Swimming at the 2008 Summer Paralympics

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Swimming
at the XIII Paralympic Games
Swimming pictogram (Paralympics).svg
Paralympic Swimming
Venue Beijing National Aquatics Center
Dates 7–15 September 2008
«2004 2012»
Women's Freestyle swimming

The swimming events of the 2008 Summer Paralympics were held in the Beijing National Aquatics Center between September 7 and September 15, 2008. A total of 140 gold medals were expected to be distributed.

Classifications[edit]

Athletes are allocated a classification for each event based upon their disability to allow fairer competition between athletes of similar ability. The classifications for swimming are:

Classifications run from S1 (severely disabled) to S10 (minimally disabled) for athletes with physical disabilities, and S11 (totally blind) to S13 (legally blind) for visually impaired athletes. Blind athletes must use blackened goggles.

Events[edit]

Due to the classification process, there will be more than one set of medals in each of the traditional swimming events. The following events will be held in the various classifications.

Men
Event S1 S2 S3 S4 S5 S6 S7 S8 S9 S10 S11 S12 S13
50 m freestyle X X X X X X X X X X X X
100 m freestyle X X X X X X X X X X X X
200 m freestyle X X X X
400 m freestyle X X X X X X X X
50 m backstroke X X X X X
100 m backstroke X X X X X X X X
50 m butterfly X X X
100 m butterfly X X X X X X
Event SB3 SB4 SB5 SB6 SB7 SB8 SB9 SB11 SB12 SB13
50 m breaststroke X
100 m breaststroke X X X X X X X X X
Event SM4 SM5 SM6 SM7 SM8 SM9 SM10 SM12 SM13
150 m individual medley X
200 m individual medley X X X X X X X X
Event 20pts 34pts
4×50 m freestyle relay X
4 × 100 m freestyle relay X
4×50 m medley relay X
4 × 100 m medley relay X
Women
Event S2 S3 S4 S5 S6 S7 S8 S9 S10 S11 S12 S13
50 m freestyle X X X X X X X X X X X
100 m freestyle X X X X X X X X X X
200 m freestyle X
400 m freestyle X X X X X X
50 m backstroke X X X
100 m backstroke X X X X X X
50 m butterfly X X
100 m butterfly X X X X X
Event SB4 SB5 SB6 SB7 SB8 SB9 SB12
100 m breaststroke X X X X X X X
Event SM4 SM6 SM7 SM8 SM9 SM10 SM12 SM13
150 m individual medley X
200 m individual medley X X X X X X X

Qualification[edit]

There will be 560 athletes (330 male, 230 female) taking part in this sport.

Medal summary[edit]

Medal table[edit]

This ranking sorts countries by the number of gold medals earned by their swimmers (in this context a country is an entity represented by a National Paralympic Committee). The number of silver medals is taken into consideration next and then the number of bronze medals. If, after the above, countries are still tied, equal ranking is given and they are listed alphabetically.

Rank Nation Gold Silver Bronze Total
1  United States (USA) 17 14 13 44
2  China (CHN) 13 22 17 52
3  Ukraine (UKR) 13 10 20 43
4  Great Britain (GBR) 11 12 18 41
5  Russia (RUS) 11 9 7 27
6  Spain (ESP) 10 12 9 31
7  Australia (AUS) 9 11 9 29
8  Brazil (BRA) 8 7 4 19
9  South Africa (RSA) 8 0 1 9
10  Canada (CAN) 7 7 9 23
11  Mexico (MEX) 5 1 2 8
12  Greece (GRE) 4 5 3 12
13  New Zealand (NZL) 4 2 0 6
14  Belarus (BLR) 3 2 1 6
15  Poland (POL) 2 5 3 10
16  France (FRA) 2 4 0 6
17  Netherlands (NED) 2 2 2 6
18  Czech Republic (CZE) 2 1 4 7
19  Sweden (SWE) 2 0 1 3
20  Germany (GER) 1 3 5 9
21  Japan (JPN) 1 2 2 5
22  Italy (ITA) 1 2 0 3
23  Singapore (SIN) 1 1 0 2
24  Hungary (HUN) 1 0 4 5
25  Cyprus (CYP) 1 0 1 2
25  Denmark (DEN) 1 0 1 2
25  Norway (NOR) 1 0 1 2
28  Israel (ISR) 0 3 0 3
29  South Korea (KOR) 0 1 1 2
30  Ireland (IRL) 0 1 0 1
31  Argentina (ARG) 0 0 1 1
31  Colombia (COL) 0 0 1 1
31  Estonia (EST) 0 0 1 1
31  Portugal (POR) 0 0 1 1
Total 141 139 142 422

Men's events[edit]

Event Gold Silver Bronze
50 m freestyle S2
details
Georgios Kapellakis
 Greece
Dmitrii Kokarev
 Russia
James Anderson
 Great Britain
50 m freestyle S3
details
Dmytro Vynohradets
 Ukraine
Du Jianping
 China
Byeong-Eon Min
 South Korea
50 m freestyle S4
details
David Smétanine
 France
Richard Oribe
 Spain
Jan Povysil
 Czech Republic
50 m freestyle S5
details
Dmytro Kryzhanovskyy
 Ukraine
Daniel Dias
 Brazil
Sebastián Rodríguez
 Spain
50 m freestyle S6
details
Xu Qing
 China
Tang Yuan
 China
Anders Olsson
 Sweden
50 m freestyle S7
details
David Roberts
 Great Britain
Matt Walker
 Great Britain
Lantz Lamback
 United States
50 m freestyle S8
details
Xiaofu Wang
 China
Peter Leek
 Australia
Konstantin Lisenkov
 Russia
50 m freestyle S9
details
Matthew Cowdrey
 Australia
Zhi Guo
 China
Xiaoming Xion
 China
50 m freestyle S10
details
André Brasil
 Brazil
Phelipe Rodrigues
 Brazil
Benoit Huot
 Canada
50 m freestyle S11
details
Enhamed Enhamed
 Spain
Junichi Kawai
 Japan
Alexander Chekurov
 Russia
50 m freestyle S12
details
Maksym Veraksa
 Ukraine
Alexander Nevolin-Svetov
 Russia
Sergii Klippert
 Ukraine
50 m freestyle S13
details
Oleksii Fedyna
 Ukraine
Charalampos Taiganidis
 Greece
Andrey Strokin
 Russia
100 m freestyle S2
details
Dmitrii Kokarev
 Russia
Georgios Kapellakis
 Greece
James Anderson
 Great Britain
100 m freestyle S3
details
Du Jianping
 China
Dmytro Vynohradets
 Ukraine
Li Hanhua
 China
100 m freestyle S4
details
David Smétanine
 France
Richard Oribe
 Spain
Jan Povysil
 Czech Republic
100 m freestyle S5
details
Daniel Dias
 Brazil
Dmytro Kryzhanovskyy
 Ukraine
Roy Perkins
 United States
100 m freestyle S6
details
Anders Olsson
 Sweden
Yuan Tang
 China
Yuanrun Yang
 China
100 m freestyle S7
details
David Roberts
 Great Britain
Lantz Lamback
 United States
Matt Walker
 Great Britain
100 m freestyle S8
details
Xiaofu Wang
 China
Konstantin Lisenkov
 Russia
Peter Leek
 Australia
100 m freestyle S9
details
Matthew Cowdrey
 Australia
Zhi Guo
 China
Tamas Sors
 Hungary
100 m freestyle S10
details
André Brasil
 Brazil
Phelipe Rodrigues
 Brazil
Benoit Huot
 Canada
100 m freestyle S11
details
Enhamed Enhamed
 Spain
Bozun Yang
 China
Grzegorz Polkowski
 Poland
100 m freestyle S12
details
Maksym Veraksa
 Ukraine
Sergii Klippert
 Ukraine
Alexander Nevolin-Svetov
 Russia
100 m freestyle S13
details
Charalampos Taiganidis
 Greece
Oleksii Fedyna
 Ukraine
Danylo Chufarov
 Ukraine
200 m freestyle S2
details
Dmitrii Kokarev
 Russia
James Anderson
 Great Britain
Georgios Kapellakis
 Greece
200 m freestyle S3
details
Dmytro Vynohradets
 Ukraine
Li Hanhua
 China
Du Jianping
 China
200 m freestyle S4
details
Richard Oribe
 Spain
David Smétanine
 France
Jan Povysil
 Czech Republic
200 m freestyle S5
details
Daniel Dias
 Brazil
Sebastián Rodríguez
 Spain
Anthony Stephens
 Great Britain
400 m freestyle S6
details
Anders Olsson
 Sweden
Darragh McDonald
 Ireland
Matthew Whorwood
 Great Britain
400 m freestyle S7
details
David Roberts
 Great Britain
Lantz Lamback
 United States
Jay Dohnt
 Australia
400 m freestyle S8
details
Sam Hynd
 Great Britain
Peter Leek
 Australia
Jiachao Wang
 China
400 m freestyle S9
details
Jesús Collado
 Spain
Matthew Cowdrey
 Australia
Tamas Sors
 Hungary
400 m freestyle S10
details
André Brasil
 Brazil
Robert Welbourn
 Great Britain
Benoit Huot
 Canada
400 m freestyle S11
details
Enhamed Enhamed
 Spain
Bozun Yang
 China
Donovan Tildesley
 Canada
400 m freestyle S12
details
Sergei Punko
 Belarus
Enrique Floriano
 Spain
Sergii Klippert
 Ukraine
400 m freestyle S13
details
Charl Bouwer
 South Africa
Danylo Chufarov
 Ukraine
Charalampos Taiganidis
 Greece
50 m backstroke S1
details
Christos Tampaxis
 Greece
Andreas Katsaros
 Greece
João Martins
 Portugal
50 m backstroke S2
details
Dmitrii Kokarev
 Russia
Jim Anderson
 Great Britain
Georgios Kapellakis
 Greece
50 m backstroke S3
details
Du Jianping
 China
Min Byeong-Eon
 South Korea
Dmytro Vynohradets
 Ukraine
50 m backstroke S4
details
Juan Reyes
 Mexico
David Smétanine
 France
Huabin Zeng
 China
50 m backstroke S5
details
Daniel Dias
 Brazil
Junquan He
 China
Zsolt Vereczkei
 Hungary
100 m backstroke S6
details
Igor Plotnikov
 Russia
Yuanrun Yang
 China
Yuan Tang
 China
100 m backstroke S7
details
Lantz Lamback
 United States
Jon Fox
 Great Britain
Guillermo Marro
 Argentina
100 m backstroke S8
details
Konstantin Lisenkov
 Russia
Peter Leek
 Australia
Sean Fraser
 Great Britain
100 m backstroke S9
details
Matthew Cowdrey
 Australia
Zhi Guo
 China
Jarrett Perry
 United States
100 m backstroke S10
details
Justin Zook
 United States
Michael Anderson
 Australia
Kardo Ploomipuu
 Estonia
100 m backstroke S11
details
Bozun Yang
 China
Damian Pietrasik
 Poland
Viktor Smyrnov
 Ukraine
100 m backstroke S12
details
Alexander Nevolin-Svetov
 Russia
Sergii Klippert
 Ukraine
Maksym Veraksa
 Ukraine
100 m backstroke S13
details
Charalampos Taiganidis
 Greece
Oleksii Fedyna
 Ukraine
Dmytro Aleksyeyev
 Ukraine
50 m breaststroke SB3
details
Takayuki Suzuki
 Japan
Vicente Gil
 Spain
Miguel Luque
 Spain
100 m breaststroke SB4
details
Ricardo Ten
 Spain
Daniel Dias
 Brazil
Moisés Fuentes
 Colombia
100 m breaststroke SB5
details
Pedro Rangel
 Mexico
Thomas Grimm
 Germany
Tadhg Slattery
 South Africa
100 m breaststroke SB6
details
Alexey Fomenkov
 Russia
Gareth Duke
 Great Britain
Matt Whorwood
 Great Britain
100 m breaststroke SB7
details
Sascha Kindred
 Great Britain
Blake Cochrane
 Australia
Rudy Garcia-Tolson
 United States
100 m breaststroke SB8
details
Andriy Kalyna
 Ukraine
Xiaofu Wang
 China
Alejandro Sánchez
 Spain
100 m breaststroke SB9
details
Kevin Paul
 South Africa
Furong Lin
 China
Denis Dorogaev
 Russia
100 m breaststroke SB11
details
Oleksandr Mashchenko
 Ukraine
Bozun Yang
 China
Viktor Smyrnov
 Ukraine
100 m breaststroke SB12
details
Maksym Veraksa
 Ukraine
Sergei Punko
 Belarus
Sergii Klippert
 Ukraine
100 m breaststroke SB13
details
Oleksii Fedyna
 Ukraine
Daniel Sharp
 New Zealand
Uladzimir Izotau
 Belarus
50 m butterfly S5
details
Roy Perkins
 United States
Daniel Dias
 Brazil
Junquan He
 China
50 m butterfly S6
details
Xu Qing
 China
Kyosuke Oyama
 Japan
Sascha Kindred
 Great Britain
50 m butterfly S7
details
Rong Tian
 China
Matt Walker
 Great Britain
Mang Pei
 China
100 m butterfly S8
details
Peter Leek
 Australia
Wei Yanpeng
 China
Wang Xiaofu
 China
100 m butterfly S9
details
Tamas Sors
 Hungary
Matthew Cowdrey
 Australia
Guo Zhi
 China
100 m butterfly S10
details
André Brasil
 Brazil
David Julian Levecq
 Spain
Mike van der Zanden
 Netherlands
100 m butterfly S11
details
Enhamed Enhamed
 Spain
Oleksandr Mashchenko
 Ukraine
Junichi Kawai
 Japan
Viktor Smyrnov
 Ukraine
100 m butterfly S12
details
Raman Makarau
 Belarus
Sergei Punko
 Belarus
Anton Stabrovskyy
 Ukraine
100 m butterfly S13
details
Dzmitry Salei
 Belarus
Charalampos Taiganidis
 Greece
Andrey Strokin
 Russia
150 m individual medley SM4
details
Cameron Leslie
 New Zealand
Vicente Javier Torres
 Spain
Takayuki Suzuki
 Japan
200 m individual medley SM5
details
Daniel Dias
 Brazil
Junquan He
 China
Pablo Cimadevila
 Spain
200 m individual medley SM6
details
Sascha Kindred
 Great Britain
Yang Yuanrun
 China
Xu Qing
 China
200 m individual medley SM7
details
Rudy Garcia-Tolson
 United States
Tian Rong
 China
Matt Walker
 Great Britain
200 m individual medley SM8
details
Peter Leek
 Australia
Jiachao Wang
 China
Sam Hynd
 Great Britain
200 m individual medley SM9
details
Matthew Cowdrey
 Australia
Andriy Kalyna
 Ukraine
Cody Bureau
 United States
200 m individual medley SM10
details
Rick Pendleton
 Australia
André Brasil
 Brazil
Benoit Huot
 Canada
200 m individual medley SM12
details
Maksym Veraksa
 Ukraine
Alexander Nevolin-Svetov
 Russia
Sergii Klippert
 Ukraine
200 m individual medley SM13
details
Oleksii Fedyna
 Ukraine
Charalampos Taiganidis
 Greece
Dmytro Aleksyeyev
 Ukraine
4×50 m freestyle 20pts
details
 China (CHN)
Jianping Du
Yuan Tang
Junguan He
Yuanrun Yang
 Spain (ESP)
Richard Oribe
Daniel Vidal
Jordi Gordillo
Sebastián Rodríguez
 Brazil (BRA)
Clodoaldo Silva
Joon Seo
Daniel Dias
Adriano Lima
4×100 m freestyle 34pts
details
 Great Britain (GBR)
Matt Walker
Graham Edmunds
David Roberts
Robert Welbourn
 Australia (AUS)
Ben Austin
Peter Leek
Sam Bramham
Matthew Cowdrey
 China (CHN)
Xiaoming Xiong
Yanpeng Wei
Xiaofu Wang
Zhi Guo
4×50 m medley 20pts
details
 China (CHN)
Du Jianping
Tang Yuan
Xu Qing
Yang Yuanrun
 Brazil (BRA)
Daniel Dias
Ivanildo Vasconcelos
Luis Silva
Clodoaldo Silva
 Spain (ESP)
Pablo Cimadevila
Vicente Gil
Daniel Vidal
Sebastián Rodríguez
4×100 m medley 34pts
details
 Australia (AUS)
Matthew Cowdrey
Rick Pendleton
Peter Leek
Ben Austin
 China (CHN)
Guo Zhi
Lin Furong
Wang Xiaofu
Wei Yanpeng
 Ukraine (UKR)
Ievgen Poltavskyi
Andriy Kalyna
Andriy Sirovatchenko
Taras Yastremskyy

Women's events[edit]

Event Gold Silver Bronze
50 m freestyle S3
details
Patricia Valle
 Mexico
Pin Xiu Yip
 Singapore
Fran Williamson
 Great Britain
50 m freestyle S4
details
Nely Miranda
 Mexico
Cheryl Angelelli
 United States
Edênia Garcia
 Brazil
50 m freestyle S5
details
Maria Teresa Perales
 Spain
Bela Hlavackova
 Czech Republic
Olena Akopyan
 Ukraine
50 m freestyle S6
details
Mirjam De Koning-Peper
 Netherlands
Doramitzi González
 Mexico
Natalie Jones
 Great Britain
50 m freestyle S7
details
Cortney Jordan
 United States
Erin Popovich
 United States
Kirsten Bruhn
 Germany
50 m freestyle S8
details
Cecilie Drabsch Norland
 Norway
Amanda Everlove
 United States
Jacqueline Freney
 Australia
50 m freestyle S9
details
Natalie du Toit
 South Africa
Irina Grazhdanova
 Russia
Louise Watkin
 Great Britain
50 m freestyle S10
details
Anne Polinario
 Canada
Katarzyna Pawlik
 Poland
Katrina Lewis
 Australia
50 m freestyle S11
details
Maria Poiani Panigati
 Italy
Cecilia Camellini
 Italy
Fabiana Sugimori
 Brazil
50 m freestyle S12
details
Oxana Savchenko
 Russia
Anna Efimenko
 Russia
Deborah Font
 Spain
50 m freestyle S13
details
Kelley Becherer
 United States
Valerie Grand'Maison
 Canada
Iryna Balashova
 Ukraine
100 m freestyle S4
details
Nely Miranda
 Mexico
Cheryl Angelelli
 United States
Aimee Bruder
 United States
100 m freestyle S5
details
Maria Teresa Perales
 Spain
Inbal Pezaro
 Israel
Bela Hlavackova
 Czech Republic
100 m freestyle S6
details
Eleanor Simmonds
 Great Britain
Mirjam De Koning-Peper
 Netherlands
Doramitzi González
 Mexico
100 m freestyle S7
details
Erin Popovich
 United States
Cortney Jordan
 United States
Kirsten Bruhn
 Germany
100 m freestyle S8
details
Jessica Long
 United States
Heather Frederiksen
 Great Britain
Jacqueline Freney
 Australia
100 m freestyle S9
details
Natalie du Toit
 South Africa
Louise Watkin
 Great Britain
Stephanie Dixon
 Canada
100 m freestyle S10
details
Ashley Owens
 United States
Katarzyna Pawlik
 Poland
Anna Eames
 United States
100 m freestyle S11
details
Qing Xie
 China
Cecilia Camellini
 Italy
Daniela Schulte
 Germany
100 m freestyle S12
details
Oxana Savchenko
 Russia
Anna Efimenko
 Russia
Joanna Mendak
 Poland
100 m freestyle S13
details
Valerie Grand'Maison
 Canada
Chelsey Gotell
 Canada
Kelley Becherer
 United States
200 m freestyle S5
details
Maria Teresa Perales
 Spain
Inbal Pezaro
 Israel
Olena Akopyan
 Ukraine
400 m freestyle S6
details
Eleanor Simmonds
 Great Britain
Mirjam De Koning-Peper
 Netherlands
Maria Goetze
 Germany
400 m freestyle S7
details
Erin Popovich
 United States
Cortney Jordan
 United States
Kirsten Bruhn
 Germany
400 m freestyle S8
details
Jessica Long
 United States
Heather Frederiksen
 Great Britain
Jacqueline Freney
 Australia
400 m freestyle S9
details
Natalie du Toit
 South Africa
Stephanie Dixon
 Canada
Ellie Cole
 Australia
400 m freestyle S10
details
Katarzyna Pawlik
 Poland
Ashley Owens
 United States
Susan Beth Scott
 United States
400 m freestyle S13
details
Valerie Grand'Maison
 Canada
Anna Efimenko
 Russia
Kelley Becherer
 United States
Chelsey Gotell
 Canada
50 m backstroke S2
details
Ganna Ielisavetska
 Ukraine
Iryna Sotska
 Ukraine
Sara Carracelas
 Spain
50 m backstroke S3
details
Yip Pin Xiu
 Singapore
Fran Williamson
 Great Britain
Xia Jiangbo
 China
50 m backstroke S5
details
Bela Hlavackova
 Czech Republic
Maria Teresa Perales
 Spain
Karina Lauridsen
 Denmark
100 m backstroke S6
details
Mirjam De Koning-Peper
 Netherlands
Nyree Lewis
 Great Britain
Fuying Jiang
 China
100 m backstroke S7
details
Katrina Porter
 Australia
Kirsten Bruhn
 Germany
Chantal Boonacker
 Netherlands
100 m backstroke S8
details
Heather Frederiksen
 Great Britain
Jessica Long
 United States
Mariann Vestbostad
 Norway
100 m backstroke S9
details
Stephanie Dixon
 Canada
Elizabeth Stone
 United States
Ellie Cole
 Australia
100 m backstroke S10
details
Sophie Pascoe
 New Zealand
Shireen Sapiro
 South Africa
Esther Morales
 Spain
100 m backstroke S13
details
Chelsey Gotell
 Canada
Valerie Grand'Maison
 Canada
Anna Efimenko
 Russia
100 m breaststroke SB4
details
Bela Hlavackova
 Czech Republic
Inbal Pezaro
 Israel
Maria Teresa Perales
 Spain
100 m breaststroke SB5
details
Kirsten Bruhn
 Germany
Rachel Lardiere
 France
Gitta Raczko
 Hungary
100 m breaststroke SB6
details
Elizabeth Johnson
 Great Britain
Sarah Bowen
 Australia
Deborah Gruen
 United States
100 m breaststroke SB7
details
Erin Popovich
 United States
Min Huang
 China
Jessica Long
 United States
100 m breaststroke SB8
details
Olesya Vladykina
 Russia
Paulina Wozniak
 Poland
Claire Cashmore
 Great Britain
100 m breaststroke SB9
details
Sophie Pascoe
 New Zealand
Sarai Gascón
 Spain
Louise Watkin
 Great Britain
100 m breaststroke SB12
details
Karolina Pelendritou
 Cyprus
Sandra Gomez
 Spain
Yaryna Matlo
 Ukraine
50 m butterfly S6
details
Fuying Jiang
 China
Anastasia Diodorova
 Russia
Olena Akopyan
 Ukraine
50 m butterfly S7
details
Min Huang
 China
Erin Popovich
 United States
Verônica Almeida
 Brazil
100 m butterfly S8
details
Jessica Long
 United States
Amanda Everlove
 United States
Jin Xiaoqin
 China
100 m butterfly S9
details
Natalie du Toit
 South Africa
Ellie Cole
 Australia
Annabelle Williams
 Australia
100 m butterfly S10
details
Anna Eames
 United States
Sophie Pascoe
 New Zealand
Shuai Wang
 China
100 m butterfly S12
details
Joanna Mendak
 Poland
Ana García-Arcicollar
 Spain
Yuliya Volkova
 Ukraine
100 m butterfly S13
details
Valérie Grand'Maison
 Canada
Kirby Cote
 Canada
Chelsey Gotell
 Canada
150 m individual medley SM4
details
Karina Lauridsen
 Denmark
Marayke Jonkers
 Australia
Patricia Valle
 Mexico
200 m individual medley SM6
details
Miranda Uhl
 United States
Maria Goetze
 Germany
Natalie Jones
 Great Britain
200 m individual medley SM7
details
Erin Popovich
 United States
Huang Min
 China
Cortney Jordan
 United States
200 m individual medley SM8
details
Jessica Long
 United States
Amanda Everlove
 United States
Heather Frederiksen
 Great Britain
200 m individual medley SM9
details
Natalie du Toit
 South Africa
Stephanie Dixon
 Canada
Louise Watkin
 Great Britain
200 m individual medley SM10
details
Sophie Pascoe
 New Zealand
Elodie Lorandi
 France
Katarzyna Pawlik
 Poland
200 m individual medley SM12
details
Oxana Savchenko
 Russia
Joanna Mendak
 Poland
Karolina Pelendritou
 Cyprus
200 m individual medley SM13
details
Chelsey Gotell
 Canada
Kirby Cote
 Canada
Valérie Grand'Maison
 Canada

See also[edit]

References[edit]

External links[edit]