Swartkrans is a farm near to Sterkfontein, notable for being extremely rich in archaeological material, particularly hominin remains. It was purchased by the University of the Witwatersrand in 1968. The oldest deposits present at the site are believed to be between 1.8 and 2 million years old.
Noted paleontologist Robert Broom was a frequent digger. He was followed by Charles Kimberlin Brain (C.K. 'Bob' Brain), whose excavations at the site inspired his book The Hunters or the Hunted? in which he demonstrated that instead of being bloodthirsty killer apes, the hominin fossils found at the site were themselves victims of predation by big cats.
- "9/2/233/0012 - Swartkrans Palaeontological Site, Zwartkrans 172, Krugersdorp District". South African Heritage Resources Agency. Retrieved 16 September 2013.
- C. K. Brain; A. Sillent (1988-12-01). "Evidence from the Swartkrans cave for the earliest use of fire". Nature 336 (6198): 464–466. doi:10.1038/336464a0. Retrieved 14 June 2011.
- Rincon, Paul (22 March 2004). "Bones hint at first use of fire". BBC. Retrieved 14 June 2011.
- The Hunters or the Hunted?: An Introduction to African Cave Taphonomy. C.K. Brain. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1981. Paperback: ISBN 0-226-07090-5, ISBN 978-0-226-07090-2.
- University of Chicago Press page for The Hunters or the Hunted?
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