво kako, kakov/kakva/kakvo
not *ne adv. не n'e не ne ne nie ne не ne
all *vьśь, *vьśja, vьśe prn. весь, вся, всё v'es', vs'a, vs'o (вси́чки)/вси (vsíčki)/vsi (všichni); OCz. veš, všě, vše (wszyscy); OPl. wszy, wsza, wsze sȁv, svȁ, svȅ svȁs, svȁ, svȅ vǝ̀s, vsà, vsè се/сето se/seto
many *mъnogъ adj. o мно́гий mnógij мно́го mnógo (adv.) mnohý mnogi mnȍgī mnọ̑gi многу mnogu
some *ne + *koliko не́сколько n'éskol'ko ня́колко njákolko několik kilka nekoliko nekọ̑liko, nẹ́kaj неколку неколку
few *malъ ма́ло málo ма́лко málko málo mało malo malo малку malku
second *drȗgъ adj. o (c) друго́й drugój ((втори)) ((vtori)) druhý drugi, (arch.. wtóry) drȗg drȕgī drȗgi втор vtor
other *jь̀nь prn. (a) ино́й inój ((друг)), (инакъв) ((drug)), (inakǝv) jiný inny drȗg drȗg друго drugo
one *(j)edìnъ, *(j)edьnъ num. o оди́н, одна́ od'ín, odná еди́н edín jeden jeden jèdan, jȅdna jedå̃n, jednȁ, jednȍ eden, en, ena, eno еден еден
two *d(ъ)va num. два dva, dve, dva двa dva dva, dvě, dvě dwa, dwie, dwa dvȃ, dvȉje, dvȃ dvå̑, dvȋ, dvå̑ dvȃ, dvẹ́, dvȃ два dva
three *trьje, *tri num. три tr'i три tri tři trzy trȋ trȋ trȋje, trȋ, trȋ три tri
four *četỳre num. (a) четы́ре č'etýr'e че́ти́ри čétíri čtyři cztery čètiri četȉri štirje, štiri, štiri четири četiri
five pę̑tь num. i (c) пять p'at' пет pet pět pięć pȇt pȇt pẹ̑t пет pet
big, great *velìkъ; velьkъ adj. o вели́кий v'el'ík'ij ((голям)), вели́к ((goljam)), velík velký wielki vȅlikī, vȅlikā, vȅlikō vȅlik, velikȁ, velikȍ vélik, velíka голем, велики golem, veliki
long *dь̀lgъ adj. o (a) до́лгий dólg'ij дъ́лъг dǝ́lǝg dlouhý długi dȕg dȕg dȏļg, dȏļga, dȏļgo долг/долго dolg/dolgo
wide *širokъ широ́кий širók'ij широ́к širók široký szeroki širok širók широк, широко/а/и širok, široko/a/i
thick *tъlstъ то́лстый tólstyj ((дебел)), тлъст ((debel)), tlǝst tlustý tłusty debel, debẹ́l, tọ̑lst дебел, дебело/а/и debel, debelo/a/i
heavy *tęžъkъ adj. o тя́жкий t'ážkij те́жък téžǝk těžký ciężki téžak, téška tȅžak, tēškȁ téžǝk téžka, téžko; težȃk тежок, тешко/а/и težok, teško/a/i
small *màlъ adj. o (a) ма́лый mályj (ма́лък); мал (málǝk); mal malý mały mȁo må̃lī mȃli, majhen малечoк/а/ки/ко, мал, мало/а/и. malećok/a/ki/ko, mal, malo/a/i
short *kortъ̀kъ adj. o (b) коро́ткий korótk'ij ((къс)), кра́тък ((kǝs)), krátǝk krátký krótki krátak, krátka krå̑tak, krå̄tkȁ, krå̑tko;
krãtak, krãtka, krãtko
krátǝk кратко/а/и, краток kratko/a/i, kratok
narrow *ǫzъkъ adj. o у́зкий úzk'ij; úzok, uzká, úzko ((те́сен)) ((tésen)) úzký wąski ȕzak, ȕska/uskȁ ȕsak, uskȁ, ȕsko ọ́zǝk, ọ́zka тесно/на/ни/ен tesno/na/ni/en, teško/a/i
thin *tь̏nъkъ adj. o (c) то́нкий tónk'ij; tónok, tanká, tónko тъ́нък tǝ́nǝk tenký cienki tȁnak, tànka/tánka tȁnak, tankȁ, tȃnko tǝnǝ́k, tǝnkà тенок, тенко/а/и tenok, tenko/a/i
husband *mǫ̑žь m. jo (c) муж muž ((съпруг)), мъж ((sǝprug)), mǝž muž mąż mȗž (mȗža) soprọ̑g, mọ̑ž (možȃ) сопруг soprug
woman/wife *ženà f. ā (b) жена́ ž'ená /žená/ жена́/съпруга žená/sǝpruga žena żona žèna (acc. žènu) ženȁ (acc. ženȕ) soprọ̑ga, žéna (wife), žẹ́nska (woman) жена/сопруга žená/sopruga
man (human) *čelověkъ m. o челове́к č'elov'ék чове́к čovék člověk człowiek čòvjek (čòvjeka); čȍvjek (čovjèka) čovȉk (čokȉka) člóvek (človẹ́ka) човек čovek
child *dětę дитя́ d'it'á дете́ deté dítě dziecko, dziecię dijete otrók, dẹ́te дете dete
mother *mati мать mat' ма́йка májka matka matka (arch. mać) majka, mater mati мајка majka
father *otьcь оте́ц ot'éc баща́, та́тко, отец baštá, tátko, otec otec ojciec otac oče татко, отец tatko, otec
wild animal *zvě̑rь m. i (c) зверь zv'er' звяр zvjar zvěř zwierz, zwierzę zvȉjer f. (i) zvȋr (zvȋri) f. (i) zvẹ̑r (zverȋ) ѕвер dzver
fish *ryba ры́ба rýba ри́ба ríba ryba ryba riba riba риба riba
bird *pъtica, *pъtъka пти́ца pt'íca пти́ца ptíca pták ptak ptica ptič, ptica птица ptica
dog *pьsъ соба́ка, пёс sobáka, p'os пес, ку́че pes, kúče pes pies pas pəs куче, пес kuče, pes
louse *vъ̏šь f. i (c) вошь voš' /voš/ (vš'i) въ́шка vǝ́ška veš wesz vȃš (vȁši); ȗš (ȕši) ùš (ušȋ); ȗš вошка voška
snake *zmьjà f. iā змея́ zm'ejá змия́ zmijá zmije[table 1] żmija[table 2] zmìja zmijȁ kača змија zmija
worm *čьrvь червь č'erv' че́рвей čérvej červ czerw, robak crv črv црв crv
tree *dervo, *dьrvo де́рево d'ér'evo дърво́ dǝrvó strom drzewo drvo drevọ̑ дрво drvo
forest *lěsъ лес l'es гора́, лес gorá, les les las šuma, dubrava gozd, lẹ́s, šuma, họ̑sta, mẹ́ja шума šuma
stick *palica, *palъka па́лка pálka пръ́чка, палка prǝ́čka, palka hůl laska / pałka / kij štap, palica palica стап, стапче stap, stapče
fruit *plodъ плод plod плод, овошка plod, ovoška ovoce (plod) owoc (płód) voće, plod sadež, plọ̑d oвошје ovošje
seed *sěmę се́мя s'ém'a се́ме séme semeno nasiono/nasienie, ziarno, siemię sjeme sẹ́me семе, семенка seme, semenka
leaf *listъ лист l'ist листо́, лист listó, list list liść list list лист list
root *korenь ко́рень kór'en' ко́рен kóren kořen korzeń korijen korẹ́n, korenína корен koren
bark (of a tree) *kora кора́ korá кора́ korá kůra kora kora skọ̑rja кора kora
flower *květъ цвето́к cv'etók цве́те cvéte květ kwiat, kwiecie cvijet rọ̑ža, cvẹ́t, cvetlíca цвеќе cvekje
grass *trava трава́ travá трева́ trevá tráva trawa trava trava трева treva
rope *ǫže верёвка v'er'óvka въже́, връв, шнур vǝžé, vrǝ́v, šnur provaz, houžev sznur, lina, powróz konop, špaga, uže vrv, konópec јаже, ортома jaže, ortoma
skin *koža ко́жа kóža ко́жа kóža kůže kożuch[table 3], skóra koža kọ̑ža кожа koža
meat *męso мя́со m'áso ме́со méso maso mięso meso mesọ̑ месо meso
blood *kry кровь krov' кръв krǝv krev krew krv kri крв krv
bone *kostь кость kost' кост, ко́кал kost, kókal kost kość, kostka(deminutive) kost kọ̑st коска koska
fat (noun) *sadlo са́ло sálo слани́на, мас, мазнина slanína, mas, maznina tuk tłuszcz, sadło masnoča, masti, salo mast, tọ̑lšča, maščóba, salo маст, сало mast, salo
egg *ȃje; *ajьce n. jo (c); n. jo яйцо́ jajcó яйце́ jajcé vejce jajo; jajko, jajco jáje; jájce jå̑je jájce јајце jajce
horn *rȍgъ m. o (c) рог rog рог rog roh róg (rogu) rȏg (rȍga) rọ̑g (rọ̑ga/rogȃ) рог rog
feather *però n. o (b) перо́ p'eró перо́ peró péro pióro pèro perȍ perọ̑ (perẹ́sa) пердув perduv
hair *vȏlsъ m. o (c) во́лос vólos (vólosa) влакно, косъм vlakno, kosǝm vlas włos, kosmyk[table 4] vlȃs (vlȃsa) vlå̑s (vlå̑sa) lȃs (lȃsa/lasȗ) влакно vlakno
hair, braided hair *kosà f. ā (c) kosá (kósu)[table 5] коса́ kosá OCz. kosa OPl. kosa[table 6] kòsa (acc. kȍsu) (Novi) kosȁ (acc. kosȕ/kȍsu) lasjẹ́ косa kosa
head *golvà f. ā (c) голова́ golová (acc. gólovu) глава́ glavá hlava głowa gláva (acc. glȃvu) glå̄vȁ (acc. glå̑vu) gláva глава glava
ear *ȗxo n. o (c) у́хо úxo, pl. úš'i /úšy/ ухо́ uxó, pl. uší ucho ucho ȕho/ȕvo, pl. f. ȕši ȕho (ȕha), pl. m. ȕši uhọ̑ (ušẹ̑sa) уво, уше uvo, uše
eye *ȍko n. o (c) глаз, о́ко óko (poet.) око́ okó oko oko ȍko okọ̑ (očẹ̑sa) око oko
nose *nȍsъ m. o (c) нос nos нос nos nos nos nȏs (nȍsa) nọ̑s (nọ̑sa/nosȃ/nosȗ) нос nos
mouth *ūstà pl. n. o (b) уста́ ustá (poet.) уста́ ustá ústa usta ústa ũstå̄; ũsta ústa уста usta
tooth *zǫ̑bъ m. o (c) зуб zub зъб zǝb zub ząb zȗb (zȗba) zọ̑b (zọ̑ba) заб zab
tongue/language *ęzỳkъ m. o (a) язы́к jazýk ези́к ezík jazyk język jèzik jazȉk jézik (jezíka) јазик jazik
nail (of finger/toe), claw *nȍgъtь m. i/io (c) но́готь nógot' (nógt'a) но́кът nókǝt nehet paznokieć (OPl. paznogiedź), pazur nȍkat (nȍkta); nogat (nokta) nȍhat (nȍhta) nọ̑ht (nọ̑hta) нокт, канџа nokt, kandža
foot, leg *noga f. ā (c) нога́ nogá (nógu) крак, нога krak, nogá noha noga nòga (nȍgu) nogȁ (nȍgu) nóga стапало, нога stapalo, noga
knee *kolě̀no n. o (a) коле́но kol'éno коля́но kol'áno koleno kolano kòljeno kolȉno kolẹ́no колено/ница koleno/nica
hand *rǭkà f. ā (c) рука́ ruká ръка́ rǝká ruka ręka rúka (rȗku) rūkȁ (rȗku) róka рака raka
wing *krīdlò n. o (b) крыло́ kryló крило́ kriló křídlo skrzydło krílo (Orb.) krīlȍ krílo крило krilo
belly *bŗȗxo, *bŗȗxъ m./n. o (c) брю́хо br'úxo корем, стомах, търбух korem, stomah, tǝrbuh břicho brzuch trbuh --- trẹ́buh (trebúha) стомак, желудник stomak, želudnik
guts *červo вну́тренности, кишки́ vnútr'ennost'i, k'išk'í въ́трешности, черва́ vǝ́trešnosti, červá vnitřnosti, střeva wnętrzności, trzewia (ścierwo[table 7]) crijevo črevo, črevẹ́sje, drobọ̑vje црева creva
neck *šija, *šьja ше́я š'éja /šéja/ врат, ши́я vrat, šíja krk szyja, kark vrat vrat врат vrat
shoulder *pletjè n. jo (b) плечó plečó рамо, плещи (pl.) ramo, pleští pl. plec plecy pl.[table 8], ramię [table 9] pléće, rame (Novi) plećȅ rama, plẹ́ča рамо ramo
breast *grǫ̑dь f. i (c) грудь grud' гръд grǝd prsa, hruď pierś; OPl. grędzi (pl.) grȗd, prsa prsi, grudi, nẹ́drje града grada
heart *sь̏rdьce n. jo (c) се́рдце s'érdc'e /s'érce/ сърце́ sǝrcé srdce serce (OPl. serdce) sȑce (sȑca) srcẹ̑ (srcá) срце srce
liver *ę̄trò n. o (b) játro/jatró[table 10] черен дроб, джигер cheren drob, džiger játra (pl.) (wątroba) jȅtra (pl.) (Orb.) jiẽtra (pl.) jẹ́tra (pl.) џигер, црн дроб džiger, crn drob
to drink *pìti v. пить p'it' да пи́я da píja píti pić pȉti (pȉjēm) pȉti (pījȅš) píti (píjem) да пие da pie
to eat *ě̀sti v. есть jest' да ям da jam jísti jeść jȅsti (jȅdem) ȉsti/ĩsti (3sg. idẽ) jẹ́sti (jẹ́m) да јаде da jade
to gnaw *grỳzti v. (c) грызть gryzt' да гризя da grize hryzat gryźć grȉsti (grízēm) grȉsti (2sg. grīzȅš) grísti (grízem) да гризе da grize
to suck *sъsàti v. соса́ть sosát' (sosú, sos'ót) (су́ча) (súča) sát (saji) ssać (ssę) sisati sesáti (sesȃm) да цица da cica
to spit *pjь̀vati v. (a) плева́ть pl'evát' (pljujú, plujót) плю́я pljúja; pljúvam plivat (plivu) pluć (pluję), (arch. plwać) pljùvati (pljȕjēm) pljúvati (pljúvam) да плука da pluka
to vomit *bljьvàti v. блева́ть bl'evát' (bljujú, bljujót) повръщам, бълвам povrǝ́shtam, bǝ́lvam blít (bliju) wymiotować, zwracać, rzygać; OPl. bluć (bluj̨ę) bljùvati (bljȕjēm), povračati (Orb.) bljȕvat (3sg. bljȗje/bljȕva) brùhati, bljuváti (bljúvam/bljújem) да повраќа da povrakja
to breathe *dyxati v. дышать dyshat' (dial.) ди́шам díšam dýchat (dýchám) oddychać; dychać (colloq.), dyszeć[table 11] dísati (dȋšēm/dȋhām) dȉhati (2sg. dȉšeš) díhati (dȋham) да дише da diše
to laugh *smьjàti sę v. (c) смея́ться sm'eját's'a (smejús', smejóts'a) сме́я се sméja se smát se (směju se) śmiać się (śmieję się) smìjati se (sjìjēm se) (Vrg.) smījȁti se (smijȅš se) smejáti se (smẹ́jem se/smejím se) да се смее da se smee
to see *vìděti v. (a) ви́деть v'íd'et' (1sg. v'ížu, 3sg. v'íd'it) ви́ждам vídja, víždam vidět (vidím) widzieć vȉdjeti (vȉdīm) vìti (2sg. vȉdīš) vídeti (vȋdim) да види da vidi
to hear *slušati слу́шать slúšat' слу́шам, чу́вам slúšam, čúvam slyšet (slyším) słyszeć slušati slišati (slišim) да слушне da slušne
to know, be familiar with *znàti v. (a) знать znat' (znáju) зна́я; знам znája; znam znát (znám) znać znȁti (znȃm) znȁti (2sg. znå̑š) poznáti (poznȃm) да знае, да познава da znae, da poznava
to know, understand *věděti v. ведать v'édat'[table 12] знам, разбирам znam, razbiram vědět (vím) wiedzieć (wiem) znati vẹ́deti (vẹ́m) да разбере da razbere
to think *mysliti мы́слить mýsl'it' ми́сля míslja myslet (myslím) myśleć misliti misliti (mislim) да мисли da misli
to smell *čuti ню́хать, чу́ять n'úkhat', čújat' мири́ша, ду́ша miríša, dúša vonět (voním), čichat (čichám) czuć, wąchać[table 13], wonieć[table 14] mirisati vọ̑hati, vọ̑njati, duhati да мирисне da mirisne
to fear *bojati sę боя́ться boját's'a страху́вам се, боя се straxúvam se, boja se bát se bać się (boję się), płoszyć się, strachać się(arch.), lękać się bojati se bati se да се плаши da se plaši
to sleep *sъpati спать spat' спя spja spát spać spavati spati да спие da spie
to live *žìti v. (c) жить ž'it' /žyt'/ живе́я živéja žít żyć žívjeti, 1sg. žívīm žīvȉti, 2sg. žīvȅš živẹ́ti да живее da živee
to die *merti умира́ть um'irát' уми́рам umíram umírat umierać, mrzeć umrjeti, umriti umrẹ́ti да умре da umre
to kill *ubiti убива́ть ub'ivát' уби́вам ubívam zabíjet zabijać, ubijać ubiti ubíti да убие da ubie
to fight *boriti sę боро́ться borót's'a бо́ря се, би́я се bórja se, bíja se bojovat walczyć, bić się, wojować, zmagać się boriti se, tući se boríti se, bojeváti se да се бори, да се тепа da se bori, da se tepa
to hunt *loviti охо́титься oxót'it's'a лову́вам, ловя lovúvam, lovja lovit polować,[table 15] łowić[table 16] loviti lovíti да лови da lovi
to hit *udariti v. ударя́ть udar'át' у́дрям údrjam udeřit uderzać ùdariti, 1sg. ùdarīm udáriti да удри da udri
to cut *sěkti, *strigti, *rězati ре́зать, руби́ть r'ézat', rub'ít' ре́жа, сека́ réža, seká řezat ciąć,[table 17] strzyc,[table 18], siec OPl. rzezać (arch.) rezati rẹ́zati да сече da seće
to split разделя́ть razd'el'át' разде́лям razdéljam rozdělit podzielić,[table 19] rozdzielić[table 20] podijeliti, razdijeliti razdelíti да подели, да раздели da podeli, da razdeli
to stab *bosti, *kolti коло́ть kolót' буча́, прому́швам, пробо́ждам bučá, promúšvam, probóždam píchnout pchnąć,[table 21] bóść[table 22] (coll. kolnąć) ubosti, zabosti zabósti, prebósti да убоде da ubode
to scratch *česati, *drapati цара́пать carápat' че́ша, дра́скам čéša, dráskam škrábat drapać,[table 23] skrobać,[table 24] czesać[table 25], grzebać[table 26] češati, grebati praskati да гребе, драска, чеша, драпа da grebe, draska, ćeša, drapa
to dig *kopati копа́ть kopát' копа́я kopája kopat kopać kopati kopáti да копа da kopa
to swim, sail *pluti; *plỳti v.; v. (a) плыть plyt' (plyvú, plyv'ót) плу́вам plúvam plout (pluju) (pływać), pluć[table 27] plȉti (plȉjēm) plúti (plújem/plóvem) да плива, да едри da pliva, da edri
to swim, sail *plàvati v. (a) пла́вать plávat' пла́вам plávam plavat pływać, pławić się,[table 28] OPl. pławać plivati plávati (plȃvam) да плива, да едри da pliva, da edri
to fly *letěti лета́ть l'etát' летя́ letjá létat latać, lecieć letjeti letẹ́ti (letím) да лета da leta
to walk *xoditi v. ходи́ть xod'ít' хо́дя xódja chodit chodzić hòdati (hȍdīm) hodȉti hodíti (hǫ́dim) да оди da odi
to go *jьti v. идти́ idt'í (idú, id'ót) вървя, отивам vǝ́rvja, otivam jít (jdu) iść (idę) ìći (ȉdēm) íti (grem) да замине da замине
to come приходи́ть, прийти́ pr'ixod'ít', pr'ijt'í и́двам, ида, дохождам ídvam, ida, dohoždam přicházet, přijít przychodzić, przyjść, dojść doći, prići priti да дојде da dojde
to lie (as in a bed) *ležati лежа́ть l'ežát' лежа́ ležá ležet leżeć ležati, lijegati ležáti (ležím) лежам ležam
to sit *sěsti сиде́ть s'id'ét' седя́ sedjá sedět siedzieć sjediti sedẹ́ti (sedím) да седне da sedne
to stand *stati стоя́ть stoját' стоя́, ставам stojá, stavam stát stać, stawać, stojeć(arch./dial.) stajati vstáti да стане da stane
to turn *vьrtě̀ti v. (c) верте́ть v'ert'ét' (1sg. v'erčú, 3sg. v'ért'it) въртя́ vǝrtjá vrtět (obracać), wiercić vŕtjeti (vŕtīm) vrtȉti (2sg. vrtĩš) vrtẹ́ti (vrtím) да врти, да заврти da vrti, da zavrti
to turn, return *vortìti v. (b) воротить, вернуть vorot'ít' (1sg. voročú, 3sg. vorót'it)[table 29] vernut' връщам vrǝshtam vrátit wrócić vrátiti (1sg. vrȃtīm) vrå̄tȉti (2sg. vrå̃tīš) vrníti да се врати da se vrati
to fall *pasti па́дать pádat' па́дам pádam padat spadać/padać, paść/spaść pasti pasti да падне da padne
to give *dati дава́ть davát' да́вам dávam dávat dawać, dać dati dati да даде da dade
to hold *dьržati держа́ть d'eržát' държа́ dǝržá držet trzymać, dzierżyć držati držáti (držím) да држи da drži
to squeeze *tiskati;
*žęti
v. (b) сжима́ть sž'imát' /žžymát'/ сти́скам, ма́чкам stískam, máčkam mačkat ściskać, wyżymać[table 30] stiskati stiskati да стеска, да стега da steska, da stega
to rub *terti тере́ть t'er'ét' три́я, тъ́ркам tríja, tǝ́rkam třít trzeć trljati drgniti, trẹ́ti да трие da trie
to wash *myti мыть myt' ми́я, пера́ míja, perá mýt myć, prać[table 31] oprati, umiti umíti, opráti да мие, да пере da mie, da pere
to wipe вытира́ть vyt'irát' бъ́рша, три́я bǝ́rša, tríja vytírat wycierać, otrzeć obrisati, brisati brisati, otrẹ́ti да бриши da briši
to pull *pьxati тяну́ть t'anút' дъ́рпам, те́гля, вла́ча dǝ́rpam, téglja, vláča táhnout ciągnąć, wlec[table 32] potegnuti vlẹ́či, potegníti да влече, да тегне da vleće, da tegne
to push толка́ть, пиха́ть tolkát', p'ixát' нати́скам, бу́там natískam, bútam tlačit pchać, wcisnąć[table 33], tłoczyć[table 34] gurnuti potisniti, poriniti да турка da turka
to throw *kydati, *mesti, *vergti v. броса́ть, кида́ть brosát', k'idát' хвъ́рлям xvǝ́rljam házet; OCz. vrci (1sg. vrhu) rzucać, miotać |veȑć, 2sg. veȑžeš vrẹ́či да фрли da frli
to tie *vę̄zàti v. (b) вяза́ть v'azát' връ́звам vrǝ́zvam vázat wiązać vézati, 1sg. véžēm vēzȁti, 2sg. vēžeš vẹ́zati да врзе da vrze
to sew *šiti шить š'it' /šyt'/ ши́я šíja šít szyć šivati sejati да сошие da sošie
to read, count *čitati v. чита́ть č'itát' чета cheta číst (čtu) czytać čìtati (čìtām) čȉtati (2sg. čȉtå̄š) brati (berem), čítati (čítam) да чита, да рачуна da čita, da računa
to speak, talk *govorìti v. говори́ть govor'ít' говоря govórja mluvit, hovořit rozmawiać, mówić, gwarzyć OPl. goworzyć; gaworzyć[table 35] govòriti (gòvorīm) govȍrīti (2sg. govȍrīš) govoríti (govorím) да говори, да зборува da govori, da zboruva
to show *kāzàti v. каза́ть kazát' показвам pokazvam ukázat pokazać kázati (kȃžēm) kå̄zȁti (2sg. kå̃žeš) kázati (kážem) да покаже da pokaže
to sing *pěti v. (c) петь p'et' (pojú, pojót) пе́я péja (2sg. péeš) zpívat (zpívám), pět (pěji) śpiewać (śpiewam), piać (pieję)[table 36] pjevati pẹ́ti (pójem) да пее da pee
to play *jьgrati игра́ть igrát' игра́я igrája hrát grać, igrać igrati igráti, igráti se да игра da igra
to flow *tekti течь t'eč' тече teče téct ciec, cieknąć teči teči да тече da teče
to freeze *mьrznǫti замерзáть zam'erzát' замръ́звам zamrǝ́zvam zamrznout marznąć, zamarzać zamrznuti zamrzniti да замрзне da zamrzne
to swell *puxnǫti пу́хнуть púxnut' подпу́хвам, оти́чам, поду́вам се podpúxvam, otíčam, podúvam se opuchnout, otéct puchnąć, rozdąć (się) oteknuti, oteći oteči да потечи da poteči
sun *sъlnьce со́лнце sólnc'e /sónce/ слъ́нце slǝ́nce slunce słońce sunce sọ̑nce сонце sonce
moon *luna, *měsęcь луна́, ме́сяц luná, m'és'ac луна́, месец, месечина luná, mesec, mesečina měsíc księżyc, OPl. miesiąc mjesec mẹ́sec месечина mesečina
star *gvězda звезда́ zv'ezdá звезда́ zvezdá hvězda gwiazda zvijezda zvẹ́zda ѕвезда dzvezda
water *vodà f. ā (c) вода́ vodá (acc. vódu) вода́ vodá voda woda vòda (acc. vȍdu) vodȁ (acc. vȍdu) vóda вода voda
rain *dъždь дождь dožd' /došš', došt'/ дъжд dǝžd déšť deszcz, OPl. deżdż (gen. deszczu/dżdżu) kiša dǝž дожд dožd
river *rěka река́ r'eká река́ reká řeka rzeka rijeka rẹ́ka река reka
lake *(j)ezero о́зеро óz'ero е́зеро ézero jezero jezioro jezero jẹ́zero езеро ezero
sea *more, *morě мо́ре mór'e море́ moré moře morze more mọ̑rje море more
salt *solь соль sol' сол sol sůl sól sol sọ̑l сол sol
stone *kamy ка́мень kám'en' ка́мък, камъни (pl.) kámǝk, kamǝni (pl.) kámen kamień (dim. kamyk) kamen kamen камен kamen
sand *pěsъkъ песо́к p'esók пя́сък pjásǝk písek piasek pijesak pẹ́sek песок pesok
dust *porxъ пыль pyl' прах prax prach pył, kurz, proch prašina, prah prah прав, прашина prav, prašina
earth *zemľà f. jā (b/c) земля́ z'eml'á (acc. z'éml'u) земя́ zemjá země ziemia zèmlja (acc. zȅmlju) zemļȁ (acc. zȅmļu) zémlja земја zemja
cloud *tǫča ту́ча, о́блако túča, óblako о́блак óblak oblak chmura, obłok oblak oblák облак oblak
fog *mьglà мгла, туман mgla, tuman мъгла́ mǝglá mlha mgła magla megla магла magla
sky *nȅbo нёбо n'óbo небе́ nebé nebe niebo nebo nebọ̑ небо nebo
wind *vě̀trъ m. o (a) ве́тер v'ét'er вя́тър vjátǝr vítr wiatr vjȅtar (vjȅtra) vȉtar (vȉtra) vệtǝr ветер veter
snow *sněgъ снег sn'eg сняг snjag sníh śnieg snijeg snẹ́g снег sneg
ice *ledъ лёд l'od лед led led lód led lẹ́d мраз, лед mraz, led
smoke *dymъ дым dym дим, пу́шек dim, púšek dým dym dim dim чад, дим čad, dim
fire *ognь ого́нь ogón' о́гън ógǝn oheň ogień (ognia) vatra ogenj оган ogan
ash *pepelъ пе́пел p'ép'el пе́пел pépel popel popiół pepeo pepẹ́l пепел pepel
to burn *gorěti, *paliti горе́ть, пыла́ть gor'ét', pylát' горя́, паля́ gorjá, paljá hořet palić, arch. gorzeć goriti gorẹ́ti да гори da gori
way *pǫ̃tь m. i (b) путь put' път pǝt pout' (fem.)[table 37] droga, (arch. pątnik [table 38]) OPl. pąć pȗt (púta) pũt (pũta) pǫ́t пат pat
mountain *gorà fem. ā (c) гора́ gorá гора́, планина gorá[table 39], planina hora góra gòra (gȍru), planina gorȁ (gȍru) góra гора, планина gora, planina
red *čьrmьnъ adj. o č'er'emnój/č'er'ómnyj (dial.)[table 40] червено červeno čermný/črmný (Kott) (dial. czermny) crveno črmljen црвено crveno
red *čьrv(j)enъ adj. o č'er'evl'onyj (obs.)[table 41] черве́н červén červený czerwony, czerwień cr̀ven rdeč црвен/но/на/ни crven/no/na/ni
green *zelènъ adj. o (b) зелёный z'el'ónyj зеле́н zelén zelený zielony, zieleń zèlen, zelèna, zelèno zelẽn, zelenȁ, zelenȍ zelèn, zeléna зелен/но/на/ни zelen/no/na/ni
yellow *žьltъ adj. o жёлтый ž'óltyj /žóltyj/ жълт žǝlt žlutý żółty, żółć, żółcień žȗt, f. žúta žȗt, f. žūtȁ, n. žȗto rumén, žȏłt, žółta жолт/то/та/ти żolt/то/та/ти
white *bělъ бе́лый b'élyj бял bjal bílý biały, biel bijelo bẹ́l бел/о/а/и bel/о/а/и
black *čьrnъ чёрный č'órnyj че́рен čéren černý czarny, czerń crno črn црн/о/а/и crn/о/а/и
night *noktь ночь noč' нощ nošt noc noc noć nọ̑č ноќ nokj
day *dьnь день d'en' ден den den dzień dan (dana) dan (dnẹ́, dnẹ́va) ден den
year *godъ, *rokъ год god годи́на godína rok rok(pl.lata), godzina[table 42] godina lẹ́to година godina
warm *teplъ, *toplъ тёплый t'óplyj то́пло tóplo teplý ciepły toplo toplo топло toplo
cool, cold *xoldьnъ adj. o (c) холо́дный xolódnyj хла́д/ен(но/на/ни), студен(о/а/и) xlád/en (no/na/ni), studen(o/a/i) chladný chłodny hládǝn hlå̑dan hládǝn ладно ladno
full *pьlnъ по́лный pólnyj пъ́лен pǝ́len plný pełny, pełen pun pọ̑łn полн poln
new *novъ но́вый nóvyj нов nov nový nowy nov nov нов nov
old *starъ ста́рый stáryj стар star starý stary star star стар star
good *dobrъ хоро́ший, добрый xoróš'ij, dobryj добъ́р dobǝ́r dobrý dobry dobar dọ̑ber добар, добро dobar, dobro
bad *zъlъ adj. o злой zloj; zol, zla, zlo[table 43] лош, зъл loš, зǝ́л zlý zły zȁo, zlȁ, zlȍ zli, zlà, zlo лош, зол, зла loš, zol, zla
rotten *gnjilъ гнило́й gn'ilój гнил gnil shnilý zgniły pokvaren gnil гнил gnil
dirty гря́зный gr'áznyj мръ́сен mrǝ́sen špinavý brudny prljav, zmazan umázan валкано valkan
straight *prostъ, *pravъ прямо́й pr'amój прав prav přímý prosty; prawy[table 44], równy[table 45] ravan raven прав, рамен prav, ramen
round *krǫglъ кру́глый krúglyj кръ́гъл krǝ́gǝl kulatý / okrouhlý krągły/okrągły okruglo okrọ̑gel кружно, округло kružno, okruglo
sharp *ostrъ о́стрый óstryj о́стър óstǝr ostrý ostry oštro ọ̑stǝr остро ostro
dull *tǫpъ тупо́й tupój тъп tup tupý tępy tup tọ̑p тапо tapo
smooth *gladъkъ гла́дкий, ро́вный gládk'ij, róvnyj гла́дък, ра́вен gládǝk, ráven hladký gładki gladak gladek мазно mazno
wet *mokrъ мо́крый mókryj мо́кър mókǝr mokrý mokry mokar mọ̑ker мокро mokro
dry *suxъ сухо́й suxój сух sux suchý suchy suh suh суво suvo
correct пра́вильный práv'il'nyj пра́вилен právilen správný poprawny, właściwy, prawilny(slang) pravilan pravílen правилно, точно pravilno, točno
near *blizъ бли́зкий bl'ízk'ij бли́зък blízǝk blízký bliski blizu, blizak blizu близу, блиско blizu, blisko
far *dalekъ далёкий dal'ók'ij дале́чен daléčen daleký daleki daleko daleč, daljen далеку daleku
right *pravъ пра́вый právyj де́сен désen pravý prawy desno, pravo dẹ́sǝn десно desno
left *lěvъ ле́вый lévyj ляв ljav levý lewy lijevo lẹ́vi лево levo
at *po, *u prep./pref. при, у pr'i, u при, у, на pri, u, na při, u przy, u u; u- pri кaj kaj
in(to) *vъ(n) prep. в v; vn- в v v; v(n)- w(e); wn- u; va- v в v
with *sъ(n) с s с(със) s(sǝs) s z s, sa s, z со so
and (j)ь, *a и, а i, a и, а i, a a, i i, a i in и, а i, a
if *(j)ako е́сли jésl'i ако́ akó jestli jeśli, jeżeli, jak(coll.) ako, ukoliko če, ko ако ako
because *dělja, *dьlja, děljьma потому́ что potomú čto /što/ защо́то zaštóto protože bo, dlatego że, ponieważ, za to[table 46], temu, że(coll. or dial.), przeto, że(arch. zato (što, jer), stoga zatọ̑, zatọ̑ ker затоа што, зашто zatoa što, zašto
name *(j)ьmę и́мя ím'a и́ме íme jméno imię, arch. miano ime imẹ́ име ime
  1. ^ "adder"
  2. ^ "venomous snake, adder"
  3. ^ "sheepskin coat"
  4. ^ "tuft of hair"
  5. ^ "braid, plait"
  6. ^ "braid, mane"
  7. ^ "carcass"
  8. ^ "back"
  9. ^ "arm(limb)"
  10. ^ "entrails, eggs"
  11. ^ "pant, gasp"
  12. ^ "manage"; "know" (obs.)
  13. ^ "to smell", transitive
  14. ^ "to smell, intransitive"
  15. ^ "hunt, chase, prowl, course"
  16. ^ "hunt, fish, catch, snare"
  17. ^ "cut, slice, chop"
  18. ^ "cut, mow, trim, shear"
  19. ^ "split, divide, separate, share, distribute"
  20. ^ "split (up), (divide up), disunite, pull apart, separate, parcel, give away, share, distribute, provide, disperse"
  21. ^ "push"
  22. ^ "stab, spike, prick, butt"
  23. ^ "scratch, scrape, irritate, rub"
  24. ^ "scratch, scrape, rasp, scrub, grate, scribble"
  25. ^ "comb, brush"
  26. ^ "to rummage, to dig"
  27. ^ "spit, sputter"
  28. ^ "wallow"
  29. ^ "bring back"
  30. ^ "to squeeze(mainly clothes)from water"
  31. ^ "to wash clothes"
  32. ^ "to drag"
  33. ^ "to push f.ex. a button"
  34. ^ "to push f.ex. steam"
  35. ^ "babble, coo"
  36. ^ "to crow, to sound like a rooster"
  37. ^ "pilgrimage, journey"
  38. ^ "pilgrim"
  39. ^ "woods"
  40. ^ "red-haired, ginger"
  41. ^ "dark red"
  42. ^ "hour"
  43. ^ "angry"
  44. ^ "righteous"
  45. ^ "even"
  46. ^ "for that")

Conventions in the table[edit]

  • Common Slavic accents follow Chakavian conventions: ã (long rising), à (short rising), ȃ (long falling), ȁ (short falling), ā (length in unstressed syllable).
  • The accent pattern (a, b or c) of Common Slavic nouns, verbs and adjectives is indicated. These patterns are as follows: a = consistent root accent; b = predominant suffix accent; c = mobile accent.
  • Nouns are given in the nominative singular; a form in parentheses is genitive singular except as indicated (acc. = accusative singular, pl. = nominative plural).
  • Verbs are given in the infinitive (but the first singular present in Bulgarian, which has no infinitives). A form in parentheses is first singular present except as indicated (2sg. = second singular, 3sg. = third singular). A second form in parentheses is third singular present.
  • When multiple forms of an adjective are given, the order is masculine, feminine, neuter.
  • Chakavian forms are given in the Vrgada dialect except as indicated (Novi = Novi dialect, Orb. = Orbanići dialect).

Transcription of Russian and Bulgarian[edit]

Transcription of Bulgarian follows the standard conventions for academic transliteration of Cyrillic, with the exception that Cyrillic ъ is represented as ǝ instead of ă for ease of reading, particularly when combined with a stress mark (ǝ́ instead of ). This is a one-to-one transliteration that directly represents the spelling of Cyrillic. This transliteration also represents Bulgarian phonology quite well (unlike the situation in Russian).

Transcription of Russian is based on the same standard, but deviates from it in order to consistently represent palatalization (always written with a following apostrophe, e.g. l', n', t', v') and the phoneme /j/ (always written j), both of which are spelled in multiple ways in Cyrillic. The following indicates how to convert between the two:

Cyrillic letters Letter class Academic transliteration This article's transcription
а э ы о у Non-palatal vowels a è y o u a e y o u
я е и ё ю Palatal vowels ja e i ë ju If following a consonant letter, a e i o u with preceding apostrophe ('); elsewhere, ja je ji jo ju.
й ў Semivowels j ŭ same
ь Soft sign ' same
ъ Hard sign '' not written
щ A consonant sign šč šš'

The result is that this article's transcription is almost directly phonemic, making it significantly easier for readers not familiar with the complications of Cyrillic spelling. Note that the transcription used here continues the standard practice of representing the Cyrillic letters ы и as y i, although they are normally considered allophones of each other. This is because the pronunciation of the two letters is significantly different, and Russian ы normally continues Common Slavic *y [ɨ], which was a separate phoneme.

The letter щ is conventionally written št in Bulgarian, šč in Russian. This article writes šš' in Russian to reflect the modern pronunciation [ɕɕ].

Both transcriptions indicate stress with an acute accent (á é í ó ú ý ǝ́). Stress is indicated in Cyrillic in the same fashion, except with the letter ё, which is always stressed.

Pronunciation[edit]

Capsule summary of Russian pronunciation[edit]

The transcription used in this article is morphophonemic rather than strictly phonemic, i.e. it writes the underlying phonemes rather than the phonemes actually heard when pronounced. The difference occurs particularly in the representation of unstressed vowels, where multiple underlying phonemes merge. For example, underlying e and i merge into the same sound when unstressed, but the difference is revealed in related forms based on the same root: e.g. z'eml'á [zʲɪmˈlʲæ] "land" has accusative z'éml'u [ˈzʲemlʲʉ], but z'imá [zʲɪˈma] "winter" has accusative z'ímu [ˈzʲimu]. When the transcription (which is derived from the spelling) disagrees with the actual morphophonemic pronunciation, the latter is indicated specially, e.g. čto /što/; š'it' /šyt'/; ž'óltyj /žóltyj/; ž'ená /žená/ [ʐɨˈna]; sólnc'e /sónce/ [ˈsont͡sə]. This occurs mostly with the letters š, ž, c, which are normally written palatal but pronounced non-palatal; but it is also due to occasional assimilations. Note that the rules for unstressed vowels still need to be applied (see below).

  • á, é, í etc. indicates stress.
  • š [ʂ], ž [ʐ] and c [t͡s] are never palatal, while č [t͡ɕ] and šš [ɕɕ] are always palatal, regardless of spelling.
  • y [ɨ]: allophone of i [i] after non-palatal consonants, but written differently by convention. Written i sounds as y after š, ž, c, regardless of whether indicated as palatal in the spelling: ž'it [ʐɨtʲ] "to live".
  • Vowel mergers in unstressed syllables are extensive, but not written.
    • After palatal, vowels a, o, e, i all merge as [ɪ]: t'až'ólyj [tʲɪˈʐolɨj] "heavy", v'el'ík'ij [vʲɪˈlʲikʲɪj] "big".
    • After non-palatal, vowels a and o merge as [ɐ] directly before the stress and absolutely word-initially, [ə] elsewhere: molokó [məlɐˈko] "milk", sobáka [sɐˈbakə] "dog", č'elov'ék [t͡ɕɪlɐˈvʲek] "man (human)".
    • After non-palatal, vowels e and i/y merge as [ɨ]: ž'ená [ʐɨˈna].
    • Exception: Absolutely word-finally after a palatal, e, i merge as [ɪ] but a, o merge as [ə]: s'ém'a [ˈsʲemʲə] "seed".
  • Obstruents are devoiced word-finally, and agree in voicing in a cluster before another obstruent: muž [muʂ] "husband", vs'o [fsʲɵ] "everything", vokzál [vɐɡˈzal] "railway station". But v does not trigger voicing of preceding obstruent, nor is it devoiced.
  • The reflexive suffix -s'a and reflexive infinitive -t'-s'a are pronounced without palatalization, i.e. as if written -sa and -t-sa.

Capsule summary of Bulgarian pronunciation[edit]

  • á, é, í etc. indicates stress.
  • Stressed ǝ is actually [ɤ]; unstressed a and ǝ tend to merge as [ɐ].
  • Obstruent voicing/devoicing as in Russian.

Capsule summary of Czech pronunciation[edit]

  • á, é, í etc. indicates vowel length.
  • ů [uː] < . ou [oʊ̯] < .
  • h [ɦ], ch [x].
  • č [tʃ], š [ʃ], ž [ʒ], ř [r̝] (a palatal fricative trill, sounding a bit like [rʑ]).
  • ď [ɟ], ť [c], ň [ɲ]. Also indicated by d, t, n before i, í or ě.
  • y = i but indicates normal rather than palatal pronunciation after d t n.
  • ě = short e but signals palatal nature of previous consonant: dě, tě, ně = ďe, ťe, ňe; vě, fě, bě, pě = vje, fje, bje, pje; = mňe.
  • Obstruent voicing/devoicing as in Russian. ř after obstruent is itself devoiced rather than trigger voicing: přímý [pr̝̊iːmiː] "straight".

Capsule summary of Slovak pronunciation[edit]

Capsule summary of Polish pronunciation[edit]

  • Retroflex consonants: sz [ʂ], cz [t͡ʂ], ż [ʐ], rz [ʐ] < (as in Czech), [d͡ʐ].
  • Alveolopalatal consonants: ś or si [ɕ], ć or ci [t͡ɕ], ź or zi [ʑ], or dzi [d͡ʑ], ń or ni [ɲ].
  • All consonants are palatalized before i. Note that alveolar s, z, n become alveolopalatal when palatalized, absorbing the i before another vowel: chodzić [ˈxɔd͡ʑit͡ɕ] "to walk", siedzieć [ˈɕɛd͡ʑɛt͡ɕ] "to sit".
  • h or ch [x], w [v], ł [w].
  • y [ɨ], ó [u] < *oː, ę [ɛ̃], ą [ɔ̃].
  • Obstruent voicing/devoicing as in Russian and Czech. However, w and rz do not voice a preceding voiceless obstruent, but instead are devoiced: kwiat [kfʲat] "flower", przyjść [pʂɨjɕt͡ɕ] "to come" < *prʲijtʲ (cf. Russian pr'ijt'í).

Capsule summary of Serbo-Croatian pronunciation[edit]

  • Accents: á (long rising), à (short rising), ȃ (long falling), ȁ (short falling), ā (length in unstressed syllable), ã (long rising in Chakavian dialect = Common Slavic neoacute).
  • š [ʃ], č [tʃ], ž [ʒ], [dʒ], ć [tɕ], đ [dʑ], nj [ɲ], lj [ʎ].
  • Russian-style obstruent voicing/devoicing does not occur.

Dialectal differentiation[edit]

After the three palatalizations of Proto-Slavic, dialectal variation became more apparent. Some dialects (such as Proto-East Slavic), applied the second regressive palatalization across an intervening *v.[1]

  • Russian: *gwojzda > *gwězda > zvězda > [zʲvʲɪˈzda] ('star')
  • Polish: *gwojzda > *gwězda > gwiazda > [ˈɡvʲazda] ('star')

Also, the realization of the palatalizations' sibilants varied a little amongst dialects. Belić (1921) argues that the phonetic character of the palatalizations was uniform throughout Common Slavic and that West Slavic languages developed *š later on by analogy.[2] In all dialects (except for Lechitic), [dz] was deaffricated to [z]:[1]

  • Ukrainian: *zvizda> z'vizda; and zyrka/z'irka> Cf. Pol.: gwiazda-> GV/ZV + I + ZD; Z'/Z + Y/I + R + K +A ( zIr > vision).

The final cutoff point for the Proto-Slavic period was the change of *ě to *a after palatal consonants and *j, which then created *ča/*ka contrasts.[3] This, and the shortening and elision of weak yers (*ь/ĭ and *ъ/ŭ) (see Havlík's law) that created newly formed closed syllables[4] ended the period of syllabic synharmony characteristic of Common Slavic.

For many Common Slavic dialects—including most of West Slavic, all but the northernmost portions of East Slavic, and some western parts of South Slavic— *g lenited from a voiced velar plosive to a voiced velar fricative ([ɡ] > [ɣ]). Because this change was not universal and because it did not occur in a number of East Slavic dialects (such as Belarusian and South Russian) until after the application of Havlík's law, Shevelov (1977) calls into question early projections of this change and postulates three independent instigations of lenition, dating the earliest to before 900 AD and the latest to the early thirteenth century.[5]

Because the reflexes for the nasal vowels *ę and *ǫ differ so widely, it's very likely that their phonetic value in Late Proto-Slavic was not uniform.[6]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Channon (1971:9)
  2. ^ Belić (1921:31)
  3. ^ Channon (1971:12)
  4. ^ Bethin (1997:13)
  5. ^ Shevelov (1977:137, 145)
  6. ^ Schenkdar (2002:74)

Bibliography[edit]

  • Belić, Aleksandar (1921), "Најмлађа (Трећа) Промена Задњенепчаних Сугласника k, g и h у Прасловенском Језику", Јужнословенски Филолог, II: 18–39
  • Bethin, Christina Yurkiw (1998), Slavic Prosody: Language Change and Phonological Theory, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0-521-59148-1
  • Channon, Robert (1972), On the Place of the Progressive Palatalization of Velars in the Relative Chronology of Slavic, The Hague: Mouton
  • Lehr-Spławiński, Tadeusz (1957), "Z dziejów języka prasłowiańskiego (Urywek z większej całości)", Езиковедски Изследвания В Чест На Академик Стефан Младенов, Sofia
  • Schenkar, Alexander M. (2002), "Proto-Slavonic", in Comrie, Bernard; Corbett, Greville. G. (eds.), The Slavonic Languages, London: Routledge, pp. 60–124, ISBN 0-415-28078-8
  • Shevelov, George Y. (1977), "On the Chronology of h and the New g in Ukrainian", Harvard Ukrainian Studies (PDF), vol 1, Cambridge: Harvard Ukrainian Research Institute, pp. 137–52, archived from the original (PDF) on 2008-10-31