Sweet Briar College

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Sweet Briar College
SBC.seal.jpg
Motto Rosam quae meruit ferat (Latin)
Motto in English
She who has earned the rose may bear it.
Established 1901
Type Private women's college
Endowment $94.0 million (2014)[1]
President Phillip C. Stone [2]
Academic staff
110 (Spring 2015)[3]
Students 530 (Spring 2015)[3]
Location Sweet Briar, Virginia, U.S.
Campus Rural, 3,250 acres (13.15 km2)
Colors          Pink and Green
Athletics NCAA Division III, ODAC
Nickname Vixens
Website www.sbc.edu

Sweet Briar College is a women's liberal arts college in Sweet Briar, Virginia, United States, about 12 miles (19 km) north of Lynchburg, Virginia. The college is on 3,250 acres (13,152,283 m2) in the foothills of the Blue Ridge Mountains, on the former estate of the college's founder, Indiana Fletcher Williams. Sweet Briar was established in 1901 as the Sweet Briar Institute[4] and opened its doors in 1906.[5] Known as Sweet Briar College, the school is accredited by the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools Commission on Colleges[6] to award the Bachelor of Arts, Bachelor of Fine Arts, Bachelor of Science, Master of Arts in Teaching and Master of Education.[7]

On March 3, 2015, Sweet Briar's board of directors announced that the college would be closing at the end of the summer session, citing "insurmountable financial challenges".[8] In response, a group of concerned alumnae and friends of Sweet Briar College formed a nonprofit organization, Saving Sweet Briar, to reverse the board's decision.[9] Saving Sweet Briar, students, parents and alumnae, faculty and staff, and the local Commonwealth Attorney all filed lawsuits to enjoin the closing, one of which reached the Virginia Supreme Court.[10] On June 20, 2015, the Virginia Attorney General announced a mediation agreement to keep Sweet Briar College open.[11][12] After replacing the board and President, the college rescinded the closing announcement.[13]

History[edit]

Elijah Fletcher (1789–1858), father of Indiana Fletcher Williams
Indiana Fletcher Williams (1828–1900), founder of Sweet Briar College
Daisy Williams (1867–1884), daughter of Indiana Fletcher Williams, ca. age 12

Sweet Briar plantation[edit]

The college is named after the former plantation of Elijah Fletcher and his descendants. Fletcher was a 19th-century teacher, businessman and mayor of Lynchburg, Virginia. He married Maria Antoinette Crawford in 1813, and purchased the Sweet Briar plantation property from her aunt and uncle. The plantation was initially known as Locust Ridge, but Crawford supposedly renamed it "Sweet Briar," after the roses which grew on the land. Their daughter, Indiana Fletcher was born in 1828 in Lynchburg.

Indiana attended the Georgetown Visitation Preparatory School, Doane Academy, and later toured Europe. She met James Henry Williams, a student at Union Theological Seminary (New York City) in 1858, and after reuniting in Virginia, they were married in 1865. Their daughter, Maria Georgiana "Daisy" Williams, was born in 1867. At Elijah Fletcher's death, Indiana inherited the plantation. James Williams gave up his initial career as a clergyman to maintain the property and died in 1889, leaving the entire estate to his wife. Daisy Williams died at the age of 16 in 1884. Both James and Indiana Fletcher-Williams were devastated at her death, and James expressed a wish in his own will that a school might be established in honor of Daisy. Indiana died in 1900, bequeathing Sweet Briar plantation to become a school for young women.[14][15]

By his death in 1858, Elijah Fletcher owned over 110 slaves.[16] After their emancipation in 1865, several former slaves and descendants of slaves continued to work for pay and live at Sweet Briar, including Martha Penn Taylor, who worked for three generations of the Fletcher-Williams family, and Signora Hollins.[17][18] Some descendants of the slaves owned by the family still work at the college, and others hold family reunions on campus.[19]

Indiana Fletcher Williams' bequest and official opening[edit]

In 1901, Sweet Briar was chartered as Sweet Briar Institute as indicated in the will of Indiana Fletcher Williams, who stated that the land of Sweet Briar plantation must be used as a "school or seminary to be known as the 'Sweet Briar institute,' for the education of white girls and young women. It shall be the general scope and object of the school to impart to its students such education in sound learning, and such physical, moral and religious training as shall, in the judgment of the directors, best fit them to be useful members of society".[20]

In 1906, Sweet Briar College officially opened with 51 students and granted its first AB degrees in 1910. In 1932, Sweet Briar's study abroad exchange program with the University of St. Andrews, Scotland was established. In 1948, the renowned Junior Year in France (JYF) program was launched, followed by a number of other study abroad programs.[21][22][23]

Civil Rights era changes[edit]

Legal action to alter Indiana Fletcher Williams' will was required to admit African-American students, as it limited the purpose of the college to the education of solely white women.[24] On August 17, 1964, wishing to eliminate "white" from the charter and comply with the Civil Rights Act of 1964, Sweet Briar filed a bill of complaint with the Amherst County Circuit Court. The request was initially denied at the state level, with the Commonwealth's Attorney General stating that the will was "plain, unambiguous, conclusive, and binding".

After several years of unsuccessful state litigation, the college filed a complaint with the federal U.S. District Court for the Western District of Virginia. On April 25, 1966, Judge Thomas J. Michie issued a temporary restraining order that prevented enforcement of the racial restriction. On July 17, 1967, a three-judge Charlottesville court confirmed permanence of the restraining order. The first African-American student, Marshalyn Yeargin-Allsopp, was admitted to the college in September 1966.[24][25][26]

Distinguishing features and early decades[edit]

Sweet Briar has a robust academic reputation.[27] During its first decade, Sweet Briar ran a "sub-college" department to prepare students for college-level work.[28][29][30][31] The original board of trustees appointed in Williams' will maintained that the college would be the academic equivalent of Smith, Wellesley and Mount Holyoke.[32] The difference in Sweet Briar's curriculum was the inclusion of "hands-on" or "practical" courses, as well as physical education, in accordance with Williams' directive that the school produce "useful members of society".[33][34] This forward-thinking approach evolved into the college's current core mission, where students have direct access to their disciplines while gaining real-world and classroom learning experience. During the first few years of the college, this concept quickly gave way to a more traditional liberal arts curriculum.[35][36]

2015 closure attempt[edit]

Pending closure announced by board[edit]

On March 3, 2015 the college's board of directors, following a unanimous vote on February 28, 2015, announced the college would close on August 25, 2015, due to "insurmountable financial challenges". They cited declining enrollment and an endowment insufficient to cover potentially large-scale changes needed to boost enrollment, like coeducation.[37] Another possible factor presented by the board was a declining interest in the traditional women's college model.[38][39] Sweet Briar had explored merging with other stronger institutions including the University of Virginia, but nothing came of it.[40]

The board announced that academic activity was to cease on August 25, 2015, the college’s pending closing date. Some professors said they received termination notices stating their last day of work would be May 30, 2015; the last day of employment for most was June 30, 2015.[41]

Between 2011 and March 2015, Sweet Briar's endowment had dropped from $96.2 to $84 million, as the college drew on endowment for operating expenses.[42] Most of the college's endowment is restricted, meaning the money must serve designated purposes, such as scholarships or faculty chairs. According to Standard & Poor’s (S&P), which rates the college’s bond debt, only $19 million was unrestricted; $18 million temporarily restricted and $53 million permanently restricted.[43][44] Sweet Briar is burdened with about $25 million in debt owed primarily to bondholders, and the college faced the possibility of default and an accelerated lump-sum payment of the entire amount.[45]

College Board representatives explained that with insolvency inevitable—even though the college was still technically solvent—the Board felt the responsible course was an advance announcement of the closing.[46] That would let current students transfer at the beginning of a new academic year and prevent an entering first-year class from having to transfer after only one semester. It would also allow the college to honor financial obligations and provide severance to faculty and staff.[47]

Efforts to forestall closing[edit]

A group of Sweet Briar alumnae, students, faculty, and supporters united in an attempt to save the college from closing through legal action, social media and a fundraising campaign, "Saving Sweet Briar".[48] Saving Sweet Briar, Inc. asserted that the financial decline cited as the reason for closing was overstated or illusory, and sought the resignation of interim President James F. Jones and the Board of Directors.[49] In a return statement, the President and the Board declined resignation, saying that doing so would "further destabilize an already fragile situation", and that allegations against them were "wrong and unfair".[50][51]

A majority of Sweet Briar faculty members passed a resolution opposing the Board's decision to close the college and subsequently issued a vote of no confidence in the school's Board and its President. Over 50 tenured and untenured Sweet Briar faculty members later joined a lawsuit against the college, seeking $42 million in damages, reinstatement of employment, and injunctions to prevent the closure of the college and termination of its faculty.[52]

On March 30, 2015 the Amherst County Attorney filed a separate lawsuit, this one on behalf of the Commonwealth of Virginia, seeking an injunction to block the closing of Sweet Briar College and to force the removal and replacement of the president and board of directors.[53] Following an amicus curiae brief released by Virginia attorney general Mark Herring, which argued that the Amherst County Attorney did not have the standing to seek an injunction,[54] a Bedford county judge ruled that the county attorney had standing to sue under Virginia's charitable solicitation law, but not under its trust law.[55] At a hearing on the Amherst County Attorney's lawsuit on April 15, 2015, the judge granted a 60-day injunction to prevent the college from shifting endowment money solicited for its continued operation, to its closing.[56] The judge did not halt the closing, and declined to remove the president and the board, to require the college to continue operations, or to appoint a special fiduciary to review college finances.[57] The college's attorney said the college would continue the process of closing, using unrestricted funds.[56]

On April 20, following the decision on the injunction, a group of Sweet Briar students, parents, and alumnae filed a third lawsuit calling the Board decision to close the school a breach of contract. Rather than monetary damages, the suit requested injunctions to prevent the college from taking more steps to shut down or sell assets, and a permanent injunction requiring Sweet Briar to continue operating.[58] The college's spokeswoman contested the allegations.[58][59] After a hearing on April 29, the same Bedford County judge ruled that the college could not sell any of its assets for six months, although he still did not enjoin the closing.[60]

The college embarked on negotiations to transfer some time-sensitive assets despite the court's injunction.[61] The parties negotiated an agreement to transfer hazardous chemicals, to sell to faculty their personal computers, and to keep Sweet Briar's study abroad program functioning.[62] In adopting the agreed order, the judge declined to allow the transfer of the college's horses. And on his own, he added to the injunction for the first time, a restriction that the college shall "engage in no such act during the period of this injunction that has as its goals facilitating the closing of the college unless such act is authorized by further order of this court."[62]

The Amherst County Attorney filed an appeal of the judge's April 15 decision on trust law applicability with the Virginia Supreme Court. Following a hearing on June 4, the Supreme Court ruled in favor of the Commonwealth on June 9, stating that Virginia trust laws can apply to Sweet Briar, and referred the case back to the Bedford county circuit court judge for consideration of a temporary injunction to halt the closing of the college.[63][64][65][66]

Agreement to keep the college open[edit]

On June 20, 2015, the Virginia Attorney General's office announced a mediation agreement to keep Sweet Briar College open for the 2015–16 academic year. The agreement called for Sweet Briar College president James Jones to resign, as well as at least 13 members of the college's board of directors to allow Saving Sweet Briar to appoint a new majority.[11][12] Lawyers for Saving Sweet Briar contacted Phillip Stone, the former president of Bridgewater College, to ask him to serve as Sweet Briar's new president.[67] Saving Sweet Briar agreed to contribute $12 million, and the state Attorney General agreed to release restrictions on an additional $16 million of endowment money, to pay for continuing operations. On June 22, 2015, the Bedford County judge approved the agreement, and dismissed the pending lawsuits.[68]

Change of leadership[edit]

Sweet Briar's board is normally elected annually in the spring; however, Saving Sweet Briar and plaintiffs in the litigations appointed an entirely new board in July 2015.[13][69] In a conference call vote the new board unanimously installed Phillip Stone as the new president. The new board also formally rescinded the previous board’s announcement that the school was closing.[13]

President Stone announced in newspaper interviews that he does not regard this as an interim or one year appointment, and that in years to come he intends to increase enrollment beyond what the college has ever been before.[13] President Stone invited most current faculty and staff to remain in their positions; the settlement includes paying six-months severance to any who depart.[70][71] Saving Sweet Briar was required to deliver $12 million by September 2015 to help cover 2015-16 operating costs, according to the settlement. As of August 3, 2015, it had provided $8.5 million, ahead of schedule.[72]

Academics[edit]

The college operates on a semester system[73] and operates 50 undergraduate courses of study, three preprofessional programs (pre-law, pre-medicine and pre-veterinary), and two graduate degrees. Both graduate programs are coed and in the field of education.[74]

  • Sweet Briar College offers several study abroad programs, most with a focus on foreign language. The two most established programs are Junior Year in France (JYF) and Junior Year in Spain (JYS). Other programs include the Japanese Studies Program at Doshisha Women’s College, Wake Forest/SASASAAS Program in China-Beijing, Intercollegiate Center of Classical Studies in Rome, the American School of Classical Studies Summer Program at Athens, the National Security Education Program (NSEP) in multiple countries, and other programs in different locations. With approval, students earn credit for international internships.[77]

Sweet Briar offers both the Bachelor of Arts and the Bachelor of Science degrees for undergraduate students. The graduate programs include the Master of Education (M.Ed.) and the Master of Arts in Teaching (MAT)/Licensure. The two graduate education degrees are offered to men and women.[78][79][80]

Areas of study include: Anthropology, Archaeology, Arts Management, Asian Studies, Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Biology, Business, Chemistry, Classics, Dance, Economics, Education, Engineering, English, English and Creative Writing, Environmental Science, Equine Studies, Fine Arts, French, Gender Studies, German, Government and International Affairs, History, History of Art, Honors Program, Interdisciplinary Studies, International Studies, Latin American Studies, Liberal Studies, Mathematical and Computer Sciences, Mathematical Economics, Medieval and Renaissance Studies, Music, Philosophy, Physical Education/Athletics/Recreation, Physics, Psychology, Religion, Riding Program, Sociology, Spanish, Studio Art, and Theatre.

Sweet Briar offers several academic fellowships and grants for its existing students, including:

  • Sweet Briar College's Honors Program offers fellowships to students to support independent research projects under the supervision of faculty mentors. Projects may be interdisciplinary and include multiple mentors.[81] Past projects are listed online.[82]
  • The Student Research and Creative Endeavors Grants provide up to $500 to offset costs associated with student research or creative projects. Grant applications may be from individual students or teams of students.[83]
  • Student Travel Grants from the Honors Program supports academic-related travel during the academic year.[84]
  • Sweet Briar College offers several scholarships available for academic travel, which may be used to attend conferences.[77]

Architecture[edit]

Sweet Briar College Historic District
SBCArcade.jpg
Arcade between Pannell Art Gallery and Randolph Hall
Sweet Briar College is located in Virginia
Sweet Briar College
Location Sweet Briar Dr., .5 miles west of US 29, Amherst, Virginia
Coordinates 37°33′20″N 79°4′50″W / 37.55556°N 79.08056°W / 37.55556; -79.08056Coordinates: 37°33′20″N 79°4′50″W / 37.55556°N 79.08056°W / 37.55556; -79.08056
Area 27.2 acres (11.0 ha)
Architect Ralph Adams Cram; et al.
Architectural style Colonial Revival
Governing body Private
NRHP Reference # 95000240[85]
VLR # 005-0219
Significant dates
Added to NRHP March 30, 1995
Designated VLR January 15, 1995[86]
Reid Hall, a dormitory on campus
Benedict Hall, an academic building on campus
Mary Helen Cochran Library

The college's architecture is dominated by the work of Ralph Adams Cram, who also lent his architectural expertise to the campuses of Princeton University and West Point, among others. Although Cram's forte was Gothic Revival, he designed Sweet Briar in the Colonial Revival style, using red brick buildings with white balustrades and arcades.[87]

Twenty-one of the thirty campus buildings were designated as the "Sweet Briar College Historic District" by the National Register of Historic Places. Sweet Briar House, which traditionally houses the college president, is among these buildings.[85][88][89]

The campus property includes the Sweet Briar plantation burial ground (known as the slave cemetery), where upwards of 60 slaves are buried. Archaeologists have uncovered many slave artifacts on campus. A 170-year-old slave cabin, which also was used for early college employees, is currently installed behind Sweet Briar House.[90][91][92]

Approximately 40% of the college’s faculty and staff live on campus in private houses and apartments.[93]

Campus life[edit]

Sweet Briar is a residential campus, and nearly all students live on campus. [94] There are seven standard dormitories and additional independent living options for upperclasswomen in the Green Village and Patterson House. The college has over 50 clubs and organizations.

Like other women's colleges in the United States, Sweet Briar College has many traditions.[95] The most prominent is the annual Founder's Day, when students, faculty and staff walk to Monument Hill to place daisies at Daisy Williams's grave site and memorial.[96]

Athletics[edit]

Sports teams are known as the Vixens. Sweet Briar is a member of the Old Dominion Athletic Conference (ODAC).

Sweet Briar has seven varsity sports' teams: field hockey, lacrosse, soccer, softball, swimming, and tennis. Fencing is a Sweet Briar club sport.

Students also participate in recreational sports through the Sweet Briar Outdoor Program (SWEBOP), which organizes a number of trips throughout the year. These include hiking, fly fishing, caving, rock climbing and weekly kayaking and skiing.[97]

Riding[edit]

The college is known for its horseback riding program,[98] which focuses on show and field hunters, hunt seat equitation, and show jumping. The school has seven riding teams. These include a jumper team, hunter show team, JV hunter show team, American National Riding Commission (ANRC) team, field team and Intercollegiate Horse Show Association (IHSA) team. As part of its program, students can study for an Equine Studies Certificate with a focus in training or equine management.[98] Sweet Briar hosted the 37th Annual ANRC Intercollegiate Equitation Championship judged by George H. Morris in 2014.[99]

Sweet Briar's accolades include 3 Old Dominion Athletic Conference (ODAC) titles (1987, 2012, 2015),[100] 9 American National Riding Commission (ANRC) team national championship titles (1978–1980; 1986–1990; 1999),[101] and 10 ANRC team reserve national championships titles (1981–1985; 2000–2002; 2004–2005). Sweet Briar students have been individual national champions nine times,[102] and individual reserve ANRC national champions seven times. In 2006, Sweet Briar's Intercollegiate Horse Show Association (IHSA) team won their region (Zone 4, Region 1) and placed second at Zones, qualifying the team for the Nationals Competition.[103] The team placed third overall In 2008, Sweet Briar IHSA again won their region and proceeded to the Nationals, where team members collected individual ribbons.[104][105]

Rankings[edit]

  • In 2010, Princeton Review's "Best 361 Colleges" ranked Sweet Briar a "Best Buy" private college[106] and a "Top 50 Best Value College",[citation needed] No. 8 for "Best Career Services",[107] No 11 for "Class Discussions Encouraged", No. 6 for "Most Beautiful Campus", No. 4 for "Professors Get High Marks", No. 3 for "Most Accessible Professors", and No. 8 for "Best Classroom Experience", making Sweet Briar the only college in the nation to appear on all four academic top-20 lists.[citation needed]
  • The 2012 Princeton Review ranked Sweet Briar College in five of the Princeton Review’s top-20 lists. Of 376 colleges, the college was ranked seventh for "Most Accessible Professors", eighth for "Best Classroom Experience", eleventh for "Class Discussions Encouraged" and fourteenth for "Professors Get High Marks", as well as sixth for "Most Beautiful Campus". The College made one more top-20 list in the 2012 guidebook, coming in at No. 13 for "Dorms Like Palaces".[citation needed]
  • In 2012, the Washington Post listed Sweet Briar College as one of "Five colleges where students study". The National Survey of Student Engagement found average weekly total study hours for a college student since the 1960s "has dipped from 24 to about 15". Sweet Briar students reported 19 hours a week.[108]
  • The 2013 Princeton Review ranked Sweet Briar College in five of the Princeton Review’s top-20 lists. Of 377 colleges, the college was ranked eighteenth for "Class Discussions Encouraged", third for "Most Beautiful Campus, seventh for "Most Accessible Professors", and nineteenth for "Best College Dorms" and twentieth for "Nobody Plays Intramural Sports".[citation needed]
  • The 2014 Princeton Review ranked Sweet Briar College in four of the Princeton Review’s top-20 lists. Of 378 colleges, Sweet Briar ranked sixteenth for "Most Accessible Professors", tenth for "Best Career Services", sixth "Most Beautiful Campus", and thirteenth for "Best College Dorms".[citation needed]
  • Forbes currently lists Sweet Briar College for the following, based on 2013 datasets: "#245 Overall", "#180 in Private Colleges", "#49 in the South", "Forbes Financial Grade: A".[111] Forbes has ranked Sweet Briar at #245 in America's Top Colleges in 2014.[112]

Notable people[edit]

Administration[edit]

Alumnae[edit]

Current faculty[edit]

Previous faculty[edit]

List of presidents[edit]

  • Phillip C. Stone (2015–Present)[115]
  • James F. Jones Jr. (2014–2015)[2][116]
  • Jo Ellen Parker (2009–2014)
  • Elisabeth Showalter Muhlenfeld – President emerita (1996–2009)
  • Barbara A. Hill (1990–1996)
  • Nenah Elinor Fry (1983–1990)
  • Harold B. Whiteman, Jr. (1971–1983)
  • Anne Gary Pannell (1950–1971)
  • Martha B. Lucas (1946–1950)
  • Meta Glass (1925–1946)
  • Emilie Watts McVea (1916–1925)
  • Mary K. Benedict (1906–1916)[117]

References[edit]

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