Sweden was in their second Eurovision Song Contest represented by Brita Borg with the song "Augustin". The winning song was elected in the Swedish national final: Melodifestivalen 1959. Eight semi-finals were held on the radio. During the semi-finals, Sveriges Radio decided that the winning song would represent Sweden at the Eurovision Song Contest 1959. The winning singer, Siw Malmkvist, had to stay home as the singer had already been selected.
Melodifestivalen 1959 was the national final for the song to represent Sweden at the Eurovision Song Contest 1959. It was held on 29 January 1959 and was the first time that this system of picking a song had been used. Approximately 200 songs were submitted to SVT for the competition. The final was broadcast on Sveriges Radio TV and Sveriges Radio P1 from Cirkus, Stockholm and the presenter was Thore Ehrling. Brita Borg was chosen by an expert jury with "Augustin".