Swatting is the act of tricking an emergency service (via such means as hoaxing an emergency services dispatcher) into dispatching an emergency response based on the false report of an ongoing critical incident.
Swatting has been associated with online harassment campaigns, and episodes range from large to small — from the deployment of bomb squads, SWAT units and other police units and the concurrent evacuations of schools and businesses, to a single fabricated police report meant to discredit an individual as a prank or personal vendetta.
The action of swatting—linked to the action of doxxing (obtaining the address and details of an individual)—has been described as terrorism due to its potential to cause disruption, waste the time of emergency services, divert attention from real emergencies and possibly cause injuries and psychological harm to persons targeted. The act of making false reports to emergency services is punishable by prison sentences in the U.S. and a crime in many other countries.
History and current status
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Swatting has its origins in prank calls to emergency services. Increasing sophistication of the techniques employed and the objectives, notably attempts to direct response units of particular types, and in particular attempts to cause SWAT teams to be dispatched to particular locations, spawned the term 'swatting'. The term was used by the FBI as far back as 2008.
In 2009, phreaker Matthew Weigman pleaded guilty to charges of conspiracy including "involvement in a swatting conspiracy" and attempting to retaliate against a witness. He was sentenced to 11 years in federal prison.
In 2012, CNN interviewed political commentator Erick Erickson to discuss an incident in which he had been the victim of swatting. A caller to 911 gave Erickson's address as his own and claimed:
I just shot my wife, so.... I don't think I could come down there.... She's dead, now.... I'm looking at her.... I'm going to shoot someone else, soon.
In 2013, a number of U.S. celebrities became the victims of swatting pranks, including Sean Combs. In the past, there have been swatting incidents at the homes of Ashton Kutcher, Tom Cruise, Chris Brown, Miley Cyrus, Linkin Park, Creed, Metallica, Nirvana, Maroon 5, Taylor Swift, Iggy Azalea, Jason Derulo, Snoop Dogg, Justin Bieber and Clint Eastwood.
In May 2014, a 16-year-old in Ottawa, Ontario, Canada, was arrested for having made thirty fraudulent emergency calls across North America, leading to sixty charges "including uttering death threats, conveying false information with intent to alarm, public mischief and mischief to property."
On 27 August 2014, YouTube user Jordan Mathewson, known online as Kootra, live streamed a game of Counter-Strike: Global Offensive on Twitch. A viewer called 911 claiming that there was a shooting in the building with hostages. A SWAT team raided the office out of which Mathewson's gaming company, The Creatures LLC, was operating. Mathewson was thrown to the ground and searched as officers searched the room. The events were broadcast live on the internet, until law enforcement set the camera lens-down on Mathewson's desk. Videos of the swatting went viral, gaining over four million views on YouTube and being reported on news programs all over the world.
On 11 September 2014, Bukkit programmer Wesley "Wolvereness" Wolfe was the victim of a swatting incident. An unidentified Skype caller told police that Wolfe had shot his parents and was on a killing spree. Wolfe believed he was targeted in retaliation to his issuing of a DMCA takedown of CraftBukkit from the Bukkit repository.
On 6 November 2014, the home of an unnamed executive with Bungie, a developer of the Halo franchise and the recently released Destiny, was raided by local police after a call, purported to be from someone inside the house, said that there was a hostage situation at the residence. The caller had demanded a ransom of $20,000 and claimed they had planted explosives in the yard. After 45 minutes, police determined the call originated from a computer and not from the residence; they further stated that the perpetrator of the hoax could face a fine and one year in jail if apprehended.
On 3 January 2015, twenty Portland police officers were sent to the former home of Grace Lynn. She stated this was the culmination of four months of online harassment from GamerGate supporters after she withdrew her support for the movement, though the perpetrators of the hoax were never identified. Lynn said that she was alerted to the incident because she had proactively checked for on-line harassment daily, and she had defused the situation by contacting police.
On 15 January 2015 in Sentinel, Oklahoma, Washita County dispatchers received 911 calls from someone who identified himself as Dallas Horton and told dispatchers he had placed a bomb in a local preschool. Washita County Sheriff's Deputies and Sentinel Police Chief Louis Ross made forced entry into Horton's residence. Ross, who was wearing a bulletproof vest, was shot several times by Horton. Further investigation revealed that the calls did not originate from the home and led Oklahoma State Bureau of Investigation agents to believe Horton was unaware that it was law enforcement officers making entry. James Edward Holly confessed to investigators that he made the calls with two "nonfunctioning" phones because he was angry with Horton.
On 24 May 2015 at 5:41 am in Richmond Hill, Ontario, York Regional Police received a 911 call claiming that his father had shot another family member with an assault rifle. A SWAT team attended the residence and discovered that it was a hoax.
In August 2015 the founder of the website Mumsnet was the target of a SWATting hoax, which resulted in the deployment of a London Metropolitan Police Service armed response unit attending her home address. The hoax was concurrent with a denial-of-service attack on the Mumsnet website and threats of a SWATting attack.
Caller ID spoofing, social engineering, TTY, prank calls and phone phreaking techniques may be variously combined. 911 systems (including telephony and human operators) have been tricked by calls placed from cities hundreds of miles away or even from other countries. The caller typically places a 911 call using a spoofed phone number with the goal of tricking emergency authorities into responding to an address with a SWAT team to an emergency that doesn't exist.
Laws covering swatting
- United States – It can be prosecuted through federal criminal statutes.
- "Conspiracy to retaliate against a witness, victim or informant".
- "Conspiracy to commit access device fraud and unauthorized access of a protected computer".
- An accomplice may be found guilty of "conspiring to obstruct justice".
- In the State of California pranksters bear the "full cost" of the response which can range up to $10,000.
- Hern, Alex. "Gamergate hits new low with attempts to send Swat teams to critics". The Guardian. Retrieved 2 July 2015.
- Mulvaney, Nicole. "Recent wave of swatting nationwide fits definition of terrorism, Princeton police chief says". NJ.com. Retrieved 3 July 2015.
- Liebl, Lance. "The dangers and ramifications of doxxing and swatting". Gamezone.
- Healy, Patrick. "Online Gamer Sentenced in Ventura County "Swatting" Hoax". NBC Los Angeles. Retrieved 3 July 2015.
- "Don’t Make the Call: The New Phenomenon of ‘Swatting’". Federal Bureau of Investigation. 4 February 2008.
- Matthew Weigman Guilty Plea Press Release, U.S. Department of Justice, 29 January 2009, retrieved 10 July 2009
- Blind Hacker Sentenced to 11 Years in Prison, Kevin Poulsen, Wired News, 29 June 2009, retrieved 10 July 2009
- "Sen. Ted Lieu, author of anti-'swatting' bill, becomes a swatting victim". dailybreeze.com.
- Shirek, Jon. "9-1-1 hoax snares conservative blogger". WXIA-TV Atlanta, Pacific and Southern Company, Inc. Retrieved 11 June 2012.
- "PICKET: FLA Congresswoman leads 85 member effort demanding Swat-ting investigation from DOJ". Washington Times. 10 June 2012. Retrieved 11 June 2012.
- "Diddy the latest swatting prank". 3 News NZ.
- Jeff Black, Staff Writer, NBC News, 11 September 2013, California governor signs bill to crack down on celebrity 'swatting', Accessed 11 September 2013
- "FBI — Canadian Law Enforcement Officers Arrest Canadian Resident Suspected in Series of ‘Swatting’ Incidents Throughout North America". Federal Bureau of Investigation.
- Kehler, Therese (5 August 2014). "'Swatting' leads to 60 charges against Ottawa boy". Ottawa Citizen.
- "Teen Arrested for 30+ Swattings, Bomb Threats — Krebs on Security". krebsonsecurity.com.
- "Suburban Denver ‘swatting’ incident caught on gamer’s camera". New York Daily News. 27 August 2014.
- "'Minecraft' CraftBukkit Mod Developer Becomes Victim of Swatting".
- "Video game developer, police run afoul of "swatting" hoax".
- Brian Crecente (7 November 2014). "Destiny developer startled awake by police, sheriff's helicopter after faked 911 call". polygon.com. Vox Media Group. Retrieved 7 November 2014.
- Silverstein, Jason (4 January 2015). "'I am afraid for my safety': California woman has 20 police sent to former home in Portland as part of Gamergate harassment campaign". Daily News (New York).
- "Gamergate: Woman blames online harassers for hoax that sent 20 Portland cops to her former home". OregonLive.com.
- "Prank call sends close to 20 police officers to Southwest Portland home". OregonLive.com.
- "Court document reveals more about Sentinel, OK, bomb threat". NewsOK.com. 22 January 2015. Retrieved 16 February 2015.
- "News – York Regional Police". yrp.ca.
- "Mumsnet's co-founder suffers 'swatting attack'". BBC News.
- "New words in oxforddictionaries". Retrieved 28 August 2015.
- Prentice, George (13 April 2013). "UPDATE: Meridian Teen Charged With Conspiracy With Australian Youth To Make Bomb Threats To Schools, Businesses | citydesk". Boiseweekly.com. Retrieved 6 September 2013.
- "Individual Pleads Guilty in Swatting Conspiracy Case". fbi.gov. 29 January 2009.
- "18 U.S. Code § 1513 – Retaliating against a witness, victim, or an informant". law.cornell.edu. Retrieved January 2009.
- "18 U.S. Code § 1030 – Fraud and related activity in connection with computers". law.cornell.edu. Retrieved January 2009.
- "Last Defendant Sentenced in Swatting Conspiracy". fbi.gov. 16 November 2009.
- "18 U.S. Code § 371 – Conspiracy to commit offense or to defraud United States". Retrieved January 2009.
- The crime of swatting fake 9-1-1 calls have real consequences, FBI
- SWATting, a Deadly Political Game
- Guilty Plea: Phone Phreaks Use Caller-ID Spoofing to Get Foes Raided By SWAT
- Teenager Receiving Life In Prison For ‘SWATTING’ Gamer Is A Satirical Hoax Which Stirred Social Media
- The Psychology of Swatting