|Swamp wallaby range|
The swamp wallaby (Wallabia bicolor) is a small macropod marsupial of eastern Australia. This wallaby is also commonly known as the black wallaby, with other names including black-tailed wallaby, fern wallaby, black pademelon, stinker (in Queensland), and black stinker (in New South Wales) on account of its characteristic swampy odour. The swamp wallaby is the only living member of the genus Wallabia.
Habitat and distribution
The swamp wallaby is found from the northernmost areas of Cape York Peninsula in Queensland, down the entire east coast and around to southwestern Victoria. It was formerly found throughout southeastern South Australia, but is now rare or absent from that region.
It inhabits thick undergrowth in forests and woodlands, or shelters during the day in thick grass or ferns, emerging at night to feed. Brigalow scrub in Queensland is a particularly favoured habitat.
The species name bicolor comes from the distinct colouring variation, with the typical grey coat of the macropods varied with a dark brown to black region on the back, and light yellow to rufous orange on the chest. A light coloured cheek stripe is usually present, and extremities of the body generally show a darker colouring, except for the tip of the tail, which is often white.
The gait differs from other wallabies, with the swamp wallaby carrying its head low and its tail out straight.
The average length is 76 cm (30 in) for males, and 70 cm (28 in) for females (excluding the tail). The tail in both sexes is approximately equal in length to the rest of the body. Average weight for males is 17 kg (37 lb), females averaging 13 kg (29 lb).
The swamp wallaby has seven carpal bones in the wrist (humans have eight).
The swamp wallaby becomes reproductively fertile between 15 and 18 months of age, and can breed throughout the year. Gestation is from 33 to 38 days, leading to a single young. The young is carried in the pouch for 8 to 9 months, but will continue to suckle until about 15 months.
The swamp wallaby exhibits an unusual form of embryonic diapause, differing from other marsupials in having its gestation period longer than its oestrous cycle. This timing makes it possible for swamp wallaby females to overlap two pregnancies, gestating both an embryo and a fetus at the same time. The swamp wallaby ovulates, mates, conceives and forms a new embryo one to two days before the birth of their full-term fetus. Consequently, females are continuously pregnant throughout their reproductive life.
The swamp wallaby is typically a solitary animal, but often aggregates into groups when feeding. It will eat a wide range of food plants, depending on availability, including shrubs, pasture, agricultural crops, and native and exotic vegetation. It appears to be able to tolerate a variety of plants poisonous to many other animals, including brackens, hemlock and lantana.
The ideal diet appears to involve browsing on shrubs and bushes, rather than grazing on grasses. This is unusual in wallabies and other macropods, which typically prefer grazing. Tooth structure reflects this preference for browsing, with the shape of the molars differing from other wallabies. The fourth premolar is retained through life, and is shaped for cutting through coarse plant material.
There is evidence that the swamp wallaby is an opportunist taking advantage of food sources when they become available, such as fungi, bark and algae. There is also one reported case of the consumption of carrion.
Several physical and behavioral characteristics make the swamp wallaby different enough from other wallabies that it is placed apart in its own genus, Wallabia. However, genetic evidence (e.g. Dodt et al, 2017) demonstrates that Wallabia is embedded within the large genus Macropus, necessitating reclassification of this species in the future.
According to the Aboriginal people of the Bundjalung Nation, the swamp wallaby was considered inedible, due to its smell and taste after cooking. Commercial shooters also find it undesirable due to its small size and coarse fur.
Anthropogenic actions such as increase in roads through swamp wallaby habitats have caused a threat to their survival. They have been noted to be frequently sited near the side of roads, leading to a larger number of roadkill.
Other sources of threats for the swamp wallaby are their predators which include dingoes and eagles, as well as wild dogs.
- Menkhorst, P.; Denny, M.; Ellis, M.; Winter, J.; Burnett, S.; Lunney, D. & van Weenen, J. (2008). "Wallabia bicolor". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2008. Retrieved 29 December 2008.old-form url
- Trouessart, E.-L. (1904). Catalogus mammalium tam viventium quam fossilium. Quinquennale supplementum. Berolini: R. Friedländer & Sohn. p. 834.
- Merchant, J. C. (1995). Strahan, Ronald (ed.). Mammals of Australia (Revised ed.). Sydney: Reed New Holland Publishers. p. 409.
- Merchant, J. C. (1983). Strahan, Ronald (ed.). The Australian Museum Complete Book of Australian Mammals, The National Photographic Index of Australian Wildlife (Corrected 1991 reprint ed.). Australia: Cornstalk Publishing. pp. 261–262. ISBN 0-207-14454-0.
- "Swamp wallabies conceive new embryo before birth -- a unique reproductive strategy". ScienceDaily. Retrieved 2020-03-03.
- Fitzsimons, James A. (2016). "Carrion consumption by the swamp wallaby (Wallabia bicolor)". Australian Mammalogy. 39: 105. doi:10.1071/AM16017.
- Groves, C. P. (2005). Wilson, D. E.; Reeder, D. M. (eds.). Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 70. ISBN 0-801-88221-4. OCLC 62265494.
- Osawa, R (1989). "Road-Kills of the Swamp Wallaby, Wallabia-Bicolor, on North-Stradbroke-Island, Southeast Queensland". Wildlife Research. 16 (1): 95. doi:10.1071/WR9890095. ISSN 1035-3712.
- Davis, Naomi E.; Forsyth, David M.; Triggs, Barbara; Pascoe, Charlie; Benshemesh, Joe; Robley, Alan; Lawrence, Jenny; Ritchie, Euan G.; Nimmo, Dale G.; Lumsden, Lindy F. (2015-03-19). Crowther, Mathew S. (ed.). "Interspecific and Geographic Variation in the Diets of Sympatric Carnivores: Dingoes/Wild Dogs and Red Foxes in South-Eastern Australia". PLOS ONE. 10 (3): e0120975. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0120975. ISSN 1932-6203. PMC 4366095. PMID 25790230.
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