The original Switchback Railway at Coney Island
|Park section||Coney Island Cyclone Site|
|Opening date||June 16, 1884|
|Manufacturer||LaMarcus Adna Thompson|
|Designer||LaMarcus Adna Thompson|
|Track layout||Gravity pulled coaster|
|Height||50 ft (15 m)|
|Drop||43 ft (13 m)|
|Length||600 ft (180 m)|
|Speed||6 mph (9.7 km/h)|
|Max vertical angle||30°|
|Capacity||1600 riders per hour|
|Switchback Railway at RCDB
Pictures of Switchback Railway at RCDB
The original Switchback Railway at Coney Island was the first roller coaster designed as an amusement ride in America. It was designed by LaMarcus Adna Thompson in 1881 and constructed in 1884. It appears Thompson based his design, at least in part, on the Mauch Chunk Switchback Railway which was a coal-mining train that had started carrying passengers as a thrill ride in 1827.
For five cents, riders would climb a tower to board the large bench-like car and were pushed off to coast 600 ft (183 m) down the track to another tower. The car went just over 6 mph (9.7 km/h). At the top of the other tower the vehicle was switched to a return track or "switched back" (hence the name).
This track design was soon replaced with an oval complete-circuit ride designed by Charles Alcoke and called the Serpentine Railway. In 1885 Phillip Hinkle developed a lift system which appeared in his ride called Gravity Pleasure. The Gravity Pleasure also featured cars in which the passengers could face forward instead of in the awkward bench-like seats of the first two roller coasters.
Not to be outdone, in 1886 LaMarcus Adna Thompson patented his design of coasters that included dark tunnels with painted scenery. Thompson built many more roller coasters across the country which were called "The L.A. Thompson Scenic Railway". Some of these operated until 1954.
Many of these early coasters were torn down and replaced by larger ones, and soon most roller coasters built before the 1930s had been demolished. But modern roller coaster companies are now resurrecting old "woodies" and building what they call "hybrid" roller coasters, which combine the safety and sturdiness of steel structures with the classic feel of wooden tracks.
- Sheedy, Chris. "Icons - In the Beginning... Roller-Coaster", Sunday Life (weekly supplemental magazine included in The Sun-Herald), John Fairfax Publications Pty Ltd., January 7, 2007, p. 10
- Patent 310966: Roller Coasting Structure, L. A Thompsons original patent for the Switchback Railway at Google Patents
- Jeffrey Sampson. Coney Island - Roller Coasters, Online article on the roller coasters of Coney Island, includes photograph of the Gravity Switchback
- Urbanowicz, Steven J. (2002) The Roller Coaster Lover's Companion, Citadel Press Kensington, New York. ISBN 0806523093. pg 4.
- Rutherford, Scott (2000) The American Roller Coaster, MBI Publishing Company, Wisconsin. ISBN 0760306893.
- "The Argus. PUBLISHED DAILY.". The Argus (Melbourne, Vic. : 1848 - 1956). Melbourne, Vic.: National Library of Australia. 21 July 1888. p. 11. Retrieved 14 February 2013.