Slavic vocabulary

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The following list is a comparison of basic Proto-Slavic vocabulary and the corresponding reflexes in the modern languages, for assistance in understanding the discussion in Proto-Slavic and History of the Slavic languages. The word list is based on the Swadesh word list, developed by the linguist Morris Swadesh, a tool to study the evolution of languages via comparison, containing a set of 207 basic words which can be found in every language and are rarely borrowed. However, the words given as the modern versions are not necessarily the normal words with the given meaning in the various modern languages, but the words directly descended from the corresponding Proto-Slavic word (the reflex). The list here is given both in the orthography of each language, with accent marks added as necessary to aid in pronunciation and Proto-Slavic reconstruction. See below for a capsule summary of how to pronounce each language, as well as some discussion of the conventions used.

Table[edit]

Slavic languages
Translation Late Proto-Slavic class Russian Bulgarian Czech Polish Serbo-Croatian Slovenian
Cyrillic Latin Cyrillic Latin standard
(Shtokavian)
Chakavian
I
  • (j)azъ, (j)ā
prn. я ja аз az ja jå̃ jàz
thou
  • ty
prn. ты ty ти ti ty ty
he
  • onъ
prn. он, она, оно on, oná, onó ((той)) ((toj)) on, ona, ono ȍn/ôn, òna, òno õn, onȁ, onȍ òn, óna, onộ/ónọ
we
  • my
prn. мы my mi (dial.) my my
ye
  • vy
prn. вы vy (ви́е) (víe) vy wy
they
  • oni, *ony, *ona
prn. они́ on'í те te oni, ony, ona oni, one oni oni
this, that
prn. то tot, ta, to (това́) (tová) ten, ta, to tâj, tâ, tô tȁ, tâ, tô/tȍ tâ, tâ, tộ
there
  • tamъ
там tam там tam tam tam tam
who
  • kъto
prn. кто kto ((кой)) ((koi)) kdo kto tkȍ; ki kdọ́
what
  • čьto, *čь
prn. что čto /što/ što co co štȍ (Vrg.) ča (<*čь) kaj
where
  • kъde
prn. где gd'e къде kəde kde gdzie gdjȅ kadȅ (Orb.) kjẹ́
when
  • kogъda; *kogъdy
adv./conj. когда́ kogdá кога́ kogá (kdy); OCz. kehdy kiedy kàda kǝdá(j); kdá(j); kadá; kadaj
how; what (kind of) какъ adv.; prn. как kak; kakój как kak (jak) (OCz. kaký) (jak) (arch. kaki) kàko, kakav káko, kakšen
not
  • ne
adv. не n'e не ne ne nie ne
all
  • vьśь, *vьśja, vьśe
prn. весь, вся, всё v'es', vs'a, vs'o (вси́чки) (vsíčki) (všichni); OCz. veš, všě, vše (wszyscy); OPl. wszy, wsza, wsze sȁv, svȁ, svȅ svȁs, svȁ, svȅ vǝ̀s, vsà, vsè
many
  • mъnogъ
adj. o мно́гий mnógij мно́го mnógo (adv.) mnohý mnogi mnȍgī mnǫ̂gi
some
  • ne + *koliko
не́сколько n'éskol'ko ня́колко njákolko několik kilka nekoliko nekoliko
few
  • malъ
ма́ло málo ма́лко málko málo mało malo malo
other
  • drûgъ
adj. o (c) друго́й drugój друг drug druhý drugi drûg drȕgī drûg
other
  • jь̀nь
prn. (a) ино́й inój --- --- jiný inny ȉn
one
  • (j)edìnъ, *(j)edьnъ
num. o оди́н, одна́ od'ín, odná еди́н edín jeden jeden jèdan, jȅdna jedå̃n, jednȁ, jednȍ eden, ena, eno
two
  • d(ъ)va
num. два dva, dve, dva двa dva dva, dvě, dvě dwa, dwie, dwa dvâ, dvȉje, dvâ dvå̂, dvî, dvå̂ dvâ
three
  • trьje, *tri
num. три tr'i три tri tři trzy trî trî triję̂, trî, trî
four
  • četỳre
num. (a) четы́ре č'etýr'e че́ти́ри čétíri čtyři cztery čètiri četȉri štirje, štiri, štiri
five pę̂tь num. i (c) пять p'at' пет pet pět pięć pêt pêt pę̂t
big, great
  • velìkъ; velьkъ
adj. o вели́кий v'el'ík'ij вели́к velík velký wielki vȅlikī, vȅlikā, vȅlikō vȅlik, velikȁ, velikȍ vélik, velíka
long
  • dь̀lgъ
adj. o (a) до́лгий dólg'ij дъ́лъг dǝ́lǝg dlouhý długi dȕg dȕg dôļg, dółga
wide
  • širokъ
широ́кий širók'ij широ́к širók široký szeroki širok širok
thick
  • tъlstъ
то́лстый tólstyj тлъст tlǝst tlustý tłusty debel, tolst
heavy
  • tęžъkъ
adj. o тя́жкий t'ážkij те́жък téžǝk těžký ciężki téžak, téška tȅžak, tēškȁ téžǝk, téžka; težâk
small
  • màlъ
adj. o (a) ма́лый mályj (ма́лък); мал (málǝk); mal malý mały mȁo må̃lī mâli, majhen
short
  • kortъ̀kъ
adj. o (b) коро́ткий korótk'ij кра́тък krátǝk krátký krótki krátak, krátka krå̂tak, krå̄tkȁ, krå̂tko;
krãtak, krãtka, krãtko
krátǝk
narrow
  • ǫzъkъ
adj. o у́зкий úzk'ij; úzok, uzká, úzko ((те́сен)) ((tésen)) úzký wąski ȕzak, ȕska/uskȁ ȕsak, uskȁ, ȕsko ǫ́zǝk, ǫ́zka
thin
  • tь̏nъkъ
adj. o (c) то́нкий tónk'ij; tónok, tanká, tónko тъ́нък tǝ́nǝk tenký cienki tȁnak, tànka/tánka tȁnak, tankȁ, tânko tǝnǝ́k, tǝnkà
husband
  • mǫ̂žь
m. jo (c) муж muž мъж mǝž muž mąż mûž (mûža) mǫ̂ž (možâ)
woman/wife
  • ženà
f. ā (b) жена́ ž'ená /žená/ жена́ žená žena żona žèna (acc. žènu) ženȁ (acc. ženȕ) žéna
man (human)
  • čelověkъ
m. o челове́к č'elov'ék чове́к čelovék; čovék člověk człowiek čòvjek (čòvjeka); čȍvjek (čovjèka) čovȉk (čokȉka) člóvẹk (človẹ́ka)
child
  • dětę
дитя́ d'it'á дете́ deté dítě dziecko, dziecię dijete otrok, dete
mother *mati мать mat' ма́йка májka matka matka majka, mater mati
father *otьcь оте́ц ot'éc баща́, та́тко baštá, tátko otec ojciec otac oče
wild animal
  • zvě̂rь
m. i (c) зверь zv'er' zvjar zvěř zwierz, zwierzę zvȉjer f. (i) zvîr (zvîri) f. (i) zvę̂r (zverî)
fish *ryba ры́ба rýba ри́ба ríba ryba ryba riba riba
bird
  • pъtica, *pъtъka
пти́ца pt'íca пти́ца ptíca pták ptak ptica ptica
dog
  • pьsъ
соба́ка, пёс sobáka, p'os пес, ку́че pes, kúče pes pies pas pes
louse
  • vъ̂šь
f. i (c) вошь voš' /voš/ (vš'i) въ́шка vǝ́ška veš wesz vâš (vȁši); ûš (ȕši) ùš (ušî); ûš
snake
  • zmьjà
f. iā змея́ zm'ejá змия́ zmijá zmije[1] żmija[2] zmìja zmijȁ kača
worm
  • čьrvь
червь č'erv' че́рвей čérvej červ czerw, robak crv črv
tree
  • dervo, *dьrvo
де́рево d'ér'evo дърво́ dǝrvó strom drzewo drvo drevo
forest
  • lěsъ
лес l'es гора́ gorá les las šuma, dubrava gozd, les, šuma, hosta
stick
  • palica, *palъka
па́лка pálka пръ́чка prǝ́čka hůl laska / pałka / kij štap, palica palica
fruit
  • plodъ
плод plod плод plod ovoce (plod) owoc (płód) voće, plod sadež, plod
seed
  • sěmę
се́мя s'ém'a се́ме séme semeno nasiono/nasienie, ziarno, siemię sjeme seme
leaf
  • listъ
лист l'ist листо́ listó list liść list list
root
  • korenь
ко́рень kór'en' ко́рен kóren kořen korzeń korijen koren, korenina
bark (of a tree)
  • kora
кора́ korá кора́ korá kůra kora kora skorja
flower
  • květъ
цвето́к cv'etók цве́те cvéte květ kwiat cvijet cvet, cvetlica
grass
  • trava
трава́ travá трева́ trevá tráva trawa trava trava
rope
  • ǫže
верёвка v'er'óvka въже́ vǝžé provaz sznur, lina, powróz konop, špaga, uže vrv, konop
skin
  • koža
ко́жа kóža ко́жа kóža kůže kożuch[3] koža koža
meat
  • męso
мя́со m'áso ме́со méso maso mięso meso meso
blood *kry кровь krov' кръв krǝv krev krew krv kri
bone
  • kostь
кость kost' кост, ко́кал kost, kókal kost kość kost kost
fat (noun)
  • sadlo
са́ло sálo слани́на slanína tuk tłuszcz, sadło masnoča, masti, salo mast, tolšča, maščoba, salo
egg
  • âje; *ajьce
n. jo (c); n. jo яйцо́ jajcó яйце́ jajcé vejce jajo; jajko jáje; jájce jå̂je jájce
horn *rôgъ m. o (c) рог rog рог rog roh róg (rogu) rôg (rȍga) rộg (rộga/rogâ)
feather
  • però
n. o (b) перо́ p'eró перо́ peró péro pióro pèro perȍ pérọ (pérạ); perộ (perę̂sa)
hair *vôlsъ m. o (c) во́лос vólos (vólosa) --- --- vlas włos vlâs (vlâsa) vlå̂s (vlå̂sa) lâs (lâsa/lasû)
hair, braided hair *kosà f. ā (c) kosá (kósu)[4] коса́ kosá OCz. kosa OPl. kosa[5] kòsa (acc. kȍsu) (Novi) kosȁ (acc. kosȕ/kȍsu) lasje
head *golvà f. ā (c) голова́ golová (acc. gólovu) глава́ glavá hlava głowa gláva (acc. glâvu) glå̄vȁ (acc. glå̂vu) gláva
ear
  • ûxo
n. o (c) у́хо úxo, pl. úš'i /úšy/ ухо́ uxó, pl. uší ucho ucho ȕho/ȕvo, pl. f. ȕši ȕho (ȕha), pl. m. ȕši uhộ (ušę́sa)
eye *ȍko n. o (c) глаз, о́ко óko (poet.) око́ okó oko oko ȍko okộ (očę̂sa)
nose
  • nôsъ
m. o (c) нос nos нос nos nos nos nôs (nȍsa) nộs (nộsa/nọsâ/nọsû)
mouth
  • ūstà
pl. n. o (b) уста́ ustá (poet.) уста́ ustá ústa usta ústa ũstå̄; ũsta ústa
tooth
  • zǫ̂bъ
m. o (c) зуб zub зъб zǝb zub ząb zûb (zûba) zǫ̂b (zǫ̂ba, zobû)
tongue/language
  • ęzỳkъ
m. o (a) язы́к jazýk ези́к ezík jazyk język jèzik jazȉk jézik (jezíka)
nail (of finger/toe), claw
  • nȍgъtь
m. i/io (c) но́готь nógot' (nógt'a) но́кът nókǝt nehet paznokieć (OPl. paznogiedź), pazur nȍkat (nȍkta); nogat (nokta) nȍhat (nȍhta) nộhǝt (nộhta); nǫ̂hǝt/nǫ̂gǝt (nǫ̂hta); nohǝ̀t (nohtà)
foot, leg
  • noga
f. ā (c) нога́ nogá (nógu) nogá noha noga nòga (nȍgu) nogȁ (nȍgu) nóga
knee
  • kolě̀no
n. o (a) коле́но kol'éno коля́но kol'áno koleno kolano kòljeno kolȉno kolẹ́nọ
hand *rǭkà f. ā (c) рука́ ruká ръка́ rǝká ruka ręka rúka (rûku) rūkȁ (rûku) róka
wing
  • krīdlò
n. o (b) крыло́ kryló крило́ kriló křídlo skrzydło krílo (Orb.) krīlȍ krílọ
belly
  • bŗûxo, *bŗûxъ
m./n. o (c) брю́хо br'úxo --- --- břicho brzuch trbuh --- trebuh
guts
  • červo
вну́тренности, кишки́ vnútr'ennost'i, k'išk'í въ́трешности, черва́ vǝ́trešnosti, červá vnitřnosti, střeva wnętrzności (ścierwo[6]) crijevo črevo, drobovje
neck
  • šija, *šьja
ше́я š'éja /šéja/ ши́я šíja krk szyja, kark vrat vrat
shoulder
  • pletjè
n. jo (b) плечó plečó pléšti/pleští pl. plec plecy pl.[7] pléće, rame (Novi) plećȅ pléče, rame
breast
  • grǫ̂dь
f. i (c) грудь grud' гръд grǝd prsa, hruď pierś; OPl. grędzi (pl.) grûd, prsa prsi, grod
heart
  • sь̏rdьce
n. jo (c) се́рдце s'érdc'e /s'érce/ сърце́ sǝrcé srdce serce (OPl. serdce) sȑce (sȑca) srcę̂
liver
  • ę̄trò
n. o (b) játro/jatró[8] jatró játra (pl.) (wątroba) jȅtra (pl.) (Orb.) jiẽtra (pl.) ję́tra (pl.)
to drink
  • pìti
v. пить p'it' пи́я píja píti pić pȉti (pȉjēm) pȉti (pījȅš) píti (píjem)
to eat
  • ě̀sti
v. есть jest' ям jam jísti jeść jȅsti (jȅdem) ȉsti/ĩsti (3sg. idẽ) jẹ́sti (jẹ́m)
to gnaw
  • grỳzti
v. (c) грызть gryzt' --- --- hryzat gryźć grȉsti (grízēm) grȉsti (2sg. grīzȅš) grísti (grízem)
to suck
  • sъsàti
v. соса́ть sosát' (sosú, sos'ót) (су́ча) (súča) sát (saji) ssać (ssę) sisati sǝsáti (sǝsâm)
to spit
  • pjь̀vati
v. (a) плева́ть pl'evát' (pljujú, plujót) плю́я pljúja; pljúvam plivat (plivu) pluć (pluję) pljùvati (pljȕjēm) pljúvati (pljújem)
to vomit
  • bljьvàti
v. блева́ть bl'evát' (bljujú, bljujót) bǝ́lvam blít (bliju) wymiotować, zwracać; OPl. bluć (bluj̨ę) bljùvati (bljȕjēm), povračati (Orb.) bljȕvat (3sg. bljûje/bljȕva) bljǝváti/bljuváti/bljúti (bljúvam/bljújem)
to breathe
  • dyxati
v. дышать dyshat' (dial.) ди́шам díšam dýchat (dýchám) oddychać; dychać (colloq.), dyszeć[9] dísati (dîšēm/dîhām) dȉhati (2sg. dȉšeš) díhati (dîham)
to laugh
  • smьjàti sę
v. (c) смея́ться sm'eját's'a (smejús', smejóts'a) сме́я се sméja se smát se (směju se) śmiać się (śmieję się) smìjati se (sjìjēm se) (Vrg.) smījȁti se (smijȅš se) smẹ́jati/smẹjáti se (smẹ́jem/smẹ́jam/smẹjím se)
to see
  • vìděti
v. (a) ви́деть v'íd'et' (1sg. v'ížu, 3sg. v'íd'it) ви́ждам vídja, víždam vidět (vidím) widzieć vȉdjeti (vȉdīm) vìti (2sg. vȉdīš) vídẹti (vîdim)
to hear
  • slušati
слу́шать slúšat' слу́шам, чу́вам slúšam, čúvam slyšet (slyším) słyszeć slušati slišati (slišim)
to know, be familiar with
  • znàti
v. (a) знать znat' (znáju) зна́я; знам znája; znam znát (znám) znać znȁti (znâm) znȁti (2sg. znå̂š) znáti (znâm)
to know, understand
  • věděti
v. ведать v'édat'[10] --- --- vědět (vím) wiedzieć (wiem) znati vẹ́dẹti (vẹ́m)
to think
  • mysliti
мы́слить mýsl'it' ми́сля míslja myslet (myslím) myśleć misliti misliti (mislim)
to smell
  • čuti
ню́хать, чу́ять n'úkhat', čújat' мири́ша, ду́ша miríša, dúša vonět (voním), čichat (čichám) czuć mirisati vohati
to fear
  • bojati sę
боя́ться boját's'a страху́вам се straxúvam se bát se bać się (boję się) bojati se bati se
to sleep
  • sъpati
спать spat' спя spja spát spać spavati spati
to live
  • žìti
v. (c) жить ž'it' /žyt'/ живе́я živéja žít żyć žívjeti, 1sg. žívīm žīvȉti, 2sg. žīvȅš živeti
to die
  • merti
умира́ть um'irát' уми́рам umíram umírat umierać, mrzeć umrjeti, umriti umreti
to kill
  • ubiti
убива́ть ub'ivát' уби́вам ubívam zabíjet zabijać, ubijać ubiti ubiti
to fight
  • boriti sę
боро́ться borót's'a бо́ря се, би́я се bórja se, bír se bojovat walczyć, bić się boriti se, tuči se boriti se, biti se, bojevati se
to hunt
  • loviti
охо́титься oxót'it's'a лову́вам lovúvam lovit polować,[11] łowić[12] loviti loviti
to hit
  • udariti
v. ударя́ть udar'át' у́дрям údrjam udeřit uderzać ùdariti, 1sg. ùdarīm udariti
to cut
  • sěkti, *strigti, *rězati
ре́зать, руби́ть r'ézat', rub'ít' ре́жа, сека́ réža, seká řezat ciąć,[13] strzyc,[14] OPl. rzezać (arch.) rezati rezati
to split разделя́ть razd'el'át' разде́лям razdéljam rozdělit podzielić,[15] rozdzielić[16] podijeliti, razdijeliti razdeliti
to stab
  • bosti, *kolti
коло́ть kolót' буча́, прому́швам, пробо́ждам bučá, promúšvam, probóždam píchnout pchnąć,[17] bóść[18] (coll. kolnąć) ubosti, zabosti zabosti, prebosti
to scratch
  • česati, *drapati
цара́пать carápat' че́ша, дра́скам čéša, dráskam škrábat drapać,[19] skrobać,[20] czesać[21] češati, grebati praskati
to dig
  • kopati
копа́ть kopát' копа́я kopája kopat kopać kopati kopati
to swim, sail
  • pluti; *plỳti
v.; v. (a) плыть plyt' (plyvú, plyv'ót) плу́вам plúvam plout (pluju) (pływać), pluć[22] plȉti (plȉjēm) plúti (plújem/plóvem)
to swim, sail
  • plàvati
v. (a) пла́вать plávat' пла́вам plávam plavat pływać, pławić się,[23] OPl. pławać plivati plávati (plâvam)
to fly
  • letěti
лета́ть l'etát' летя́ letjá létat latać, lecieć letjeti leteti
to walk
  • xoditi
v. ходи́ть xod'ít' хо́дя xódja chodit chodzić hòdati (hȍdīm) hodȉti hóditi (hǫ́dim)
to go
  • jьti
v. идти́ idt'í (idú, id'ót) ída jít (jdu) iść (idę) ìći (ȉdēm) íti (ídem)
to come приходи́ть, прийти́ pr'ixod'ít', pr'ijt'í и́двам ídvam přicházet, přijít przychodzić, przyjść doći, prići priti
to lie (as in a bed)
  • ležati
лежа́ть l'ežát' лежа́ ležá ležet leżeć ležati, lijegati ležati
to sit *sěsti сиде́ть s'id'ét' седя́ sedjá sedět siedzieć sjediti sesti
to stand
  • stati
стоя́ть stoját' стоя́ stojá stát stać stajati vstati
to turn
  • vьrtě̀ti
v. (c) верте́ть v'ert'ét' (1sg. v'erčú, 3sg. v'ért'it) въртя́ vǝrtjá vrtět (obracać), wiercić vŕtjeti (vŕtīm) vrtȉti (2sg. vrtĩš) vrtẹ́ti (vrtím)
to turn, return
  • vortìti
v. (b) воротить, вернуть vorot'ít' (1sg. voročú, 3sg. vorót'it)[24] vernut' --- --- vrátit wrócić vrátiti (1sg. vrâtīm) vrå̄tȉti (2sg. vrå̃tīš) vrniti
to fall
  • pasti
па́дать pádat' па́дам pádam padat spadać/padać, paść/spaść pasti pasti
to give
  • dati
дава́ть davát' да́вам dávam dávat dawać, dać dati dati
to hold
  • dьržati
держа́ть d'eržát' държа́ dǝržá držet trzymać, dzierżyć držati držati
to squeeze
  • tiskati;
  • žęti
v. (b) сжима́ть sž'imát' /žžymát'/ сти́скам, ма́чкам stískam, máčkam mačkat ściskać stiskati stiskati
to rub
  • terti
тере́ть t'er'ét' три́я, тъ́ркам tríja, tǝ́rkam třít trzeć trljati treti, drgniti
to wash
  • myti
мыть myt' ми́я, пера́ míja, perá mýt myć oprati, umiti umiti, oprati
to wipe вытира́ть vyt'irát' бъ́рша, три́я bǝ́rša, tríja vytírat wycierać obrisati, brisati brisati, otreti
to pull
  • pьxati
тяну́ть t'anút' дъ́рпам, те́гля, вла́ча dǝ́rpam, téglja, vláča táhnout ciągnąć potegnuti vleči, potegniti
to push толка́ть, пиха́ть tolkát', p'ixát' нати́скам, бу́там natískam, bútam tlačit pchać gurnuti potistniti, poriniti
to throw
  • kydati, *mesti, *vergti v.
броса́ть, кида́ть brosát', k'idát' хвъ́рлям xvǝ́rljam házet; OCz. vrci (1sg. vrhu) rzucać |veȑć, 2sg. veȑžeš vreči
to tie
  • vę̄zàti
v. (b) вяза́ть v'azát' връ́звам vrǝ́zvam vázat wiązać vézati, 1sg. véžēm vēzȁti, 2sg. vēžeš vezati
to sew
  • šiti
шить š'it' /šyt'/ ши́я šíja šít szyć šivati sejati
to read, count
  • čitati
v. чита́ть č'itát' --- --- číst (čtu) czytać čìtati (čìtām) čȉtati (2sg. čȉtå̄š) brati (berem), čítati (čítam)
to speak, talk
  • govorìti
v. говори́ть govor'ít' govórja mluvit, hovořit OPl. goworzyć; gaworzyć[25] govòriti (gòvorīm) govȍrīti (2sg. govȍrīš) govoríti (govorím)
to show
  • kāzàti
v. каза́ть kazát' káža ukázat kazać kázati (kâžēm) kå̄zȁti (2sg. kå̃žeš) kázati (kážem)
to sing
  • pěti
v. (c) петь p'et' (pojú, pojót) пе́я péja (2sg. péeš) zpívat (zpívám) piać (pieję) pjevati pẹ́ti (pójem); pójati (pójam/pójem)
to play
  • jьgrati
игра́ть igrát' игра́я igrája hrát grać igrati igrati
to flow
  • tekti
течь t'eč' тека́ teká téct ciec, cieknąć teči teči
to freeze
  • mьrznǫti
замерзáть zam'erzát' замръ́звам zamrǝ́zvam zamrznout marznąć zamrznuti zamrzniti
to swell
  • puxnǫti
пу́хнуть púxnut' подпу́хвам, оти́чам, поду́вам се podpúxvam, otíčam, podúvam se opuchnout, otéct puchnąć oteknuti, oteći oteči
sun
  • sъlnьce
со́лнце sólnc'e /sónce/ слъ́нце slǝ́nce slunce słońce sunce sonce
moon
  • luna, *měsęcь
луна́, ме́сяц luná, m'és'ac луна́ luná měsíc księżyc, OPl. miesiąc mjesec mesec
star
  • gvězda
звезда́ zv'ezdá звезда́ zvezdá hvězda gwiazda zvijezda zvezda
water
  • vodà
f. ā (c) вода́ vodá (acc. vódu) вода́ vodá voda woda vòda (acc. vȍdu) vodȁ (acc. vȍdu) vóda
rain
  • dъždь
дождь dožd' /došš', došt'/ дъжд dǝžd déšť deszcz, OPl. deżdż (gen. deszczu/dżdżu) kiša dež
river
  • rěka
река́ r'eká река́ reká řeka rzeka rijeka reka
lake
  • (j)ezero
о́зеро óz'ero е́зеро ézero jezero jezioro jezero jezero
sea
  • more, *morě
мо́ре mór'e море́ moré moře morze more morje
salt
  • solь
соль sol' сол sol sůl sól sol sol
stone
  • kamy
ка́мень kám'en' ка́мък kámǝk kámen kamień (dim. kamyk) kamen kamen
sand
  • pěsъkъ
песо́к p'esók пя́сък pjásǝk písek piasek pijesak pesek
dust
  • porxъ
пыль pyl' прах prax prach pył, kurz prašina, prah prah
earth
  • zemľà
f. jā (b/c) земля́ z'eml'á (acc. z'éml'u) земя́ zemjá země ziemia zèmlja (acc. zȅmlju) zemļȁ (acc. zȅmļu) zémlja
cloud
  • tǫča
ту́ча, о́блако túča, óblako о́блак óblak oblak chmura, obłok oblak oblak
fog мгла, туман mgla, tuman мъгла́ mǝglá mlha mgła magla megla
sky *nebo не́бо n'ébo небе́ nebé nebe niebo nebo nebo
wind
  • vě̀trъ
m. o (a) ве́тер v'ét'er вя́тър vjátǝr vítr wiatr vjȅtar (vjȅtra) vȉtar (vȉtra) vệtǝr
snow
  • sněgъ
снег sn'eg сняг snjag sníh śnieg snijeg sneg
ice
  • ledъ
лёд l'od лед led led lód led led
smoke
  • dymъ
дым dym дим, пу́шек dim, púšek dým dym dim dim
fire
  • ognь
ого́нь ogón' о́гън ógǝn oheň ogień (ognia) vatra ogenj
ash
  • pepelъ
пе́пел p'ép'el пе́пел pépel popel popiół pepeo pepel
to burn
  • gorěti, *paliti
горе́ть, пыла́ть gor'ét', pylát' горя́, паля́ gorjá, paljá hořet palić, arch. gorzeć goriti goreti
way
  • pǫ̃tь
m. i (b) путь put' път pǝt pout' (fem.)[26] droga, OPl. pąć pût (púta) pũt (pũta) pǫ́t
mountain
  • gorà
fem. ā (c) гора́ gorá гора́ gorá[27] hora góra gòra (gȍru), planina gorȁ (gȍru) góra
red
  • čьrmьnъ
adj. o č'er'emnój/č'er'ómnyj (dial.)[28] --- --- čermný/črmný (Kott) (dial. czermny) crveno črmljen
red
  • čьrv(j)enъ
adj. o č'er'evl'onyj (obs.)[29] черве́н červén červený czerwony, czerwień cr̀ven rdeč
green
  • zelẽnъ
adj. o (b) зелёный z'el'ónyj зеле́н zelén zelený zielony, zieleń zèlen, zelèna, zelèno zelẽn, zelenȁ, zelenȍ zelèn, zeléna
yellow
  • žьltъ
adj. o жёлтый ž'óltyj /žóltyj/ жълт žǝlt žlutý żółty, żółć, żółcień žût, f. žúta žût, f. žūtȁ, n. žûto rumen, žôłt, žółta
white
  • bělъ
бе́лый b'élyj бял bjal bílý biały, biel bijelo bel
black
  • čьrnъ
чёрный č'órnyj че́рен čéren černý czarny, czerń crno črn
night
  • noktь
ночь noč' нощ nošt noc noc noć noč
day
  • dьnь
день d'en' ден den den dzień dan dan
year
  • godъ, *rokъ
год god годи́на godína rok rok godina leto
warm
  • teplъ, *toplъ
тёплый t'óplyj то́пъл tópǝl teplý ciepły toplo toplo
cool, cold
  • xoldьnъ
adj. o (c) холо́дный xolódnyj хла́ден xláden chladný chłodny hládǝn hlå̂dan hládǝn
full
  • pьlnъ
по́лный pólnyj пъ́лен pǝ́len plný pełny, pełen pun poln
new
  • novъ
но́вый nóvyj нов nov nový nowy nov nov
old
  • starъ
ста́рый stáryj стар star starý stary star star
good
  • dobrъ
хоро́ший, добрый xoróš'ij, dobryj добъ́р dobǝ́r dobrý dobry dobar dober
bad
  • zъlъ
adj. o злой zloj; zol, zla, zlo[30] лош loš zlý zły zȁo, zlȁ, zlȍ zǝ̀ł, zlà; zâl
rotten
  • gnjilъ
гнило́й gn'ilój гнил gnil shnilý zgniły pokvaren gnil
dirty гря́зный gr'áznyj мръ́сен mrǝ́sen špinavý brudny prljav, zmazan umazan
straight
  • prostъ, *pravъ
прямо́й pr'amój прав prav přímý prosty; prawy[31] ravan raven
round
  • krǫglъ
кру́глый krúglyj кръ́гъл krǝ́gǝl kulatý / okrouhlý krągły/okrągły okruglo okrogel
sharp
  • bridъkъ
о́стрый óstryj о́стър óstǝr ostrý ostry oštro oster
dull
  • tǫpъ
тупо́й tupój тъп tup tupý tępy tup top
smooth
  • gladъkъ
гла́дкий, ро́вный gládk'ij, róvnyj гла́дък, ра́вен gládǝk, ráven hladký gładki gladak gladek
wet
  • mokrъ
мо́крый mókryj мо́кър mókǝr mokrý mokry mokar moker
dry
  • suxъ
сухо́й suxój сух sux suchý suchy suh suh
correct пра́вильный práv'il'nyj пра́вилен právilen správný poprawny pravilan pravilen
near
  • blizъ
бли́зкий bl'ízk'ij бли́зък blízǝk blízký bliski blizu blizu, blizek
far
  • dalekъ
далёкий dal'ók'ij дале́чен daléčen daleký daleki daleko deleč, daljni
right
  • pravъ
пра́вый právyj де́сен désen pravý prawy desno, pravo desen
left
  • lěvъ
ле́вый lévyj ляв ljav levý lewy lijevo levi
at
  • po, *u
prep./pref. при, у pr'i, u при, у, на pri, u, na při, u przy, u u; u- pri
in(to)
  • vъ(n)
prep. в v; vn- в v v; v(n)- w(e); wn- u; va- v
with
  • sъ(n)
с s с(със) s(sǝs) s z s, sa s, z
and (j)ь, *a и, а i, a и, а i, a a, i i, a i in
if
  • (j)ako
е́сли jésl'i ако́ akó jestli jeśli, jeżeli ako, ukoliko če, ako
because
  • dělja, *dьlja, děljьma
потому́ что potomú čto /što/ защо́то zaštóto protože bo, dlatego że, ponieważ zato (što, jer), stoga zato, zato ker
name
  • (j)ьmę
и́мя ím'a и́ме íme jméno imię, arch. miano ime ime

Conventions in the table[edit]

  • Common Slavic accents follow Serbo-Croatian conventions: á (long rising), à (short rising), â (long falling), ȁ (short falling), ā (length in unstressed syllable). The Late Common Slavic neoacute is indicated as ã. This was pronounced as short rising in ь̃ ъ̃; long rising in ẽ õ in most languages, but short rising in Serbo-Croatian and Slovenian; and consistently long rising over other vowels.
  • The accent pattern (a, b or c) of Common Slavic nouns, verbs and adjectives is indicated. These patterns are as follows: a = consistent root accent; b = predominant suffix accent; c = mobile accent.
  • Nouns are given in the nominative singular; a form in parentheses is genitive singular except as indicated (acc. = accusative singular, pl. = nominative plural).
  • Verbs are given in the infinitive (but the first singular present in Bulgarian, which has no infinitives). A form in parentheses is first singular present except as indicated (2sg. = second singular, 3sg. = third singular). A second form in parentheses is third singular present.
  • When multiple forms of an adjective are given, the order is masculine, feminine, neuter.
  • Chakavian forms are given in the Vrgada dialect except as indicated (Novi = Novi dialect, Orb. = Orbanići dialect).

Transcription of Russian and Bulgarian[edit]

Transcription of Bulgarian follows the standard conventions for academic transliteration of Cyrillic, with the exception that Cyrillic ъ is represented as ǝ instead of ă for ease of reading, particularly when combined with a stress mark (ǝ́ instead of ). This is a one-to-one transliteration that directly represents the spelling of Cyrillic. This transliteration also represents Bulgarian phonology quite well (unlike the situation in Russian).

Transcription of Russian is based on the same standard, but deviates from it in order to consistently represent palatalization (always written with a following apostrophe, e.g. l', n', t', v') and the phoneme /j/ (always written j), both of which are spelled in multiple ways in Cyrillic. The following indicates how to convert between the two:

Cyrillic letters Letter class Academic transliteration This article's transcription
а э ы о у Non-palatal vowels a è y o u a e y o u
я е и ё ю Palatal vowels ja e i ë ju If following a consonant, a e i o u with preceding apostrophe ('); if following another letter, ja je ji jo ju; if word-initial, ja je i jo ju.
й ў Semivowels j ŭ same
ь Soft sign ' same
ъ Hard sign '' not written
щ A consonant sign šč šš'

The result is that this article's transcription is almost directly phonemic, making it significantly easier for readers not familiar with the complications of Cyrillic spelling. Note that the transcription used here continues the standard practice of representing the Cyrillic letters ы и as y i, although they are normally considered allophones of each other. This is because the pronunciation of the two letters is significantly different, and Russian ы normally continues Common Slavic *y [ɨ], which was a separate phoneme.

The letter щ is conventionally written št in Bulgarian, šč in Russian. This article writes šš' in Russian to reflect the modern pronunciation [ɕɕ].

Both transcriptions indicate stress with an acute accent (á é í ó ú ý ǝ́). Stress is indicated in Cyrillic in the same fashion, except with the letter ё, which is always stressed.

Pronunciation[edit]

Capsule summary of Russian pronunciation[edit]

The transcription used in this article is morphophonemic rather than strictly phonemic, i.e. it writes the underlying phonemes rather than the phonemes actually heard when pronounced. The difference occurs particularly in the representation of unstressed vowels, where multiple underlying phonemes merge. For example, underlying e and i merge into the same sound when unstressed, but the difference is revealed in related forms based on the same root: e.g. z'eml'á [zʲɪmˈlʲæ] "land" has accusative z'éml'u [ˈzʲemlʲʉ], but z'imá [zʲɪˈma] "winter" has accusative z'ímu [ˈzʲimu]. When the transcription (which is derived from the spelling) disagrees with the actual morphophonemic pronunciation, the latter is indicated specially, e.g. čto /što/; š'it' /šyt'/; ž'óltyj /žóltyj/; ž'ená /žená/ [ʐɨˈna]; sólnc'e /sónce/ [ˈsont͡sǝ]. This occurs mostly with the letters š, ž, c, which are normally written palatal but pronounced non-palatal; but it is also due to occasional assimilations. Note that the rules for unstressed vowels still need to be applied (see below).

  • á, é, í etc. indicates stress.
  • š [ʂ], ž [ʐ] and c [t͡s] are never palatal, while č [t͡ɕ] and šš [ɕɕ] are always palatal, regardless of spelling.
  • y [ɨ]: allophone of i [i] after non-palatal consonants, but written differently by convention. Written i sounds as y after š, ž, c, regardless of whether indicated as palatal in the spelling: ž'it [ʐɨtʲ] "to live".
  • Vowel mergers in unstressed syllables are extensive, but not written.
    • After palatal, vowels a, o, e, i all merge as [ɪ]: t'až'ólyj [tʲɪˈʐolɨj] "heavy", v'el'ík'ij [vʲɪˈlʲikʲɪj] "big".
    • After non-palatal, vowels a and o merge as [ɐ] directly before the stress and absolutely word-initially, [ǝ] elsewhere: molokó [mǝlɐˈko] "milk", sobáka [sɐˈbakǝ] "dog", č'elov'ék [t͡ɕɪlɐˈvʲek] "man (human)".
    • After non-palatal, vowels e and i/y merge as [ɨ]: ž'ená [ʐɨˈna].
    • Exception: Absolutely word-finally after a palatal, e, i merge as [ɪ] but a, o merge as [ǝ]: s'ém'a [ˈsʲemʲə] "seed".
  • Obstruents are devoiced word-finally, and agree in voicing in a cluster before another obstruent: muž [muʂ] "husband", vs'o [fsʲɵ] "everything", vokzál [vɐɡˈzal] "railway station". But v does not trigger voicing of preceding obstruent, nor is it devoiced.
  • The reflexive suffix -s'a and reflexive infinitive -t'-s'a are pronounced without palatalization, i.e. as if written -sa and -t-sa.

Capsule summary of Bulgarian pronunciation[edit]

  • á, é, í etc. indicates stress.
  • Stressed ǝ is actually [ɤ]; unstressed a and ǝ tend to merge as [ɐ].
  • Obstruent voicing/devoicing as in Russian.

Capsule summary of Czech pronunciation[edit]

  • á, é, í etc. indicates vowel length.
  • ů [uː] < . ou [oʊ̯] < .
  • h [ɦ], ch [x].
  • č [tʃ], š [ʃ], ž [ʒ], ř [r̝] (a palatal fricative trill, sounding a bit like [rʑ]).
  • ď [ɟ], ť [c], ň [ɲ]. Also indicated by d, t, n before i, í or ě.
  • y = i but indicates normal rather than palatal pronunciation after d t n.
  • ě = short e but signals palatal nature of previous consonant: dě, tě, ně = ďe, ťe, ňe; vě, fě, bě, pě = vje, fje, bje, pje; = mňe.
  • Obstruent voicing/devoicing as in Russian. ř after obstruent is itself devoiced rather than trigger voicing: přímý [pr̝̊iːmiː] "straight".

Capsule summary of Polish pronunciation[edit]

  • Retroflex consonants: sz [ʂ], cz [t͡ʂ], ż [ʐ], rz [ʐ] < (as in Czech), [d͡ʐ].
  • Alveolopalatal consonants: ś or si [ɕ], ć or ci [t͡ɕ], ź or zi [ʑ], or dzi [d͡ʑ], ń or ni [ɲ].
  • All consonants are palatalized before i. Note that alveolar s, z, n become alveolopalatal when palatalized, absorbing the i before another vowel: chodzić [ˈxɔd͡ʑit͡ɕ] "to walk", siedzieć [ˈɕɛd͡ʑɛt͡ɕ] "to sit".
  • h or ch [x], w [v], ł [w].
  • y [ɨ], ó [u] < *oː, ę [ɛ̃], ą [ɔ̃].
  • Obstruent voicing/devoicing as in Russian and Czech. However, w and rz do not voice a preceding voiceless obstruent, but instead are devoiced: kwiat [kfʲat] "flower", przyjść [pʂɨjɕt͡ɕ] "to come" < *prʲijtʲ (cf. Russian pr'ijt'í).

Capsule summary of Serbo-Croatian pronunciation[edit]

  • Accents: á (long rising), à (short rising), â (long falling), ȁ (short falling), ā (length in unstressed syllable), ã (long rising in Chakavian dialect = Common Slavic neoacute).
  • š [ʃ], č [tʃ], ž [ʒ], [dʒ], ć [tɕ], đ [dʑ], nj [ɲ], lj [ʎ].
  • Russian-style obstruent voicing/devoicing does not occur.

Dialectal differentiation[edit]

After the three palatalizations of Proto-Slavic, dialectal variation became more apparent. Some dialects (such as Proto-East Slavic), applied the second regressive palatalization across an intervening *v.[32]

  • Russian: *gwojzda > *gwězda > zvězda > [zʲvʲɪˈzda] ('star')
  • Polish: *gwojzda > *gwězda > gwiazda > [ˈɡvʲazda] ('star')

Also, the realization of the palatalizations' sibilants varied a little amongst dialects. Belić (1921) argues that the phonetic character of the palatalizations was uniform throughout Common Slavic and that West Slavic languages developed *š later on by analogy.[33] In all dialects (except for Lechitic), [dz] was deaffricated to [z]:[32]

  • Ukrainian: *zvizda> z'vizda; and zyrka/z'irka> Cf. Pol.: gwiazda-> GV/ZV + I + ZD; Z'/Z + Y/I + R + K +A ( zIr > vision).

The final cutoff point for the Proto-Slavic period was the change of *ě to *a after palatal consonants and *j, which then created *ča/*ka contrasts.[34] This, and the shortening and elision of weak yers (*ь/ĭ and *ъ/ŭ) (see Havlík's law) that created newly formed closed syllables[35] ended the period of syllabic synharmony characteristic of Common Slavic.

For many Common Slavic dialects—including most of West Slavic, all but the northernmost portions of East Slavic, and some western parts of South Slavic— *g lenited from a voiced velar plosive to a voiced velar fricative ([ɡ] > [ɣ]). Because this change was not universal and because it did not occur in a number of East Slavic dialects (such as Belarusian and South Russian) until after the application of Havlík's law, Shevelov (1977) calls into question early projections of this change and postulates three independent instigations of lenition, dating the earliest to before 900 AD and the latest to the early thirteenth century.[36]

Because the reflexes for the nasal vowels *ę and *ǫ differ so widely, it's very likely that their phonetic value in Late Proto-Slavic was not uniform.[37]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "adder"
  2. ^ "venomous snake, adder"
  3. ^ "sheepskin coat"
  4. ^ "braid, plait"
  5. ^ "braid, mane"
  6. ^ "carcass"
  7. ^ "back"
  8. ^ "entrails, eggs"
  9. ^ "pant, gasp"
  10. ^ "manage"; "know" (obs.)
  11. ^ "hunt, chase, prowl, course"
  12. ^ "hunt, fish, catch, snare"
  13. ^ "cut, slice, chop"
  14. ^ "cut, mow, trim, shear"
  15. ^ "split, divide, separate, share, distribute, "
  16. ^ "split (up), (divide up), disunite, pull apart, separate, parcel, give away, share, distribute, provide, disperse"
  17. ^ "push"
  18. ^ "stab, spike, prick, butt"
  19. ^ "scratch, scrape, irritate, rub"
  20. ^ "scratch, scrape, rasp, scrub, grate, scribble"
  21. ^ "comb, brush"
  22. ^ "spit, sputter"
  23. ^ "wallow"
  24. ^ "bring back"
  25. ^ "babble, coo"
  26. ^ "pilgrimage, journey"
  27. ^ "woods"
  28. ^ "red-haired, ginger"
  29. ^ "dark red"
  30. ^ "angry"
  31. ^ "righteous"
  32. ^ a b Channon (1971:9)
  33. ^ Belić (1921:31)
  34. ^ Channon (1971:12)
  35. ^ Bethin (1997:13)
  36. ^ Shevelov (1977:137, 145)
  37. ^ Schenkdar (2002:74)

Bibliography[edit]

  • Belić, Aleksandar (1921), "Најмлађа (Трећа) Промена Задњенепчаних Сугласника k, g и h у Прасловенском Језику", Јужнословенски Филолог II: 18–39 
  • Bethin, Christina Yurkiw (1998), Slavic Prosody: Language Change and Phonological Theory, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0-521-59148-1 
  • Channon, Robert (1972), On the Place of the Progressive Palatalization of Velars in the Relative Chronology of Slavic, The Hague: Mouton 
  • Lehr-Spławiński, Tadeusz (1957), "Z dziejów języka prasłowiańskiego (Urywek z większej całości)", Езиковедски Изследвания В Чест На Академик Стефан Младенов (Sofia) 
  • Schenkar, Alexander M. (2002), "Proto-Slavonic", in Comrie, Bernard; Corbett, Greville. G., The Slavonic Languages, London: Routledge, pp. 60–124, ISBN 0-415-28078-8 
  • Shevelov, George Y. (1977), "On the Chronology of h and the New g in Ukrainian", Harvard Ukrainian Studies (PDF), vol 1 (2), Cambridge: Harvard Ukrainian Research Institute, pp. 137–52