|Sweet potato tubers|
The sweet potato or sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas) is a dicotyledonous plant that belongs to the bindweed or morning glory family, Convolvulaceae. Its large, starchy, sweet-tasting tuberous roots are used as a root vegetable. The young shoots and leaves are sometimes eaten as greens. Cultivars of the sweet potato have been bred to bear tubers with flesh and skin of various colors. Sweet potato is only distantly related to the common potato (Solanum tuberosum), both being in the order Solanales. Although darker sweet potatoes are often referred to as "yams" in parts of North America, the species is not a true yam, which are monocots in the order Dioscoreales.
The sweet potato is native to the tropical regions of the Americas. Of the approximately 50 genera and more than 1,000 species of Convolvulaceae, I. batatas is the only crop plant of major importance—some others are used locally (e.g., I. aquatica "kangkong"), but many are poisonous. The genus Ipomoea that contains the sweet potato also includes several garden flowers called morning glories, though that term is not usually extended to I. batatas. Some cultivars of I. batatas are grown as ornamental plants under the name tuberous morning glory, and used in a horticultural context.
The plant is a herbaceous perennial vine, bearing alternate triangle-shaped or palmately lobed leaves and medium-sized sympetalous flowers. The stems are usually crawling on the ground and form adventitious roots at the nodes. The leaves are screwed along the stems. The leaf stalk is 5 to 20 inches long. The leaf blades are very variable, 5 to 13 cm (2.0 to 5.1 in) long, the shape is heart-, kidney- to egg-shaped, rounded or triangular and spear-shaped, the edge can be entire, toothed or often three to seven times lobed, cut or divided. Most of the leaf surfaces are bare, rarely hairy, and the tip is rounded to pointed. The leaves are mostly green in color, but due to the accumulation of anthocyanins, especially along the leaf veins, they can be purple in color. Depending on the variety, the total length of a stem can be between 0.5 and 4 metres (1 ft 8 in and 13 ft 1 in). Some cultivars also form shoots up to 16 metres (52 ft) in length. However, these do not form underground storage organs.
The hermaphrodite, five-fold and short-stalked flowers are single or few in stalked, zymous inflorescences that arise from the leaf axils and stand upright. It produces flowers when the day is short. The small sepals are elongated and tapering to a point and spiky and (rarely only 7) 10 to 15 millimetres (0.39 to 0.59 in) long, usually finely haired or ciliate. The inner three are a little longer. The 4 to 7 centimetres (1.6 to 2.8 in) long, overgrown and funnel-shaped, folded crown, with a shorter hem, can be lavender to purple-lavender in color, the throat is usually darker in color, but white crowns can also appear. The enclosed stamens are of unequal length with glandular filaments. The two-chamber ovary is upper constant with a relatively short stylus. Seeds are only produced from cross-pollination.
The flowers open before sunrise and stay open for a few hours. They close again in the morning and begin to wither. The edible tuberous root is long and tapered, with a smooth skin whose color ranges between yellow, orange, red, brown, purple, and beige. Its flesh ranges from beige through white, red, pink, violet, yellow, orange, and purple. Sweet potato cultivars with white or pale yellow flesh are less sweet and moist than those with red, pink or orange flesh.
Although the soft, orange sweet potato is often called a "yam" in parts of North America, the sweet potato is very distinct from the botanical yam (Dioscorea), which has a cosmopolitan distribution, and belongs to the monocot family Dioscoreaceae. A different crop plant, the oca (Oxalis tuberosa, a species of wood sorrel), is called a "yam" in many parts.
Although the sweet potato is not closely related botanically to the common potato, they have a shared etymology. The first Europeans to taste sweet potatoes were members of Christopher Columbus's expedition in 1492. Later explorers found many cultivars under an assortment of local names, but the name which stayed was the indigenous Taino name of batata. The Spanish combined this with the Quechua word for potato, papa, to create the word patata for the common potato.
Though the sweet potato is also called "batata" (בטטה) in Hebrew, this is not a direct loan of the Taino word. Rather, the Spanish patata was loaned into Arabic as "batata" (بطاطا), owing to the lack of a /p/ sound in Arabic, while the sweet potato was called "batata ḥilwa" (بطاطا حلوة); literally meaning "sweet potato"). The Arabic batata was loaned into Hebrew as designating the sweet potato only, as Hebrew had its own word for the common potato, תפוח אדמה ("tapuakh adama", literally meaning "earth apple"; compare French pomme de terre).
Some organizations and researchers advocate for the styling of the name as one word—"sweetpotato"—instead of two, to emphasize the plant's genetic uniqueness from both common potatoes and yams and to avoid confusion of it being classified as a type of common potato. In its current usage in American English, the styling of the name as two words is still preferred.
In Argentina, Colombia, Venezuela, Puerto Rico, Brazil, and the Dominican Republic, the sweet potato is called batata. In Mexico, Bolivia, Peru, Chile, Central America, and the Philippines, the sweet potato is known as camote (alternatively spelled kamote in the Philippines), derived from the Nahuatl word camotli.
In Peru and Bolivia, the general word in Quechua for the sweet potato is apichu, but there are variants used such as khumara, kumar (Ayacucho Quechua), and kumara (Bolivian Quechua), strikingly similar to the Polynesian name kumara and its regional Oceanic cognates (kumala, umala, 'uala, etc.), which has led some scholars to suspect an instance of pre-Columbian trans-oceanic contact. This theory is also supported by genetic evidence.
In Australia, about 90% of production is devoted to the orange cultivar 'Beauregard', which was originally developed by the Louisiana Agricultural Experiment Station in 1981.
In New Zealand, the Māori varieties bore elongated tubers with white skin and a whitish flesh, which points to pre-European cross-Pacific travel. Known as kumara (from the Māori language kūmara), the most common cultivar now is the red 'Owairaka', but orange ('Beauregard'), gold, purple and other cultivars are also grown.
The origin and domestication of sweet potato occurred in either Central or South America. In Central America, domesticated sweet potatoes were present at least 5,000 years ago, with the origin of I. batatas possibly between the Yucatán Peninsula of Mexico and the mouth of the Orinoco River in Venezuela. The cultigen was most likely spread by local people to the Caribbean and South America by 2500 BCE.
I. trifida, a diploid, is the closest wild relative of the sweet potato, which originated with an initial cross between a tetraploid and another diploid parent, followed by a second complete genome duplication event. The oldest radiocarbon dating remains of the sweet potato known today were discovered in caves from the Chilca Canyon, in the south-central zone of Peru, and yield an age of 8080 ± 170 BC.
The sweet potato was grown in Polynesia before Western exploration, generally spread by vine cuttings rather than by seeds. Sweet potato has been radiocarbon-dated in the Cook Islands to 1210–1400 CE. A common hypothesis is that a vine cutting was brought to central Polynesia by Polynesians who had traveled to South America and back, and spread from there across Polynesia to Easter Island, Hawaii and New Zealand. Genetic similarities have been found between Polynesian peoples and indigenous Americans including the Zenú, a people inhabiting the Pacific coast of present-day Colombia, indicating that Polynesians could have visited South America and taken sweet potatoes prior to European contact. Dutch linguists and specialists in Amerindian languages Willem Adelaar and Pieter Muysken have suggested that the word for sweet potato is shared by Polynesian languages and languages of South America: Proto-Polynesian *kumala (compare Rapa Nui kumara, Hawaiian ʻuala, Māori kūmara) may be connected with Quechua and Aymara k'umar ~ k'umara. Adelaar and Muysken assert that the similarity in the word for sweet potato is proof of either incidental contact or sporadic contact between the Central Andes and Polynesia.
Some researchers, citing divergence time estimates, suggest that sweet potatoes might have been present in Polynesia thousands of years before humans arrived there. However, the present scholarly consensus favours the pre-Columbian contact model.
The sweet potato arrived in Europe with the Columbian exchange. It is recorded, for example, in Elinor Fettiplace's Receipt Book, compiled in England in 1604.
Sweet potatoes were first introduced to the Philippines during the Spanish colonial period (1521-1898) via the Manila galleons, along with other New World crops. It was introduced to the Fujian province of China in about 1594 from Luzon, in response to a major crop failure. The growing of sweet potatoes was encouraged by the Governor Chin Hsüeh-tseng (Jin Xuezeng).
Sweet potatoes were also introduced to the Ryukyu Kingdom, present-day Okinawa, Japan, in the early 1600s by the Portuguese. Sweet potatoes became a staple in Japan because they were important in preventing famine when rice harvests were poor. Aoki Konyō helped popularize the cultivation of the sweet potato in Japan, and the Tokugawa bakufu sponsored, published, and disseminated a vernacular Japanese translation of his research monograph on sweet potatoes to encourage their growth more broadly. Sweet potatoes were planted in Shōgun Tokugawa Yoshimune's private garden. It was first introduced to Korea in 1764. Kang P'il-ri and Yi Kwang-ryŏ embarked on a project to grow sweet potatoes in Seoul in 1766, using the knowledge of Japanese cultivators they learned in Tongnae starting in 1764. The project succeeded for a year but ultimately failed in winter 1767 after Kang's unexpected death.
The genome of cultivated sweet potatoes contains sequences of DNA from Agrobacterium (sensu lato; specifically, one related to Rhizobium rhizogenes), with genes actively expressed by the plants. The T-DNA transgenes were not observed in closely related wild relatives of the sweet potato. Studies indicated that the sweet potato genome evolved over millennia, with eventual domestication of the crop taking advantage of natural genetic modifications. These observations make sweet potatoes the first known example of a naturally transgenic food crop.: 141 
The plant does not tolerate frost. It grows best at an average temperature of 24 °C (75 °F), with abundant sunshine and warm nights. Annual rainfalls of 750–1,000 mm (30–39 in) are considered most suitable, with a minimum of 500 mm (20 in) in the growing season. The crop is sensitive to drought at the tuber initiation stage 50–60 days after planting, and it is not tolerant to water-logging, as it may cause tuber rots and reduce growth of storage roots if aeration is poor.
Depending on the cultivar and conditions, tuberous roots mature in two to nine months. With care, early-maturing cultivars can be grown as an annual summer crop in temperate areas, such as the Eastern United States and China. Sweet potatoes rarely flower when the daylight is longer than 11 hours, as is normal outside of the tropics. They are mostly propagated by stem or root cuttings or by adventitious shoots called "slips" that grow out from the tuberous roots during storage. True seeds are used for breeding only.
They grow well in many farming conditions and have few natural enemies; pesticides are rarely needed. Sweet potatoes are grown on a variety of soils, but well-drained, light- and medium-textured soils with a pH range of 4.5–7.0 are more favorable for the plant. They can be grown in poor soils with little fertilizer. However, sweet potatoes are very sensitive to aluminum toxicity and will die about six weeks after planting if lime is not applied at planting in this type of soil. Because they are sown by vine cuttings rather than seeds, sweet potatoes are relatively easy to plant. Because the rapidly growing vines shade out weeds, little weeding is needed. A commonly used herbicide to rid the soil of any unwelcome plants that may interfere with growth is DCPA, also known as Dacthal. In the tropics, the crop can be maintained in the ground and harvested as needed for market or home consumption. In temperate regions, sweet potatoes are most often grown on larger farms and are harvested before first frosts.
Sweet potatoes are cultivated throughout tropical and warm temperate regions wherever there is sufficient water to support their growth. Sweet potatoes became common as a food crop in the islands of the Pacific Ocean, South India, Uganda and other African countries.
A cultivar of the sweet potato called the boniato is grown in the Caribbean; its flesh is cream-colored, unlike the more common orange hue seen in other cultivars. Boniatos are not as sweet and moist as other sweet potatoes, but their consistency and delicate flavor are different than the common orange-colored sweet potato.
(millions of tonnes)
|Source: FAOSTAT of the United Nations|
Sweet potatoes have been a part of the diet in the United States for most of its history, especially in the Southeast. The average per capita consumption of sweet potatoes in the United States is only about 1.5–2 kg (3.3–4.4 lb) per year, down from 13 kg (29 lb) in 1920. "Orange sweet potatoes (the most common type encountered in the US) received higher appearance liking scores compared with yellow or purple cultivars." Purple and yellow sweet potatoes were not as well liked by consumers compared to orange sweet potatoes "possibly because of the familiarity of orange color that is associated with sweet potatoes."
In the Southeastern United States, sweet potatoes are traditionally cured to improve storage, flavor, and nutrition, and to allow wounds on the periderm of the harvested root to heal. Proper curing requires drying the freshly dug roots on the ground for two to three hours, then storage at 29–32 °C (85–90 °F) with 90 to 95% relative humidity from five to fourteen days. Cured sweet potatoes can keep for thirteen months when stored at 13–15 °C (55–59 °F) with >90% relative humidity. Colder temperatures injure the roots.
In 2020, global production of sweet potatoes was 89 million tonnes, led by China with 55% of the world total (table). Secondary producers were Malawi, Tanzania, and Nigeria.
Sweet potato suffers from Sweet potato chlorotic stunt virus (a Crinivirus). In synergy with other any of a large number of other viruses, Untiveros et al., 2007 finds SPCSV produces an even more severe symptomology. I. batatas suffers from several Phytophthoras including P. carotovorum, P. odoriferum, and P. wasabiae.
|Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)|
|Energy||378 kJ (90 kcal)|
|Dietary fiber||3.3 g|
|Vitamin A equiv.|
"Sweet potato". USDA Database.
|†Percentages are roughly approximated using US recommendations for adults. |
Source: USDA FoodData Central
|Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)|
|Energy||359 kJ (86 kcal)|
|Dietary fiber||3 g|
|Vitamin A equiv.|
|Pantothenic acid (B5)|
"Sweet potato, raw". USDA Database.
|†Percentages are roughly approximated using US recommendations for adults. |
Source: USDA FoodData Central
Cooked sweet potato (baked in skin) is 76% water, 21% carbohydrates, 2% protein, and contains negligible fat (table). In a 100 gram reference amount, baked sweet potato provides 90 calories, and rich contents (20% or more of the Daily Value, DV) of vitamin A (120% DV), vitamin C (24% DV), manganese (24% DV), and vitamin B6 (20% DV). It is a moderate source (10-19% DV) of some B vitamins and potassium.
Sweet potato cultivars with dark orange flesh have more beta-carotene (converted to a higher vitamin A content once digested) than those with light-colored flesh, and their increased cultivation is being encouraged in Africa where vitamin A deficiency is a serious health problem. Sweet potato leaves are edible and can be prepared like spinach or turnip greens.
Comparison to other food staples
The table below presents the relative performance of sweet potato (in column[G]) to other staple foods on a dry weight basis to account for their different water contents. While sweet potato provides less edible energy and protein per unit weight than cereals, it has higher nutrient density than cereals.
According to a study by the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, sweet potatoes are the most efficient staple food to grow in terms of farmland, yielding approximately 70,000 kcal per hectare (28,000/acre) / day.
|Staple||Maize (corn)[A]||Rice, white[B]||Wheat[C]||Potatoes[D]||Cassava[E]||Soybeans, green[F]||Sweet potatoes[G]||Yams[Y]||Sorghum[H]||Plantain[Z]||RDA|
|Water content (%)||10||12||13||79||60||68||77||70||9||65|
|Raw grams per 100 g dry weight||111||114||115||476||250||313||435||333||110||286|
|Vitamin C (mg)||0.0||0.0||0.0||93.8||51.5||90.6||10.4||57.0||0.0||52.6||90|
|Thiamin (B1) (mg)||0.43||0.08||0.34||0.38||0.23||1.38||0.35||0.37||0.26||0.14||1.2|
|Riboflavin (B2) (mg)||0.22||0.06||0.14||0.14||0.13||0.56||0.26||0.10||0.15||0.14||1.3|
|Niacin (B3) (mg)||4.03||1.82||6.28||5.00||2.13||5.16||2.43||1.83||3.22||1.97||16|
|Pantothenic acid (B5) (mg)||0.47||1.15||1.09||1.43||0.28||0.47||3.48||1.03||-||0.74||5|
|Vitamin B6 (mg)||0.69||0.18||0.34||1.43||0.23||0.22||0.91||0.97||-||0.86||1.3|
|Folate Total (B9) (μg)||21||9||44||76||68||516||48||77||0||63||400|
|Vitamin A (IU)||238||0||10||10||33||563||4178||460||0||3220||5000|
|Vitamin E, alpha-tocopherol (mg)||0.54||0.13||1.16||0.05||0.48||0.00||1.13||1.30||0.00||0.40||15|
|Vitamin K1 (μg)||0.3||0.1||2.2||9.0||4.8||0.0||7.8||8.7||0.0||2.0||120|
|Saturated fatty acids (g)||0.74||0.20||0.30||0.14||0.18||2.47||0.09||0.13||0.51||0.40||minimal|
|Monounsaturated fatty acids (g)||1.39||0.24||0.23||0.00||0.20||4.00||0.00||0.03||1.09||0.09||22–55|
|Polyunsaturated fatty acids (g)||2.40||0.20||0.72||0.19||0.13||10.00||0.04||0.27||1.51||0.20||13–19|
A raw yellow dent corn
B raw unenriched long-grain white rice
C raw hard red winter wheat
D raw potato with flesh and skin
E raw cassava
F raw green soybeans
G raw sweet potato
H raw sorghum
Y raw yam
Z raw plantains
This section needs additional citations for verification. (January 2016)
The starchy tuberous roots of the sweet potato are by far the most important product of the plant, although the leaves and shoots are also edible. In some tropical areas, they are a staple food crop. The tuber is often cooked before consumption as this increases its nutrition and digestibility, although the American colonists in the Southeast ate raw sweet potatoes as a staple food.
The vines' tips and young leaves are edible as a green vegetable with a characteristic flavor. Older growths may be used as animal fodder.
Amukeke (sun-dried slices of root) and inginyo (sun-dried crushed root) are a staple food for people in northeastern Uganda. Amukeke is mainly served for breakfast, eaten with peanut sauce. Inginyo is mixed with cassava flour and tamarind to make atapa. People eat atapa with smoked fish cooked in peanut sauce or with dried cowpea leaves cooked in peanut sauce. Emukaru (earth-baked root) is eaten as a snack anytime and is mostly served with tea or with peanut sauce. Similar uses are also found in South Sudan.
The young leaves and vine tips of sweet potato leaves are widely consumed as a vegetable in West African countries (Guinea, Sierra Leone and Liberia, for example), as well as in northeastern Uganda, East Africa. According to FAO leaflet No. 13 - 1990, sweet potato leaves and shoots are a good source of vitamins A, C, and B2 (riboflavin), and according to research done by A. Khachatryan, are an excellent source of lutein.
In Kenya, Rhoda Nungo of the home economics department of the Ministry of Agriculture has written a guide to using sweet potatoes in modern recipes. This includes uses both in the mashed form and as flour from the dried tubers to replace part of the wheat flour and sugar in baked products such as cakes, chapatis, mandazis, bread, buns and cookies. A nutritious juice drink is made from the orange-fleshed cultivars, and deep-fried snacks are also included.
In Egypt, sweet potato tubers are known as "batata" (بطاطا) and are a common street food in winter, when street vendors with carts fitted with ovens sell them to people passing time by the Nile or the sea. The cultivars used are an orange-fleshed one as well as a white/cream-fleshed one. They are also baked at home as a snack or dessert, drenched with honey.
In Ethiopia, the commonly found cultivars are black-skinned, cream-fleshed and called "bitatis" or "mitatis". They are cultivated in the eastern and southern lower highlands and harvested during the rainy season (June/July). In recent years,[when?] better yielding orange-fleshed cultivars were released for cultivation by Haramaya University as a less sugary sweet potato with higher vitamin A content. Sweet potatoes are widely eaten boiled as a favored snack.
In South Africa, sweet potatoes are often eaten as a side dish such as soetpatats.
In East Asia, roasted sweet potatoes are popular street food. In China, sweet potatoes, typically yellow cultivars, are baked in a large iron drum and sold as street food during winter. In Korea, sweet potatoes, known as goguma, are roasted in a drum can, baked in foil or on an open fire, typically during winter. In Japan, a dish similar to the Korean preparation is called yaki-imo (roasted sweet potato), which typically uses either the yellow-fleshed "Japanese sweet potato" or the purple-fleshed "Okinawan sweet potato", which is known as beni-imo.
Sweet potato soup, served during winter, consists of boiling sweet potato in water with rock sugar and ginger. In Fujian cuisine and Taiwanese cuisine, sweet potato is often cooked with rice to make congee. Steamed and dried sweet potato is a delicacy from Liancheng County. Sweet potato greens are a common side dish in Taiwanese cuisine, often boiled or sautéed and served with a garlic and soy sauce mixture, or simply salted before serving. They, as well as dishes featuring the sweet potato root, are commonly found at bento (Pe̍h-ōe-jī: piān-tong) restaurants. In northeastern Chinese cuisine, sweet potatoes are often cut into chunks and fried, before being drenched into a pan of boiling syrup.
In some regions of India, sweet potato is roasted slowly over kitchen coals at night and eaten with some dressing, while the easier way in the south is simply boiling or pressure cooking before peeling, cubing and seasoning for a vegetable dish as part of the meal. In the Indian state of Tamil Nadu, it is known as sakkara valli kilangu. It is boiled and consumed as evening snack. In some parts of India, fresh sweet potato is chipped, dried and then ground into flour; this is then mixed with wheat flour and baked into chapattis (bread). Between 15 and 20 percent of the sweet potato harvest is converted by some Indian communities into pickles and snack chips. A part of the tuber harvest is used in India as cattle fodder.
In Pakistan, sweet potato is known as shakarqandi and is cooked as a vegetable dish and also with meat dishes (chicken, mutton or beef). The ash-roasted sweet potatoes are sold as a snack and street food in Pakistani bazaars especially during the winter months.
In Sri Lanka, it is called bathala, and tubers are used mainly for breakfast (boiled sweet potato is commonly served with sambal or grated coconut) or as a supplementary curry dish for rice.
The tubers of this plant, known as kattala in Dhivehi, have been used in the traditional diet of the Maldives. The leaves were finely chopped and used in dishes such as mas huni.
In Japan, both sweet potatoes (called "satsuma-imo") and true purple yams (called "daijo" or "beni-imo") are grown. Boiling, roasting and steaming are the most common cooking methods. Also, the use in vegetable tempura is common. Daigaku-imo (ja:大学芋) is a baked and caramel-syruped sweet potato dessert. Because it is sweet and starchy, it is used in imo-kinton and some other traditional sweets, such as ofukuimo. What is commonly called "sweet potato" (ja:スイートポテト) in Japan is a cake made by baking mashed sweet potatoes. Shōchū, a Japanese spirit normally made from the fermentation of rice, can also be made from sweet potato, in which case it is called imo-jōchū. Imo-gohan, sweet potato cooked with rice, is popular in Guangdong, Taiwan and Japan. It is also served in nimono or nitsuke, boiled and typically flavored with soy sauce, mirin and dashi.
In Korean cuisine, sweet potato starch is used to produce dangmyeon (cellophane noodles). Sweet potatoes are also boiled, steamed, or roasted, and young stems are eaten as namul. Pizza restaurants such as Pizza Hut and Domino's in Korea are using sweet potatoes as a popular topping. Sweet potatoes are also used in the distillation of a variety of Soju. A popular Korean side dish or snack, goguma-mattang, also known as Korean candied sweet potato, is made by deep-frying sweet potatoes that were cut into big chunks and coating them with caramelized sugar.
In Malaysia and Singapore, sweet potato is often cut into small cubes and cooked with taro and coconut milk (santan) to make a sweet dessert called "bubur cha cha". A favorite way of cooking sweet potato is deep-frying slices of sweet potato in batter, served as a tea-time snack. In homes, sweet potatoes are usually boiled. The leaves of sweet potatoes are usually stir-fried with only garlic or with sambal belacan and dried shrimp by Malaysians.
In the Philippines, sweet potatoes (locally known as camote or kamote) are an important food crop in rural areas. They are often a staple among impoverished families in provinces, as they are easier to cultivate and cost less than rice. The tubers are boiled or baked in coals and may be dipped in sugar or syrup. Young leaves and shoots (locally known as talbos ng kamote or camote tops) are eaten fresh in salads with shrimp paste (bagoong alamang) or fish sauce. They can be cooked in vinegar and soy sauce and served with fried fish (a dish known as adobong talbos ng kamote), or with recipes such as sinigang. The stew obtained from boiling camote tops is purple-colored, and is often mixed with lemon as juice. Sweet potatoes are also sold as street food in suburban and rural areas. Fried sweet potatoes coated with caramelized sugar and served in skewers (camote cue) or as French fries are popular afternoon snacks. Sweet potatoes are also used in a variant of halo-halo called ginatan, where they are cooked in coconut milk and sugar and mixed with a variety of rootcrops, sago, jackfruit, and bilu-bilo (glutinous rice balls). Bread made from sweet potato flour is also gaining popularity. Sweet potato is relatively easy to propagate, and in rural areas can be seen abundantly at canals and dikes. The uncultivated plant is usually fed to pigs.
In Indonesia, sweet potatoes are locally known as ubi jalar (lit: spreading tuber) or simply ubi and are frequently fried with batter and served as snacks with spicy condiments, along with other kinds of fritters such as fried bananas, tempeh, tahu, breadfruit, or cassava. In the mountainous regions of West Papua, sweet potatoes are the staple food among the natives there. Using the bakar batu method of cooking, rocks that have been burned in a nearby bonfire are thrown into a pit lined with leaves. Layers of sweet potatoes, an assortment of vegetables, and pork are piled on top of the rocks. The top of the pile then is insulated with more leaves, creating a pressure of heat and steam inside which cooks all food within the pile after several hours.
In Vietnamese cuisine sweet potatoes are known as khoai lang and they are commonly cooked with a sweetener such as corn syrup, honey, sugar, or molasses.
Young sweet potato leaves are also used as baby food, particularly in Southeast Asia and East Asia. Mashed sweet potato tubers are used similarly throughout the world.
Imo Jōchū (Japanese spirits made with sweet potato)
Camote tops, a Philippine salad made from young sweet potato leaves (talbos ng kamote)
Candied sweet potatoes are a side dish consisting mainly of sweet potatoes prepared with brown sugar, marshmallows, maple syrup, molasses, orange juice, marron glacé, or other sweet ingredients. It is often served in the US on Thanksgiving. Sweet potato casserole is a side dish of mashed sweet potatoes in a casserole dish, topped with a brown sugar and pecan topping.
The sweet potato became a favorite food item of the French and Spanish settlers and thus continued a long history of cultivation in Louisiana. Sweet potatoes are recognized as the state vegetable of Alabama, Louisiana, and North Carolina. Sweet potato pie is also a traditional favorite dish in Southern U.S. cuisine. Another variation on the typical sweet potato pie is the Okinawan sweet potato haupia pie, which is made with purple sweet potatoes.
The fried sweet potatoes tradition dates to the early nineteenth century in the United States. Sweet potato fries or chips are a common preparation, and are made by julienning and deep-frying sweet potatoes, in the fashion of French fried potatoes. Roasting sliced or chopped sweet potatoes lightly coated in animal or vegetable oil at high heat became common in the United States at the start of the 21st century, a dish called "sweet potato fries". Sweet potato mash is served as a side dish, often at Thanksgiving dinner or with barbecue.
John Buttencourt Avila is called the "father of the sweet potato industry" in North America.
Māori grew several varieties of small, yellow-skinned, finger-sized kumara (with names including taputini, taroamahoe, pehu, hutihuti, and rekamaroa) that they had brought with them from east Polynesia. Modern trials have shown that these smaller varieties were capable of producing well, but when American whalers, sealers and trading vessels introduced larger cultivars in the early 19th century, they quickly predominated.
Prior to 2021, archaeologists believed that the sweet potato failed to flourish in New Zealand south of Christchurch due to the colder climate, forcing Māori in those latitudes to become (along with the Moriori of the Chatham Islands) the only Polynesian people who subsisted solely on hunting and gathering. However, a 2021 analysis of material excavated from a site near Dunedin, some 250 km (160 mi) further south, revealed that sweet potatoes were grown and stored there during the 15th century, before the industry was disrupted by factors speculated to be due to the Little Ice Age.
Māori traditionally cooked kumara in a hāngi (earth oven). This is still a common practice when there are large gatherings on marae.
In 1947, black rot (Ceratocystis fimbriata) appeared in kumara around Auckland and increased in severity through the 1950s. A disease-free strain was developed by Joe and Fay Gock. They gave the strain to the nation, earning them the Bledisloe Cup in 2013.
There are three main cultivars of kumara sold in New Zealand: 'Owairaka Red' ("red"), 'Toka Toka Gold' ("gold"), and 'Beauregard' ("orange"). The country grows around 24,000 metric tons of kumara annually, with nearly all of it (97%) grown in the Northland region. Kumara are widely available throughout New Zealand year-round, where they are a popular alternative to potatoes.
Kumara are often included in roast meals, and served with sour cream and sweet chili sauce. They are served alongside such vegetables as potatoes and pumpkin and, as such, are generally prepared in a savory manner. They are ubiquitous in supermarkets, roast meal takeaway shops and hāngi.
Among the Urapmin people of Papua New Guinea, taro (known in Urap as ima) and the sweet potato (Urap: wan) are the main sources of sustenance, and in fact the word for "food" in Urap is a compound of these two words.
In the Veneto (northeast Italy), sweet potato is known as patata mericana in the Venetian language (patata americana in Italian, meaning "American potato"), and it is cultivated above all in the southern area of the region; it is a traditional fall dish, boiled or roasted.
In Spain, sweet potato is called boniato. On the evening of All Souls' Day, in Catalonia (northeastern Spain) it is traditional to serve roasted sweet potato and chestnuts, panellets and sweet wine. The occasion is called La Castanyada.[better source needed] Sweet potato is also used to make cakes or to eat roasted through the whole country.
In Peru, sweet potatoes are called "camote" and are frequently served alongside ceviche. Sweet potato chips are also a commonly sold snack, be it on the street or in packaged foods.
Dulce de batata is a traditional Argentine, Paraguayan and Uruguayan dessert, which is made of sweet potatoes. It is a sweet jelly, which resembles a marmalade because of its color and sweetness but it has a harder texture, and it has to be sliced in thin portions with a knife as if it was a pie. It is commonly served with a portion of the same size of soft cheese on top of it.
Globally, sweet potatoes are now a staple ingredient of modern sushi cuisine, specifically used in maki rolls. The advent of sweet potato as a sushi ingredient is credited to chef Bun Lai of Miya's Sushi, who first introduced sweet potato rolls in the 1990s as a plant-based alternative to traditional fish-based sushi rolls.
Freezing a sweet potato until solid, baking at a low temperature, then baking at a high temperature, brings out the sweetness, with gradual heating, increasing the time spent at the temperature for enzymatic activity, and then high temperature caramelizes converted sugars.
Ceramics modeled after sweet potatoes or camotes are often found in the Moche culture.
In South America, the juice of red sweet potatoes is combined with lime juice to make a dye for cloth. By varying the proportions of the juices, every shade from pink to black can be obtained. Purple sweet potato color is also used as a ‘natural’ food coloring.
Cuttings of sweet potato vine, either edible or ornamental cultivars, will rapidly form roots in water and will grow in it, indefinitely, in good lighting with a steady supply of nutrients. For this reason, sweet potato vine is ideal for use in home aquariums, trailing out of the water with its roots submerged, as its rapid growth is fueled by toxic ammonia and nitrates, a waste product of aquatic life, which it removes from the water. This improves the living conditions for fish, which also find refuge in the extensive root systems.
Ornamental sweet potatoes are popular landscape, container, and bedding plants. Grown as an annual in zones up to USDA hardiness Zone 9, they grow rapidly and spread quickly. Cultivars are available in many colors, such as green, yellow, and purple. Some ornamental varieties, like 'Blackie', flower more than others. These ornamental cultivars are not poisonous, and although the leaves are edible, the tubers do not have a good taste.
- Ipomoea aquatica (kangkong), another edible member of the morning glory family
- List of sweet potato dishes
- ^ Purseglove, John Williams (1968). Tropical crops: D. Longman Scientific and Technical. New York: John Wiley and Sons. ISBN 978-0-582-46666-1.[page needed]
- ^ a b c Woolfe, Jennifer A. (5 March 1992). Sweet Potato: An Untapped Food Resource. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press (CUP) and the International Potato Center (CIP). ISBN 9780521402958.
- ^ Keoke, Emory Dean; Porterfield, Kay Marie (2009). Encyclopedia of American Indian Contributions to the World: 15,000 Years of Inventions and Innovations. Infobase Publishing. p. 256. ISBN 978-0-8160-4052-0.
- ^ "Ipomoea batatas". purdue.edu.
- ^ "Sweet Potato (Ipomoea batatas) Classification". uwlax.edu.
- ^ a b "Pollinating Sweet Potatoes". Home Guides. SF Gate. Retrieved 15 October 2021.
- ^ a b Loebenstein, Gad; Thottappilly, George (2009). The sweetpotato. pp. 391–425. ISBN 978-1-4020-9475-0.
- ^ "Dioscorea". Plants of the World Online. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Retrieved 13 October 2019.
- ^ "Oca". International Potato Center (CIP) Genebank. Retrieved 30 April 2021.
- ^ Herrero, María Antonieta Andión (2004). Los indigenismos en la Historia de las Indias de Bartolomé de las Casas (in Spanish). Editorial CSIC - CSIC Press. p. 78. ISBN 978-84-00-08266-6.
- ^ "Sweetpotato: One Word or Two?". International Potato Center (CIP). 12 November 2014. Retrieved 29 December 2019.
- ^ Averre, Charles W.; Wilson, L. George. "Sweetpotato — Why one word?". NCSU Plant Pathology. North Carolina State University Department of Plant Pathology. Retrieved 29 December 2019.
- ^ Loebenstein, Gad; Thottappilly, George, eds. (2009). The Sweetpotato. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 298. ISBN 9781402094750.
- ^ "What is a Sweetpotato?" (PDF), UC Vegetable Research & Information Center, Division of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of California, p. 2, October 2010, retrieved 29 December 2019
- ^ "Nahuatl influences in Tagalog". El Galéon de Acapulco News. Embajada de México, Filipinas. Archived from the original on 27 April 2013. Retrieved 16 February 2012.
- ^ Diccionario Quechua Simi Taqe AMLQ. "Quechua: apichu". www.runa-simi.org (in Spanish). Retrieved 2 February 2021.
- ^ Doucleff, Michaeleen (23 January 2013). "How The Sweet Potato Crossed The Pacific Way Before The Europeans Did". NPR. Retrieved 15 October 2021.
- ^ Timmer, John (21 January 2013). "Polynesians reached South America, picked up sweet potatoes, went home". Ars Technica. Retrieved 8 July 2020.
- ^ Dominic Jolimont; Margaret Jolimont. "Sweet potato". Slater Community Gardens. Retrieved 10 July 2019.
- ^ Yen, D. E. (1963). "The New Zealand Kumara or Sweet Potato". Economic Botany. 17 (1): 31–45. doi:10.1007/BF02985351. ISSN 0013-0001. JSTOR 4252401. S2CID 32823869.
- ^ Field, Michael (23 January 2013). "Kumara origin points to pan-Pacific voyage". stuff.co.nz. Retrieved 10 July 2019.
- ^ Yen, D. E. (1963). "The New Zealand Kumara or Sweet Potato". Economic Botany. 17 (1): 31–45. doi:10.1007/bf02985351. JSTOR 4252401. S2CID 32823869.
- ^ "Types of kumara grown in New Zealand". Kaipara Kumara.
- ^ Wu, Shan; Lau, Kin H.; Cao, Qinghe; Hamilton, John P.; Sun, Honghe; Zhou, Chenxi; Eserman, Lauren; Gemenet, Dorcus C.; Olukolu, Bode A.; Wang, Haiyan; Crisovan, Emily (2 November 2018). "Genome sequences of two diploid wild relatives of cultivated sweetpotato reveal targets for genetic improvement". Nature Communications. 9 (1): 4580. Bibcode:2018NatCo...9.4580W. doi:10.1038/s41467-018-06983-8. ISSN 2041-1723. PMC 6214957. PMID 30389915. S2CID 53215329.
- ^ Geneflow 2009. ISBN 9789290438137.
- ^ "Sweet Potato". Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research. Archived from the original on 7 February 2005.
- ^ Austin, Daniel F. (1988). "The taxonomy, evolution and genetic diversity of sweet potatoes and related wild species". In P. Gregory (ed.). Exploration, Maintenance, and Utilization of Sweet Potato Genetic Resources. First Sweet Potato Planning Conference, 1987. Lima, Peru: International Potato Center. pp. 27–60. ISBN 9789290601159.
- ^ Zhang, D.P.; Ghislain, M.; Huaman, Z.; Cervantes, J.C.; Carey, E.E. (1999). "AFLP Assessment of Sweetpotato Genetic Diversity in Four Tropical American Regions" (PDF). International Potato Center (CIP) Program Report 1997-1998. Lima, Peru: International Potato Center (CIP). Archived from the original (PDF) on 23 April 2014.
- ^ Morales Rodríguez, Alfredo; Alfredo Morales Tejón; Dania Rodríguez del Sol; Iván J. Pastrana; Claudia A. Méndez (2017). "Origen, evolución y distribución del boniato (Ipomoea batatas (l.) Lam.). Una revisión". Agricultura Tropical (in Spanish). 3 (1): 1–13. ISSN 2517-9292.
- ^ Engel, Fréderic (1970). "Exploration of the Chilca Canyon". Current Anthropology. 11: 55–58. doi:10.1086/201093. S2CID 144317617.
- ^ Perry, L. (2002). "Starch granule size and the domestication of manioc (Manihot esculenta) and Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas)". Economic Botany. 56 (4): 345–349. doi:10.1663/0013-0001(2002)056[0335:SGSATD]2.0.CO;2. S2CID 32462935.
- ^ "Batatas, Not Potatoes". Botgard.ucla.edu. Archived from the original on 19 May 2008. Retrieved 12 September 2010.
- ^ Wilmshurst, Janet M.; Hunt, Terry L.; Lipo, Carl P.; Anderson, Atholl J. (27 December 2010). "High-precision radiocarbon dating shows recent and rapid initial human colonization of East Polynesia". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 108 (5): 1815–1820. Bibcode:2011PNAS..108.1815W. doi:10.1073/pnas.1015876108. ISSN 0027-8424. PMC 3033267. PMID 21187404.
For example, the earliest presence of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) in Mangaia, Cook Islands, dated to A.D. 1210–1400 and was regarded as a late occurrence
- ^ van Tilburg, Jo Anne (1994). Easter Island: Archaeology, ecology, and culture. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press.
- ^ Bassett, Gordon; et al. "Gardening at the Edge: Documenting the limits of tropical Polynesian kumara horticulture in southern New Zealand" (PDF). New Zealand: University of Canterbury. Archived from the original (PDF) on 24 July 2011.
- ^ Lizzie Wade (8 July 2020). "Polynesians steering by the stars met Native Americans long before Europeans arrived". Science. doi:10.1126/science.abd7159. S2CID 225642378.
- ^ Greenhill, Simon J.; Clark, Ross; Biggs, Bruce (2010). "Entries for KUMALA.1 [LO] Sweet Potato (Ipomoea)". POLLEX-Online: The Polynesian Lexicon Project Online. Archived from the original on 8 February 2013. Retrieved 16 July 2013.
- ^ Adelaar, Willem F. H.; Muysekn, Pieter C. (10 June 2004). "Genetic relations of South American Indian languages". The Languages of the Andes. Cambridge University Press. p. 41. ISBN 978-1-139-45112-3.
- ^ "Sweet potato history casts doubt on early contact between Polynesia and the Americas". EurekaAlert! Cell Press. 12 April 2018. Retrieved 23 September 2018.
- ^ Muñoz-Rodríguez, Pablo; Carruthers, Tom; Wood, John R.I.; Williams, Bethany R.M.; Weitemier, Kevin; Kronmiller, Brent; Ellis, David; Anglin, Noelle L.; Longway, Lucas; Harris, Stephen A.; Rausher, Mark D.; Kelly, Steven; Liston, Aaron; Scotland, Robert W. (2018). "Reconciling conflicting phylogenies in the origin of sweet potato and dispersal to Polynesia". Current Biology. 28 (8): 1246–1256.e12. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2018.03.020. ISSN 0960-9822. PMID 29657119.
- ^ a b Barber, Ian; Higham, Thomas F. G. (14 April 2021). "Archaeological science meets Māori knowledge to model pre-Columbian sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) dispersal to Polynesia's southernmost habitable margins". PLOS One. 16 (4): e0247643. Bibcode:2021PLoSO..1647643B. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0247643. PMC 8046222. PMID 33852587.
- ^ Matisoo-Smith, Lisa (13 April 2018). "When did sweet potatoes arrive in the Pacific – Expert Reaction". www.sciencemediacentre.co.nz. Science Media Centre. Retrieved 30 March 2019.
We would like to see more robust data, ideally from multiple sources, presented before we can accept the data and reconsider the current interpretation that the sweet potato was brought to Polynesia by humans at some point around 1000-1200 AD.
- ^ Fettiplace, Elinor (1986) . Spurling, Hilary (ed.). Elinor Fettiplace's Receipt Book: Elizabethan Country House Cooking. Viking.
- ^ Dickson Wright, 2011. Pages 149–169
- ^ Loebenstein, Gad (2009). "Origin, Distribution and Economic Importance". In Loebenstein, Gad; Thottappilly, George (eds.). The Sweetpotato. Springer. ISBN 9781402094743.
- ^ Spence, Jonathan D. (1993). Chinese Roundabout: Essays in History and Culture (illustrated, reprint, revised ed.). W. W. Norton & Company. p. 167. ISBN 978-0393309942.
- ^ Goodman, Grant K. (2013). Japan and the Dutch 1600-1853. London: Routledge. pp. 66–67. doi:10.4324/9781315028064. ISBN 9781315028064.
- ^ Gunn, Geoffrey C. (2003). "First Globalization: The Eurasian Exchange, 1500-1800". The Sixteenth Century Journal. 36 (3): 932–933. doi:10.2307/20477565. JSTOR 20477565.
- ^ a b Obrien, Patricia J. (1972). "The sweet potato: Its origin and dispersal". American Anthropologist. 74 (3): 342–365. doi:10.1525/aa.1972.74.3.02a00070.
- ^ Itoh, Makiko (22 April 2017). "The storied history of the potato in Japanese cooking". The Japan Times. Retrieved 5 April 2018.
- ^ Ro, Sang-ho (2021). Neo-Confucianism and Science in Korea: Humanity and Nature, 1706-1814. Oxon: Routledge. p. 58. ISBN 978-0-367-44100-5.
- ^ Takekoshi, Yosaburō (1930). Economic Aspects of the History of the Civilization of Japan. p. 352. ISBN 9780415323802.
- ^ Kim, Jinwung (2012). A History of Korea: From 'Land of the Morning Calm' to states in conflict. p. 255. ISBN 978-0253000781.
- ^ Ro (2021), 59.
- ^ a b c d Kyndt, Tina; Quispea, Dora; Zhaic, Hong; Jarretd, Robert; Ghislainb, Marc; Liuc, Qingchang; Gheysena, Godelieve; Kreuzeb, Jan F. (20 April 2015). "The genome of cultivated sweet potato contains Agrobacterium T-DNAs with expressed genes: An example of a naturally transgenic food crop". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 112 (18): 5844–5849. Bibcode:2015PNAS..112.5844K. doi:10.1073/pnas.1419685112. PMC 4426443. PMID 25902487.
- ^ "Sweet potato is a natural GMO". Genetic Engineering & Biotechnology News. 22 April 2015. Retrieved 23 April 2015.
- ^ Doucleff, Michaeleen (5 May 2015). "Natural GMO? Sweet Potato Genetically Modified 8,000 Years Ago". NPR. Retrieved 15 January 2022.
- ^ Lebot, Vincent (2020). Tropical Root and Tuber Crops : Cassava, Sweet Potato, Yams And Aroids. Wallingford, Oxfordshire, UK Boston, USA: CABI (Centre for Agriculture and Bioscience International). p. 541. ISBN 978-1-78924-336-9. OCLC 1110672215.
- ^ Soucy, Shannon M.; Huang, Jinling; Gogarten, Johann Peter (17 July 2015). "Horizontal gene transfer: building the web of life". Nature Reviews Genetics. Nature Portfolio. 16 (8): 472–482. doi:10.1038/nrg3962. ISSN 1471-0056. PMID 26184597. S2CID 6794788.
- ^ Andersen, Martin Marchman; Landes, Xavier; Xiang, Wen; Anyshchenko, Artem; Falhof, Janus; Østerberg, Jeppe Thulin; Olsen, Lene Irene; Edenbrandt, Anna Kristina; Vedel, Suzanne Elizabeth; Thorsen, Bo Jellesmark; Sandøe, Peter; Gamborg, Christian; Kappel, Klemens; Palmgren, Michael G. (2015). "Feasibility of new breeding techniques for organic farming". Trends in Plant Science. Cell Press. 20 (7): 426–434. doi:10.1016/j.tplants.2015.04.011. ISSN 1360-1385. PMID 26027462. S2CID 205454618.
- ^ Ahn, Peter (1993). Tropical soils and fertilizer use. Intermediate Tropical Agriculture Series. UK: Longman Scientific and Technical Ltd. ISBN 978-0-582-77507-7.[page needed]
- ^ O'Hair, Stephen K. (1990). "Tropical root and tuber crops". In Janick, J.; Simon, J.E. (eds.). Advances in New Crops. Portland, OR: Timber Press. pp. 424–428. Retrieved 26 September 2014.
- ^ a b "Sweet potato production in 2019; World Regions/Production Quantity from pick lists". Statistics Division (FAOSTAT). Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. 2020. Retrieved 24 March 2021.
- ^ a b Leksrisompong, P.P.; Whitson, M.E.; Truong, V.D.; Drake, M.A. (2012). "Sensory attributes and consumer acceptance of sweet potato cultivars with varying flesh colors". Journal of Sensory Studies. 27 (1): 59–69. doi:10.1111/j.1745-459x.2011.00367.x.
- ^ "Sweet potatoes". North Carolina Sweet Potato Commission (NCSPC).
- ^ "Sweetpotato: Organic Production". National Sustainable Agriculture Information Service.
- ^ "Sweet potato". Produce Facts. UC Davis. Archived from the original on 5 November 2010.
- ^ a b Jones, Roger; Naidu, Rayapati (2019). "Global Dimensions of Plant Virus Diseases: Current Status and Future Perspectives". Annual Review of Virology. Annual Reviews. 6 (1): 387–409. doi:10.1146/annurev-virology-092818-015606. ISSN 2327-056X. PMID 31283443. S2CID 195845201.
- ^ Charkowski, Amy (2018). "The Changing Face of Bacterial Soft-Rot Diseases". Annual Review of Phytopathology. Annual Reviews. 56 (1): 269–288. doi:10.1146/annurev-phyto-080417-045906. ISSN 0066-4286.
- ^ Neela, Satheesh; Fanta, Solomon W. (17 May 2019). "Review on nutritional composition of orange‐fleshed sweet potato and its role in management of vitamin A deficiency (Review)". Food Science and Nutrition. 7 (6): 1920–1945. doi:10.1002/fsn3.1063. ISSN 2048-7177. PMC 6593376. PMID 31289641.
- ^ Dyer, Mary H. "Are sweet potato leaves edible?". Gardening Know How. Potato vine plant leaves. Retrieved 23 April 2018.
- ^ Scott, G.; Best, R.; Rosegrant, M.; Bokanga, M. (2000). Roots and tubers in the global food system: A vision statement to the year 2020 (PDF). International Potato Center, and others. ISBN 978-92-9060-203-3.
- ^ "Roots, tubers, plantains and bananas in human nutrition". Food and Agriculture Organization. Retrieved 29 October 2017.
- ^ "Nutrient data laboratory". United States Department of Agriculture. Retrieved 10 August 2016.
- ^ Alicia (19 February 2019). "Can You Eat Sweet Potato Raw?". EnkiVeryWell. Retrieved 14 March 2021.
- ^ a b c
- Abidin, P.E. (2004). Sweetpotato breeding for northeastern Uganda: Farmer varieties, farmer-participatory selection, and stability of performance (PhD Thesis). The Netherlands: Wageningen University. p. 152 pp. ISBN 90-8504-033-7.
- Well cited including by Mwanga et al., 2010.
- ^ Nungo, Rhoda A., ed. (1994). Nutritious Kenyan Sweet Potato Recipes. Kakamega, Kenya: Kenya Agricultural Research Institute.
- ^ "The batata man". Egypt Independent. 19 October 2011. Retrieved 15 July 2019.
- ^ Tsegaw, Tekalign; Dechassa, Nigussie (2008). "Registration of Adu and Barkume: Improved sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) varieties for eastern Ethiopia". East African Journal of Sciences. 2 (2): 189–191. doi:10.4314/eajsci.v2i2.40382.(registration required)
- ^ "CaiPu". ttmeishi.com (in Chinese). Archived from the original on 4 October 2007.
- ^ Aazim, Mohiuddin (17 December 2012). "Exploiting sweet potato potential". InpaperMagazine. Dawn. Retrieved 12 July 2019.
- ^ Romero-Frias, Xavier (1999). The Maldive Islanders: A study of the popular culture of an ancient ocean kingdom. Barcelona, ES. ISBN 978-84-7254-801-5.
- ^ a b "Fusion kamote". The Manila Times (The Sunday Times) Editorials. 16 March 2008. Archived from the original on 23 July 2011. Retrieved 20 February 2011.
- ^ Nicole J. Managbanag (25 October 2010). "Elections and banana cue". Sun.Star. sunstar.com.ph/. Retrieved 20 February 2011.
- ^ Daluz, Susan G. (2005). "A recipe that supported a brood of 12". Philippine Daily Inquirer. INQ7 Interactive, Inc. an Inquirer and GMA Network Company. Inquirer News Service. Archived from the original on 23 July 2011. Retrieved 20 February 2011.
- ^ Bác sĩ Nguyễn Ý Đức. Dinh dưỡng và thực phẩm (in Vietnamese). Tủ sách Rộng mở tâm hồn.
- ^ "Sweet Potato". South Pacific Commission. South Pacific Foods. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. 1990. ISSN 1018-0966. Leaflet No. 13. Archived from the original on 17 December 2014. Retrieved 22 July 2012.
- ^ Ma, Idelia; Glorioso, G. (January–December 2003). "10 Best Foods for Babies". Food and Nutrition Research Institute. Department of Science and Technology, Republic of the Philippines. Archived from the original on 27 May 2013. Retrieved 22 July 2012.
- ^ Ember, Carol R.; Ember, Melvin, eds. (2004). "Cultures". Encyclopedia of Medical Anthropology. Springer. p. 596. ISBN 9780306477546.
- ^ Diana Rattray. "Sweet potato casserole recipe with crunchy pecan topping". Southern Food. About.com.
- ^ "History of the Louisiana Yambilee". Yambilee.com.
- ^ "Ivey OKs Naming Sweet Potato as Alabama's State Vegetable". usnews.com. 17 April 2021. Retrieved 20 April 2021.
- ^ "RS 49:170.11". Revised Statutes. Louisiana State Legislature. Retrieved 28 July 2018.
- ^ "Sweet Potato - North Carolina State Vegetable". State of North Carolina. Retrieved 17 February 2014.
- ^ McLellan Plaisted, S. (October 2011). "Sweet potato fries are not new". hearttoearthcookery.com. Historical Society of York County, Pennsylvania.
- ^ Johns 1981, p. 373. sfn error: no target: CITEREFJohns1981 (help)
- ^ Hook 1983, p. 178. sfn error: no target: CITEREFHook1983 (help)
- ^ Burtenshaw, M. (2009). "A guide to growing pre-European Māori kumara" (PDF). The Open Polytechnic of New Zealand.
- ^ Tapsell, Enid (1947). "Original Kumara". TJPS. pp. 325–332.
- ^ Wilson, Dee (29 April 2009). "Heritage kumara shows its worth". The Marlborough Express. Retrieved 15 November 2011.
- ^ "Waitangi tribunal and the kumara claim". The Grower. Horticulture New Zealand. Archived from the original on 24 July 2011.
- ^ Stokes, Jon (1 February 2007). "Kumara claim becomes hot potato". The New Zealand Herald. Retrieved 15 November 2011.
- ^ "DNA analysis expected to solve kumara row". The New Zealand Herald. NZPA. 8 February 2007. Retrieved 15 November 2011.
- ^ "Kumara". teara.govt.nz.
- ^ Slade, D. A. (1960). "Black rot an important disease of Kumaras". New Zealand Journal of Agriculture. 100 (4).
- ^ Loren, Anna (8 August 2013). "Bledisloe Cup for service to horticulture". Manukau Courier. Retrieved 24 December 2018.
- ^ "Loading Docs 2016 - How Mr and Mrs Gock Saved the Kumara". Loading Docs. NZ On Screen. Retrieved 10 July 2019.
- ^ "Fresh Facts: New Zealand Horticulture" (PDF). Plant & Food Research. 2018. ISSN 1177-2190.
- ^ Barrington, Mike; Downey, Robyn (18 March 2006). "Ohakune has its carrot ... and Dargaville has its kumara". The Northern Advocate. Retrieved 24 July 2012.
- ^ "How to cook with kumara". Taranaki Daily News. 3 March 2009. Retrieved 15 November 2011.
- ^ Robbins, Joel (1995). "Dispossessing the Spirits: Christian Transformations of Desire and Ecology among the Urapmin of Papua New Guinea". Ethnology. 34 (3): 211–24. doi:10.2307/3773824. JSTOR 3773824.
- ^ "la patata americana di Anguillara". Mondo agricolo veneto. Archived from the original on 12 January 2010.
- ^ es:Castanyada#Castañada
- ^ Knighton, Ryan (6 October 2016). "The Sushi Chef Turning Invasive Species Into Delicacies". Popular Mechanics.
- ^ Kleiner, Matthew (1 February 2019). "Sushi's Role". Yale Daily News. Retrieved 12 July 2019.
- ^ Arnott, Christopher (September–October 2016). "New Haven: Sushi celebrity". Yale Alumni Magazine. Retrieved 12 July 2019.
- ^ Sontag, Elazar (8 January 2021). "For a 'Proper Proper Proper' Baked Sweet Potato, Freeze It First". Eater. Retrieved 1 November 2022.
- ^ "The Best Way to Cook Whole Sweet Potatoes". Serious Eats. 19 November 2021. Retrieved 1 November 2022.
- ^ Chan, Chin-Feng; Chiang, Chih-Ming; Lai, Yung-Chang; Huang, Che-Lun; Kao, Shu-Chen; Liao, Wayne C. (5 December 2012). "Changes in sugar composition during baking and their effects on sensory attributes of baked sweet potatoes". Journal of Food Science and Technology. 51 (12): 4072–4077. doi:10.1007/s13197-012-0900-z. ISSN 0022-1155. PMC 4252450. PMID 25477683.
- ^ Nabubuya, Agnes; Namutebi, Agnes; Byaruhanga, Yusuf; Schuller, Reidar B.; Narvhus, Judith; Wicklund, Trude (16 July 2017). "Viscoelastic properties of sweet potato complementary porridges as influenced by endogenous amylases". Food Science & Nutrition. 5 (6): 1072–1078. doi:10.1002/fsn3.492. ISSN 2048-7177. PMC 5694867. PMID 29188034.
- ^ Berrin, Katherine; Larco Museum staff (1997). The Spirit of Ancient Peru: Treasures from the Museo Arqueológico Rafael Larco Herrera. New York, NY: Thames and Hudson.
- ^ Verrill, Alpheus Hyatt; Barrett, Otis Warren (1937). Foods America gave the World: The strange, fascinating and often romantic histories of many native American food plants, their origin, and other interesting and curious facts concerning them. Boston, MA: L.C. Page & Co. p. 47.
- ^ "Purple sweet potatoes among "new naturals" for food and beverage colors". September 2013.
- ^ "Sweet Potato Vine: How to Grow These Gorgeous Flowing Vines". Epic Gardening. 12 June 2017. Retrieved 15 October 2021.
- ^ "Growing Sweet Potato Vine (Ipomoea batatas) - Garden Design". GardenDesign.com. Retrieved 15 October 2021.
- ^ "Ipomoea batatas (Edible Sweetpotato, Ornamental Sweetpotato, Sweetpotato, Sweetpotato Vine, Water Spinach)". North Carolina Extension Gardener Plant Toolbox. Retrieved 15 October 2021.
- ^ "Are Ornamental Sweet Potatoes Edible? | Gardener's Path". Gardener's Path. 14 August 2020. Retrieved 15 October 2021.
- "Sweet Potato". fao.org. 1990. FAO Leaflet 13. Archived from the original on 17 December 2014. Retrieved 21 June 2007.